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; Ctbrarg of 


! 3. H. Smitfj. 









SEitl) (Explanatory Jlotes, 









Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S72. 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

University Press : Welch, Bigelow, &. Co., 


In the preparation of this work two objects have been aimed 
at, — ijt comprehensive view of the Greek language in its prin- 
cipal forms, and a general survey of the leading events in the 
history of the Greeks. 

The authors, as well as the events of which they write, are 
arranged in the chronological order. It may not seem to the 
teacher expedient to follow this order with his class ; nor is it 
at all necessary, in the use of this work. The editors in their 
own teaching propose to begin with the Memorabilia, to be 
followed by the passage from the Phaedo ; then to turn either 
to Herodotus or to Homer, — some may prefer to take the old 
Ionic, others the new Ionic, first, — and after these, to Thu- 
cydides ; then again to the later Attic of Demosthenes, and 
finally to the Common Dialect. 

A course of historic reading, in connection with most of the 
selections in this' work, is contemplated by the editors, and 
cannot be too strongly urged : in connection with Homer, the 
first and second books of Smith's History, extending down to 
the year 500 b. c. ; with Herodotus, the third book, on the 
Persian Wars ; with Thucydides, the fourth book, on the Athe- 
nian Supremacy and the Peloponnesian War ; with Xenophon 
and Plato, Grote's chapter on Socrates, Vol. VIII. ch. lxviii. ; 
with Demosthenes and Arrian, Smith's History^ the fifth and 
sixth books, on the Spartan and Theban Supremacies, and on 
the Macedonian Supreniacy. Should this amount of work prove 


too great for a single year, the judicious teacher will make his 
own selections from it. 

A large part of the Notes have already been used by classes 
in this University, and many of them have been* suggested by 
the actual wants of the learner. As the work is designed for 
the youngest of the four college classes, many slight sugges- 
tions have been made that would be quite unnecessary for 
the more, advanced student. The wants, also, of the average 
learner — not of the most clever, the exceptional few — have 
been kept in mind. Very much in the way of historical and 
geographical explanation is purposely left to the good judg- 
ment of the teacher or the research of the learner; while 
special attention has been given to those grammatical difficul- 
ties which lie directly in the path of the young student. Some 
years of experience in the class-room has led to the conviction 
that the course of study in Greek has generally in our American 
schools been unnecessarily and quite unprofitably difficult ; and 
that to this cause, in large measure, may be attributed the so 
common disparagement of Greek in comparison with the other 
studies of the collegiate curriculum. Under this conviction, it 
has been the aim of the editors to avoid in these selections 
those passages that were too difficult for the young student, 
and to furnish abundant help, where help is really needed. It 
will be observed that the references to the grammars are very 
frequent. These are designed rather as guide-boards to those 
who have the resolution to go on foot ; they cannot be used as 
" ponies" or " coaches" to those who love to ride. If the 
student should provide himself with each of the grammars 
referred to, adding to these Taylor's Kiihner and Crosby, and 
then, where a really difficult point arises, carefully consult them 
all, he would be well repaid in the increased thoroughness and 
independence of his scholarship. 

It is supposed that every classical student will have at hand 
an ancient atlas (Long, Findlay, or Kiepert), a dictionary of 


antiquities, and a classical dictionary. These are almost as 
indispensable as a grammar and lexicon ; and frequent refer- 
ences are accordingly made to them. It is hoped also that every 
class-room will be furnished with good wall- maps of Greece and 
Borne, those of Kiepert or of Guyot. All such aids are im- 
portant to the highest success of both teacher and student. 

Some minor points in the accentuation may be noticed by 
the critical student as discrepancies ; for example, the change 
of the acute to the grave accent before a comma, in some parts 
of the work, and the retention of the acute in the same position, 
in other parts. On this, and other similar points, the editors 
have simply followed the text which they profess to adopt as a 

The senior editor has been laid under great obligations to 
both students and teachers for criticisms and the correction of 
errors in several previous works. He cannot but hope that the 
same friendly criticism and aid may be extended to this new 

University of Chicago, August, 1872. 


HOMER. (Date, before the commencement of the historic age 776 
b. o. (See Smith's History, Ch. Y. § 4.) Dialect, the Old 
Ionic, called also Epic and Homeric.) 

Selections from Books I., IX., XL, and XXIII., of the Odyssey 1-37 
HERODOTUS. (A native of Halicarnassns, a Doric colony in 
Caria. Date, 484 b. o. till near the close of the 5th century 
b. c. Dialect, the New Ionic.) 

Selections from Book VIII. The battle of Salamis . . 38-69 
THUCYDIDES. (An Athenian. Date, 471 B. c. till near the 
close of the 5th century b. c. Dialect, the earlier Attic.) 
Selections from Book I., on the causes of the Peloponnesian 

War 70-110 

XENOPHON. (An Athenian. Date, probably 444 B. c. till near 
the middle of the 4th century b. o. Dialect, the later Attic.) 

Selections from the Memorabilia 111-141 

PLATO. (An Athenian. Date, variously given, 430, 429, 428 
b. o. to 347 b. o. Dialect, the later Attic.) 

Selections from the Phaedo. The last day in the life of Soc- 
rates 142-153 

DEMOSTHENES. (An Athenian. Date, 382 b. o. to 322 b. o. 
Dialect, the later Attic.) 

The third Olynthiac 154-164 

ARRIAN. (Of Mcomedeia in Bithynia ; born towards the end of 
the 1st century a. d., and lived to an advanced age : wrote in 
the Common dialect, r\ kolvy) 5icl\€ktos.) 

Selections from the Anabasis of Alexander . . . .165-177 
LUCIAN. (Date, about 120 a. d. to 200 A. r>. : wrote in the 
"Common dialect.") 
Timon or the Misanthrope 178-204 


NOTES ^ . 1-175 




(Dindorf's Text. Teubner.) 

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tcov ajJLoOev ye, 6ea^ 8vyarep Aios, eiire /cat r\plv. 10 

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12 0AY22EIA2 I. 

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0AY22EIA2 IX. 13 

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BOOK VIII. Ch. 40. 

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(Text of Kiihner. Teubner.) 

BOOK I. Ch. 1. 

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fievos ovk a(f)av7)s rjv • Biere8pv\r)ro yap, go? (j)air) 
Soyfcparr/S ro Bacfiovcov eavrcp crrj/naiveiv • bOev Br) kai 
fiaXtara fioc Bofcov.crcv avrov acriaaaadac tcaiva $at- 
fiovta €LS<fiepeiv. O B ovBev /caivorepov ei^efyepe rcov 3 
aXXcov, baob fiavrcfcrjv vofxitpvre^ oicovols re ^pcovrat, 
feat <f>rjfiaLs /cat <ru//,/3o\o69 tcao Ovcnai? • ovroi re yap 
vrroXaybftavovaiv ov rovs bpviOas ovBe rovs airavrcov- 
Ta? eiBevat ra o~vfxcf>epovra rocs fiavrevofievois, aXXa 
toik? ueovs oca rovicov avra Grfjxaiveiv, Kafcetvos be 
ovrcos evofit^ev. AXX oc fiev rrXecarqc <fia<rii/ vrro re 4 
rcov opviOcov /cai rcov arravrcovrcov airorpeTreaOal re 

1]2 . xenophon's MEMORABIL. I. 1. 

Kdi irpoTpeireaOai • Scofcpdrr)^ Se, tosirep eyiyveocrfcev, 
ovTco? eXeye • to Saijaoviov yap ecpTj arj/uLdiveiv* Kai 

TTOXXoi? 7 60Z/ ^VVOVTCOV 7Tp07]yop6V€ TCL fl€V 7TOL6CP, T(l 

Se {Jb7} irocelv, &i? tou haipioviov ir pocrTj/xaivovTOS • /ou 
TOi? /xez> TreiOofievocs avTco auve<pepe^ toZ? Se /z.?) 7T6£- 

5 Oofievois (JLerefieXe. Kclltol ti$ ov/c av o/ioXoyrjaeiev 
"^ avrov (BovXeaOai jjl7}t rfXtQiov fX7]T aXa^ova cpaive- 

crdai T0Z9 crvvovcriv ; ESofcei § av afjb(f>oT€pa ravra^ 
ei irpoayopevcov cos viro Oeov cpaivo/jieva Kara y}rev~ 
8op,evos ecf)atv6To. ArjXov ovv, on ovtc av irpoeXeyev, 
ei firj eiriarevev aXrjOevaeiv, Tavra Se T£? av aXXco 
ir tar ever e tev 7] Oeco ; Tltarevcov he Oeoi? nrcos ov/c elvai 

6 Oeovs evofit^ev ; ' AXXa /mrjv eiroiei /cat, TaSe irpos tov$ 
eirirrjSeiov^ • tci puev yap avaytcaca avvej3ovXeve Kai 
7rpaTTetv t a)? evofjti^ev apiar av m-pa^Brjvai * irepi Se 
tcov aS-qXcov^ brrcos av aTro^rjaotTO, fiavrevcro/jLevovs 

7 eirefJUTrev, et iroiTiTea. Kai tov$ fieXXovTas oikov? re "*" 
Kai iroXeis KaXco? oifcr\aeiv flavTitcrjS etpy jrposheladai • 
TefCTOvi/cov fjbev yap 7] yaXtcevracov tj yecopyiKOv 7) 
avQpcoircov ap^ifcov tj tcov tolovtcov epycov e^eracrrLKOV 
7) XoyicrTLfcov 7] oifcovopuiKOv 7] (TTpaTTjyiKov yeveauab t 
Travra ra rocavra /jLaOrifiara Kai avOpcoirov yvcofiT] 

8 atperea evofit^ev elvai • ra he fieyicrTa tcov ev tovtols 
ecpT) tovs Oeovs eavTols KaTaXeiireaOat, cov ovhev hrfXov 
elvai T069 avOpcoirois. Ovre yap toi tco tcaXco? aypov 
cfiuTevcraj-ievco StjXov, 6?t^ KapircocreTai • oiJTe tco tcaXco? 
oiKiav oifcoBofjbrjaafievcp SyXov, 6<?Tfc? oiKrjaei * ovre tco 
(TTpaTTjyifcep StjXov, ei av/xcpepei arpaTTjyeiv • ovTe tco 
iroXiTifCcp Sr)Xov, ei crvpcfrepei tt)<; 7roXeco$ Trpo&TaTelv * 
ovTe tco Ka~Xr)v yrjfiavr^ iv evc\>paiv7)Tai, StjXov, - ei 
Bia TavTrjV aviaaerai • ovt£ tco SvvaTovs ev ttj iroXei 

SENO^ONTOS A. ]_]_3 

fCTjSearas XajSovn BrjXov, ei Bta tovtovs areprjcreTai, 

T?}? 7T0\€Q)$. ToVS Be flTjBeV TG)V TOLOUT(OV OlOflSVOV? 9 

elvai Batyioviov, aXXa nravra Trjs avQ panr ivr\<$ yvcopLrjs, 
Baipuovav 6(f>r] • SaifMovav Be rcai tov$ fiavTevofjievovs a 
tois avOpcoiroi? eScofcav 01 6eov jua0ovac Biaicpiveiv * 
otoy et Tt9 enepWTcor^ irorepov eiricrTafievov rjvio^ecv 
em ^evyos Xafielv KpeiTTov rj pur) eTTtaTapbevov * rj rro- 
Tepov 67TtarafjL6Pov nvfiepvav eirt tt)v vavv Kpelrrov 
Xaj3elv 7] pur) eiricnafxevov • r} a e^ecrTiv aptOfirjaavTas 
7] fi€Tprj<javra^ rj arrjaavra^ eiBevai, tou<? to, roiavra 
irapa tcov Qeoov TrvvBavopbevovs adefitcrra nroielu i^yelro • 
e<fcr} Be Beiv, a fiev {laOovra? nroieiv eBco/cav oi Oeoi, 
puavOaveiv * a Be fjur) BfjXa to£<? avOpayiroLS ecrTO, irei- 
paadai Bia fiavrifcfjs irapa tcov 0ecov irvvQaveaQat • 
to us ueovs yap ot? a^ w<7£j/ bXecp arjpLacveiv. 

+AXXa fjbr)v eiceivos ye aec puev rjv ev Tm cpavepca • 10 

./. \ ' v / \ v / 

irpcov re yap et? rovs ireptiraTovs feat, ra yvjjbvaata 
rjet teat irXrjOovcrrjs ayopas etcel (jxivepos r)v teat, to 
Xoiitov aei irfi rjpepas rjv, ottov TrXetaTois pueXXot 
avveaeaBai • fcac eXeye puev cos to ttoXv, tocs Be j3ou- 
Xo/nevots e%r)v aicoveiv. OvBeis Be ircoiroTe ScofcpaTovs n 
ovBev acre(Ses ovSe avocnov ovre irpaTTOVTOs elBev ovre 
Xeyovros rjfcovcrev. OvBe yap irepc Trjs tcov TravTcov 
(fcvaecos, rjirep tcov aXXcov oi irXeiaTOL, BteXeyeTO, ctko- 


6<pv, kcll r 1(7 iv civcty/cciis €/caaTa ycyverai tcdv ovpa- 
vlcov, aXXa fcai tovs (ppoviL^ovras ra Toiavia fjuwpat- 
vovias arrreBeiicvvev. Kat irp&rov piev avrayv eatcorrei, 13 
nrorepa irore vopLLcravres iicavS)? iqBrj TavQpwiriva eiBe- 
vac epyoviai eiru to ire pi tgov tocovtcop ^povTL^etv, r) 
tcl fiev avOpwireLCL irapevTes, tu Baifiovia Be ct/cottovv- 
• - 8 

114 xenophon's MEMOKABIL. I. 1. 

13 T€? fjyouvTdi to, Trpo^rjKOVTa TTpaTTeLV. EOavpua^e S , 
€i fjbi) (foavepov avrols etTTiv, on ravra ov hvvcnov 
earcv avOptcirois evpeiv • eirec kcll tou<? fiejiarop <fipo- 


aXXrfkois, aXXa tol$ juaivo/nevots opLOLcos $LaK€l<j6ai 

14 irpos aXXrjXovs. Tchv re yap ptaLvoptevcov tovs p<€v 
. ovSe ra Seiva SeSievai, tovs Se kcll tcl pur) cfro/Sepa 

(f>o^ela6ai • kcli toi? p>ev ovB ev o^\&> Sofcecv alaypov 
elvai XeyeLv rj iroielv otiovv, rols Se ov8 e^tr^reov 
et? avOpwirovs elvai hoicelv • kcli tou? fiev cvtf iepov 
ovt€ ftcopiov ovt aXXo . rcov Oetwv ovBev rtpiav, tou? 
he kcli "kiOovs kcli £vXa ra Tvyovra kcli depict crifie- 
crBai • tcov re irepc rrjs rcov ttuvtcov cpvcrecos fiepipt- 
vcovtcov tol<$ pcev Sok6lv ev piovov to ov elvai, tois S 

•. aireipa to ttXtjOos* kcli tois pcev aet KivelaBai nravTa, 
T0Z9 B ovhev av nroTe Kivr\8r\vai • kcli tol$ puev wavTa 
yiyvecrQai re kcll aTroWvadai, Tots Be ovt av yeve- 

iB G0ai ttot€ ovSev ovt tvTToXeiaOai. Ectkoit€L Be irepl 
avTcov kcll TciSe • ap cosirep oi TavOpooTreia pcavOa- 
vovtzs rjyovvTai tov0 b tl av pLaOcocrLV eavTols t€ 
Kal tcov akXcov oTcp av @ov\wvTai r rroi7]Ge.iv i ovtco Kal 
oi to. 8ela tyjTovvTes vopntpvcriv, eireiSdv yvcoaLV^ ai$ 
dvdjKais €Kao~Ta ylyveTaL, TroLrjcretv, OTav (3ovXcovTaL, 
kcll avepuovs Kai vSaTa kcll copas KaL otov S av aXXov 
oecovTai tcov toiovtcov, rj tolovto pi,ev ovoev ovo eA.- 
iri'Cflvaiv^ dpK€L 8 avTOis yvcovai pLOvov t fj tcov tolov- 

16 tcov GKatjTa ycyv€TaL ; Uepc ptev ovv tcov TavTa 
irpaypiaTevopevcDV ToiavTa eXeyev • avTO<? oe irepL tcov 
avOpco7T€Lcov av a€L SLeXeyeTO, gkottcov, tl €f<xe/3e<?, TL 
daefies • tl rcaXov, tl aio-^pov * tl hiKaiov, tl czBlkov 
tl aoacppoo'vvrj^ tl puavLa • tl av$p€La^ tl SclXlu • tl 

•£ENO<M2NT02 A. H5 

7To\fc9, TL TToXniKQS ' TL ap^Tj aV0pCdTT(DP 3 TL ap^LKOS 

av8pa)7TQ)v f fcai irepu toop aWcop^ a tovs fiep eihoras 
rjjetro kclXovs Kayauovs eivat^ tovs o ayvoovvras av- 
SpaTToSooSecs ap Bitcato}^ /ce/cXrja0ac. 

Oaa fxev ovv fir) cf>av€pos rjv birco^ eytypcocrxep, ov- 17 
Sep Bavfiacrrbv virep rovrcov Kept, avrov Trapaypcopat -~ 
tovs SucaaTas • baa Be iravres yBeaap, ov Oavfxacrrov, 
ec fjcij tout top epe0v{jnfi07]aav ; Bovkevaas yap irore 18 
fcai top ftovXevTLfcop - bp/cop ofioaas, ep a> rjp Kara 
tov? po/llovs /SovXevaeiP, 6TriGTaT7]s ep tQ> Brj/aq) yepo- 
fiepos, e r TTi6vjjL7}o~aPTO<$ tov Btj/jlov rnrapa tovs pojjlov^ 
eppea aTparrjyov^ pia tyr](f)G) tol>? afJLtpL ©pacrvXXop 
icai Epao"tPiSr)p airomelpai Trapras, outc rjOeXr/aev eiTL- 
tyrjcfricrai, opyc^ojuevov jaep avrtp tov Brjfiov, ttoXXcop 
Be tcai SvpaTcop aireiXovpTGOP, aXXa irepl irXelopos 
€7T0L7]craT0 evopiceip fy yaptcraadai tg> BrifKp irapa to 
BiKauop tca\ (j)v\d^aa0ai TOf? aireiXovpTas. Kal yap 19 
€7ri/LL€\e2adac 0eovg epojuut^ep ap0pco7rcop } ovy op Tpoirop 
01 ttoXXol. vo/M^ovaip ' ovtoi ju6p yap oiopTai tovs 
0eov<? tcl fiep elBevaL, tcl S' ovk elBeuai, • ScoKpaTqs 
Be iraPTa fiep rjye2ro 0eov$ elBepai, Ta Te Xeyofiepa 
Kau irpaTTOfJiepa teat Ta criyj} /3ovXevofiepa, TrapTa^ov 
oe Trapetpat Kau arjfiaLPeLP tols apupG)7roc$ 7rept, top 
av0po)iretwp irapTcop. 

Savfia^oy ovp, 0776)? iroTe e7reio-0r}o~ap AOrjvaioi 20 
AooicparTjp irepu tovs 0eov$ fir) craHppopelp, top acre^Se? 

fl£P Ovbep 7T0T6 7T€pC TOV? 0€OV<$ 0VT €L7T0PTa 0VT6 

irpa^avTa, ToiavTa Be /cal XeyopTa real irpaTTopTa 
nrept 0echp <i ' ola tls clp, teal Xeycop Kal irpaTTcop^ elrj 
T€ /cal pofic^ocTo efcre/SecTTaTO?. 


116 xenophon's MEMORABIL. I. 4. 

BOOK I. Ch. 4. 

1 El Be rives Sco/cpdrrjv vofjic^ovaiv, &>? evioi ypd<froval 
re tccu Xeyovcrt irept avrov refc/uLatpofjievoi, irporpey^ra- 
adat {lev avOpcoirovs eir aperiqv Kparicrrov yeyovevai, 
rrpoayayelv B eir avrrjv ov% ikcivov • o-fceyjrd/nevoi, /ur) 
puovov a e/celvos KoXacrTrjptov eveica tou? ttolvt otopbe- 
vovs eiBevai epcorcbv rjXey^ev^ aXXa fcac a Xeycov 
avvrjfjiepeve tols crvvBtaTpijBovaL, BoKL/Ma^ovTCov, ec l/ca- 

2 vo$ rjv fieXriov? Troielv rov$ crvvovras. Ae'tfco Be 


BiaXeyopbevov irpos ApicrroBrj/jbov rov Miicpov €7ritea- 
Xovfievov. KarafiaOcov yap avrov ovre Ovovra rol<$ 

0€OL<; *OVT €V^(OfJL€VOV^ OVT6 fiaVTLKT} ^p(!dfJb6V0V^ aXXa 

feat, tcov TToiovvTcov ravra KarayeXcovra • Euire yuoi, 
ecfrr}, w ApL<TTo$r)p,€j ecrrtv ovsriva? av0poo7rov$ redav- 
ficucas em aocfuq ; — Eycoye, ecprj. — Kac 6? • Ae^ov 

3 rjfjbiv, etprj^ ra ovoyuard avrcov. — Eire fiev roivvv 
eircov iroir^ei Ofirjpov eycoye fiaXccrra reOavfiaica, em 
Be BiOvpafificp MeXavLTTTrcBrjv, em he rpaycpBiq Socpo- 
fcXect, em Be avBpiavroiroiiq JloXvicXenov, erri Be 

4 ^coypacpea Zev^tv. Flore pa aoi Bokovglv ol direpya- 

tpfievoi eoBaiXa aeppova re scat, ateevr/ra afyoOavpbaxjTo- 
repoc elvai i] ot £coa €/x<fipova re Kac evepya ; — 
IJoXv, vr) Aia t ot £&a, enrep ye fir) rv^rj rivi, aXXa 
vwo yvcDfirjs ravra yiyverat. — Tcov Be areKfiapico^ 
eyovrcov, brov eve/ca eari, tcai tcov cpavepco? eir oxfie- 
Xetq ovrcov irorepa rv^rjs km irorepa yvcofirj? epya 
fcpiveis ; — Uperrei fiev ra 67r cocpeXecq ycyvofjueva 

5 yvco/jLrjs epya elvai. — Ovrcovv Botcel croc 6 e% dp^rjs 
rroicov av0pa)7rov$ €7r oxpeXeia irposdecvai avrois Be 

EEN0$ONT02 A. "117 

tov aioQavovTdi eKaara, oobdaXjaovs ptev, co<zt6 opav ia 
opara, cora Se, o)?T6 anovetv ra atcovara ; Oaptcov 
ye firjv, et per) pives irposereOrjarav, Tt av iqplv ocpeXo? 
rjv ; T/? h ay atadijcn^ r)v yXvKecov Kat hptpecov teal 
iravTcov tcov hta GTOfjuaros rjhecov } et fir] yXcoTTa tov- 
tcov yvcopucov evetpyao~6rj ; IIpos he tovtow ov hovel G y 
crot /ecu Tooe irpovotas epyov eoncevat, to, €7ret acruevrj? 
fxev early r\ 0^9, /3Xe<fiapot<$ avrrjv dvpeooat^ a, 6ra^ 
/-tez> ai/r?; %prj<j0at Tt herj^ avaireTavvvrai, ev he tco 
virvco crvyfcXeteraL ; a)? S a^ //.^Se avepuot fiXaTTTcocrtv, 
r]dfiov /3Xe(f>apiSa<; epejyvcrac • oeppvert re airoyetcrcoaat 
Ta virep tcov optptaTcov, cos firjh o etc ttjs /cecfraXrjs 
thpeos KaKOvpyfj • to Be tt)V aKorjv he%ea8ab pbev iracras 
epeovds, epnrtirXacrdat he /jnqiTOTe • Kat tovs ptev irpoaOev 
ohovTas ttclci %coot$ olovs Teptvetv elvat, tov<$ he yop- 
$tov<$ olovs irapa tovtcov he^apevovs Xeaiveiv •' /eat 
GTopta ptev, ht ov tov eTrtOvpuel ra £coa etsirepTreTat, 
ttXtjctlov ocj)8aXpcov teal ptvcov KaTadelvat • 67m Se Ta 
airo^copovvTa hvs%epr), airocTTpe'^rat tovs tovtcov o%€- 
tol>9 /cat aireveyiceiv, y ovvarov irpocrcoTaTco, anro tcov 
aterdrjerecov * TavTa ovtco irpovoTjTLKcos Treirpaypbeva airo- 
pets nrorepa Tvyr}<$ rj yvcoptrjs epya ecrTiv ; — Ov p,a 7 
tov At , e^>77, aU' ovtco ye aKOTrovptevco iravv eottce 
TavTa aocj)ov tivo? hrjpnovpyov nai qbcXo^coov Te^vrj- 
puaTi. — To he epuc^vaai p.ev epcoTa T779 TeKvoTrouas^ 
epucfyvaai he Tat<? yeivapuevais epcoTa tov €KTpecf)eLV, Tots 
he Tpacpelot /neytaTov puev ttoQov tov £V}y, pteytaTOV 

he <pd/3ov tov OavaTov ; ApeXet Kat TavTa eotice 

pbTj^avripuaai Ttvos t,coa elvat /SovXevcrapevov. Sv he 8 

cravTOv hotcet? Tt cfypovtfxov eyei.v ; EpcoTa yovv Kat 

tiTTOfcptvovptat.- — ' AXXo8t he ovhaptov ovhev otet (ppovt- 

118 xenophon's MEMORABIL. I. 4. 

liov elvai, icab ravra eiBcos, on yrj$ re jiiKpov jjuepo*; 
ev Tft> cro^fJiaTi rroXXrjs ova?)? e^w, Kai vypov /Spa^v 
ttoXXou bvros Kai rcov aXXcov Brprov fieyaXcov bvrcov 
eKaarov fiiKpov /juepo? Xaftovn to awfia <Tvvr}pfjLo<TTCu 
aoi ; vovv Be fiovov apa ovBa/uov bvra ere evrv^f)^ 
7Tft>9 Sotcels (TwapTTaaai Kai raBe ra vrrepfjueyedr) teat 
irXrjdos aireipa Bi a(j>pocrvvr)v riva, rw9 otei, evrciKTcos 
9 e^eiv ; — Ma At • ov yap opco tou9 KVpiovs, wsTrep 
rcov evOaBe yiyvo/nevcov 701/9 Bijjbuovpyov;. — OvBe yap 
rrjv eavrov av ye ^v^v opa?, 7] tov a-odfjuaro^ fevpta 
ecTTtv • ft)?Te Kara ye rovro e^ean crov Xeyeiv, ore 
10 ovBev yvcofjLT], aXXa tv^y) iravra rrparrei^, — Kai 6 
ApLa-ToSrjfjLos • Ovtol, e(j)7j } eyco, d) Scofcpare?) virepopS) 
to Baijuoviov, aXX eicelvo fJbeyaXoTrpenrearepov r^yovjiat, 
rj 0)9 rrjs efjurf^ 6 e pair etas TTpo^Beladai. — Ovkovv, ecf)7}, 
b<T(p (JbeyaXdirpeirearepov afjioi ae Oeparreveiv, roaovrw 
, 11 puaXXov TtfjL7]Teov avro ; — Ev mtOo, e<f>7} ) on, et vopu- 
^OLfjbt 0eov<? av6p(07TG>v Ti (])povTi£eiv, ovfc av apLeXoirjv 

avra>v. Erreir ovfc oiei (frpovrl^eiv ; 0% nrpcorov fiev 

fjbovov tS>v %o)cov avdpcoTTOv opBov ayeajrjaav • 77 Be 
opOorr)? Kai rrpoopav irXelov rroiel Bvvaa&ai /cat ra 
virepdev fiaXXov OeacrOai /ecu r\rrov KatcoTraOelv, *ols* 

V 3/ , \ 3 \ \ f 3 / 3/ 

Kai o-tyiv Kai a/corjv Kai arofia eveTroirjaav • erreira 
T0t9 [xev aXXoi? eprrerols 7To8a9 eBodKav^ db to iropev- 
ea0ai fiovov irapeyovcriv * avOpcoirw Be Kai %eipa$ 
irposeOecrav, a% ra rrXelara, oh evBaifiovecrrepoi e/cel- 
12 vcov ecrfiev, e^epyaCpviai, Kai firjv yXcorrav ye irav- 

o r -it f \ r. 3 * r 


eiroi^aav olav, aXXore aXXa^fj yjravovcrav rod arofia- 
T09, apQpovv T€ tt]v <f)covr)v Kai arniatveiv iravra aX- 
X?/Xo69, a /3ovXojubeda ; To Be .Kai ra<; rcov a<f>poBia icov 

EENO${2NT02 A. JJ9 

?jBova$ T06? fxev aXXois £tooi<; Bovvai nrepiypa-tyavTas 
tov erovs ypovov, rjficv Be Gvve%cos ^XP 1 7 7 7j oa)< > T &*>- 
to-5 irapeyeiv ; Ov toivvv puovov rjptceGe tg> 0em tov 13 
GG)[jL(nos e7rip,eX7)0r}vai J aXX , birep fjuejiGTOv eari, kcli 
ti)v ^rvyrjv Kparcarrjv rep avffpcoTro) eveepvae ' tivo$ 
jap aXXov £ooov ^v^r) irpcoTa fiev 0ea)v tcov ra fie- 
jc<j r ta /cat fcaWtara GWTa^aVTCOV rjadiyrai ore eiGi ; 
Tt Be <f)vXov aXXo r] av0pcoTrot 0eov<z 0epairevovGL ; 
TTOia Be 'yjrv^rj rrj^ av0 ptoTT lvt)? L/cavGirepa irpofyvXar- 
reaBai rj Xipov rj Bftyos \] tyvjffl rj OaXm"!]^ 7] vocrois 
€7rif<:ovprjaat rj pcofirjv aG/erjaat, rj 7rpo<z fiaOrjcrtv etcrro- 
vr](jai f] oaa av clkovo-t) r) oby r) puaut) ttcavwrepa €o~rt 
SiapLe/jLvrjaOat, ; Ov yap nravv croi fcara&rfkov, on irapa 14 
t<z aXXa %coa cosTrep 0eoi avOpwirot ftiQTevovac, tyvaei Q 
fecu tgS crco/jiaTL Kai rr) ^rvxV fcpaTicnevovre^ ; \ Ovre 
jap /Soo? av e^cov Gcofia, av0pcoirov Be yvcofitjv eBv- 
var av Trpdrretv a e/3ovX€TO, ov0 oaa j(eipa$ e^et, 
atfypova S eari, irXeov ovBev eyei • gv Be aficpoTepoov 
tcov nrXeiajov a^tcov TeTW)(rjtcco<; ovtc oiei gov 0eov<$ 
€7rifjL€Xe2<T6at • aXX OTav re irotr^GcoGC^ vofiieis avrovs 
gov cjypovTi^etv ;^ — f OTav TrefjarcoGiv, cosirep gv gov 15 
<fir)$ irefjiireiv avTov?, gv/ul/3ovXovs, b tc %pr} iroielv 

/cat pur] nroielv. OTav Be AOrjvaiots, ecprj, wuvOavo- 

fjbevoL? tl Bia fiavTUcr}? cppa^ooaiv, ov /cac gov Botceis 
eppa^eev avrovs, ovB OTav tols e EXXtjgl TepaTa ire^- 


aXXa fiovov Ge e^aipovvTes ev dpueXeta KaTaTiQevTai ; 
Otei B av tow? Oeovs rot? avOpayrrois Bo^av e/mcfrvGai, 16 
0)9 ^fcavot eiGiv ev icav fcafccos nroieiv^ eu (jlt) Bvvarol 
r)Gav, Kai tovs avuptoTTOvs e^aTTajcofJbevov^ tov iravTa 
%povov ovBeiroT av atG0€G0ac ; Ov% opas, Ta iroXv- 

120 xenophon's MEMOKABIL. I. 6. 

XpovLcorara feat Gocpcorara tcov avOpcoirivcov^ rroXeis 

fcac eBvrj, 6eooefte<JTaTa cgti, Kai ai cppovipccoTarai 

17 rjXiKiai Oecov eiripieKeGTaTai ; I2ja0e^ ecprj^ KaTcLfiaBe, 

OTl /Cat O CT09 VOV$ CVCOV TO GOV GCOpia, 07T&)? 00V' 

Xerai, pueTayeipi^eTai. O tea 8 at ovv ypfj /ecu tt)v ev 
iravri cjypovrjG/v ra iravra^ ottcos av airy TjBv y, ovrco 
riOeaOai, kcli fii) to gov p,ev ojxpua BvvaoOai errl 
7ro\Xa GTaoia e^iKveiGBai, rov Be rod 6eov ocj)0aXpLov 
aBvvarov eivai ajxa rrdvra opav, fir/Be rrjv gtjv" piv 

tyv%7}V Kdl 7T€pl TCOV eV0aBe KOI TT€pl TCOV €V AlryVTTTCp 

Kai ev SifceXia BvvaG0ai ohpovri^eiv^ tt)v Be rov 6eoi> 
<j)pGV7}Giv pi) iicavrjv elvai apa rravrcov erripLeXelG0ai. 
i&*Hv jJL€vroi y cosrrep avBpcorrov^ Beparrevcov yiyvcoGKeis 
rou9 avriBeparreveiv eOeXovra? /cat yapiZpybevos rovs 
avriyapitpp-evovs /cat GVfijSovXevopbevos KarapbavOaveis 
rot/9 (ppovifjLOvs^ ovrco /cat tcov Becov rreipav Xap,j3aV7]$ 
Oeparrevcov^ ei ri gov 8eXi]GovGi rrepi tcov aBrjkcov 
avBpcorrovs Gvpbj3ovXeveiv i yvcoGy to 0eiov on togov- 


mivra a/coveiv Kai iravrayov rrapeivai Kai apua rravrcov 
19 ciri/ieXelaOai avrovs, Epuoi puev ravra Xeycov ov 
fiovov rov<$ Gvvovras eooKei rroieiv, orrore viro tcov 
avS pcorrcov 6pcovro s arreyeG0ai tcov ovogicov re Kai 
aBiKcov Kai aiGyjpcov, aXXa Kai oirore ev eprj/uia elev, 
eireirrep rjjrjGaivro purjBev av rrore chv TrpaTTOiev 0eov$ 

BOOK I. Oh. 6. 

l A£iov B avrov Kai a Trpo? AvTicpcovra tov Gccfci- 
gtt\v BieXeyBt) fir) rrapaXirrelv • 6 ydp Avri<pcov irore 

SEN03>12NT02 A. 121 

fiovXopLevos tou? avvovGicLGTas avrov irapeXeG0aL 
irpo^eX0cov ra> Scofcpdrei Trapovrwy clvtcov eXe^e TaBe • 
'; 3 /2 Sod/cpares, eyco fiev (pfirjv rof? cfriXocrocfrovvTa? eu- 2 
8ai,{ApvecrT6pov<; %pr)vat jLyveadat, gv Be fjbOL Bo/cels 
ravavTta tt)$ (£>i\oGO(f)tas airoXeXavicevaL • £779 yovv ov- 
Tft)?, a>? ouS ai> eh SovXos V7r6 BeGiroTy BLULTcopLevos 
jjuetvece^ gitlcl t€ glttj /cai> irora ttlv€L<; ra cj>avXorara 
feat LfjLCLTiov r)fjb<^L€Gai ov fjuovov cfravXov, aXXa to avro 
uepovs T€ feat, %€ijulcovo$) avvTToorjTOS re icai a^LTcov 
SiareXels. Kal fjuqv yprjpLard ye ov XapufiaveLS, a kcll 3 
/cro)fjL€vov<; €v<ppacvei feat fcefcrrjpievovs eXev0epLo)repov 
re kcli tjBlov iroiel tfjv. El ovv, tosirep kcli rcov aXXcov 
epycov 01 hihaGfcaXoi tov$ pLa07)Ta$ pLLpL7)Ta$ eauTcov 
airoBeLtcvvovGLV, ovtco Kal gv tovs gwovtcl? Btadr]Gei^ 9 
vofiL^e xafcoSatfjLovias SiSaG/caXo? elvai. Kac Sco- 4 
Kparr)^ irpos ravra sure • Aorceis fioi, e<pr), to Avtl- 
</>a>z> ? vnr€t\r](f)evai pue ovtg)<; aviapcos tfjv, cosre tt€7T€lg- 
ficu G6 paXXov airoOavelv av eXeG0ac rj ^rjv co^irep 
hyco. I0l ovv e7riGfC€ylr(0fie0a, tl ^aXeirov rjG0i)Gai 
rovfiov J3lov. Tlorepov, ore tol<; julep XafifldvovGLv 5 
apyvpLov avayicalov €gtlv a7repyd%eG0ai tovto, €(j> &> 
av {jllgOov XafifidvcoGLv, efiol Be p,rj Xafifidvovn ovk. 
avayjerj BLaXeyeG0aL t a> av jultj ffovXoopLaL ; r) rfjv 
SLaLrav fiov (fravXL&Ls «? rjrrov puev vyueLvd €g0lov- 
T09 epLov 7] gov, rjTTov Be lg^vv wape^ovra ; rj o)$ 
^aXewcorepa iropLGaG0aL ra efia BLaLT-q/jLara rcov gcov 
CLa to G7ravLcoT€pa t€ fcaL iroXvTeXeGT epa eLvaL ; 77 0)9 
rjOLco gol a gv irapaGKevd'Cpf) ovra r) e/nol a eydo ; 

UVfC OLG0 , OTL 6 [Xev V)BlGTCI €G0LCOV TjKLGTa otyoV 

BeLraL, Be fjSiGTa ttlvcov rjKLGTa tov p,r) irapdvTO^ 
eirL0v/jLeL ttotov ; Ta ye firjv l/jLUTLa olg0 ' otl ol 6 

122 xenophon's MEMORABIL. I. 6. 

fL6ra/3a\\dfi€Voc ^J^oi;? kcli QaXirov^ eve/ca fieTafidX- 
\ovTai kcli vTToSrjfiaTa viroBovpTai, bircos pur) Bia ra 
Xvirovvra tovs ttoScls KcoXvcovTai nropeveaOai * rjBrj 
ovv wore rjaOov €fxe rj Bia tyv^bs puaXXov tov evBov 
fievovra r) Bid ddXiros fia^opievdv tco Trepl cr/aa? r) 
Bia to aXyeiv tou? TroStt? ov ftaBi^ovTa, bnrov av /9ou- 

7 Xcopuai ; Ov/c olaO , otl ol (fivaei acrOeveo-raroi tco 
acopiaTi fieXerrjaapre^ tcov la^vpoTarcov apeXrjaavTcov 
icpeiTTov? re yiyvovTai 77730? av pueXeTcoai tcai paov 
avra (pepovcriv ; Epe Be apa ovk oiei tco crcopaTi 
del ra crvvTvyyjivovTa peXeTcovTa /caprepelv ircivra paov 

8 cpepeiv crov fir] fieXeTcovTos ; Tov Be firj BovXeveiv 
yacrTpi^firjBe vttvco /ecu Xayveia ouet tl aXXo aiTico- 
repov eivai rj to eTepa eyeiv tovtcov tjolcq, a ov po- 
vov ev xpeia ovtcl evc\>paivei, aXXa /cat, eXnriBas irap- 
eyovTa oxpeXrjaecv aei ; Kai fir)v tovto ye oia0a y 
otl ol fiev oiofievoi prjBev ev TrpaTTeiv ovk evcppai- 
vovTcti, oi Be rjyovfievoi KaXcos irpoycopelv eavTOis r) 
yecopyiav rj vavxXrjpiav rj aXX b tl av Tvy^avcocriv 

9 epya^ofievoi ft)? ev irpaTTovTe? evcppaivovTai. OieL 
ovv wtto ttovtcov tovtcov TOcravTrjv rjBovrjv eivai, barjv 
airo tov eavTov re r rjyeladai fteXTico yiyvecrOai fcai 
cpiXovs afieivov? KTaaOai ; Eyco tolvvv BiaTeXco TavTa 
vofii^cov. Eav Be Br) cpiXovs r) iroXiv cocfreXelv Bey, 
TTOTepcp rj irXeicov a^oXr) tovtcov eiripLeXelcrOai^ tco, a><? 
eyco vvv } rj tco, ft)? av fiaKapi^eis, BiaiTcofievco ; crTpa- 
TevoiTO Be TTOTepos av paov, o fir) Bvvafievos avev 
7roXvTeXovs BiaiTrjs Zfiv, rj co to irapov apfcoir) ; etc- 
iroXiopKrjdeir} Be iroTepos av Oclttov, o tcov ^aXeirco- 
TaTcov evpeiv Bedfievos, rj 6 toI$ pao~T0i$ evTvyyjnveiv 

10 apKOWTcos xpeopievos ; Eoiicas, go AvTicpcov, Tr)v ev- 

EENO$ONT02 A. J23 

Baifioviav oLOfievq) Tpvcj)r)v icac TroXvTeXeiav etvat • eyw 
Be voixl^co to puev fjbrjBevos BeecrOai Oeiov elvai, to S' 
a)? eXa^iaTcov eyyvTciToo tov Oeiov • /eai to //,ez; Oeiov 
KparicrTov, to Se eyyvraro) tov Oeiov eyyvTciTco tov 


UaXiv Be 7T0T6 6 Avtl(J>cov BiaXeyojuevos toj ^w- n 
Kpcvret elirev • '/2 ScoKpaTes, eyco tol ere /-to/ BiKaiov • 

VOjULl^CD, 0~0<pOV Be OvB ' OTTCtiSTLOVV. AotCei? Be fJbOC KOb 

avTO<; touto yiyvcoaKeiv • ovBeva yovv ttj? avvovcrias 
apyvpiov TTpaTTr) * kciltol to ye ljjlcltlov r) ttjv oifciav 
7] aXXo tl o)v fceKTTjaai vofjii^cov apyvpiov a^iov eXvai 
ovBevi av fir] oti irpoltca Boirjs, aXX ovB' eXaTTov ttjs 
a^ias Xa/3(ev. Arfkov Br) oti, ei tcai tt\v avvovorlav 12 
wov tlvos a^iav elvai, /cat, TavTrjs av ovk eXaTTov 
t?75 af;ia<; apyvpiov eirpaTTOV. AiKaio^ jmev ovv av 
eir}$, oti ovk e^airaTa^ eiri ifkeove^ia, aocfros Be ovk 
av, prjBevos ye a£ia eirio-Tafievo^. O Be Sco/cpcm]? 13 , 
Trpos TavTa elirev • '12 Avtic^cov, nap tjjuliv vofii^eTai 
ttjv copav Kai ttjv crocfriav o/ioicos fiev koXov, ofiotco^ 
Be aia^pov BiaTiOeaOai • ttjv Te yap lopav eav fiev 
tis apyvpiov ircoXr) T<p j3ovXoiiev(p, iropvov avTov airo- 
KaXovcriv, eav Be tj?, ov av yvw KaXov Te icayaOov 
€pao-Tr)v ovTct t tovtov <f>i~Xov eavTtp iroirjTai, acocfrpova 
vo/ni^ofiev • icai ttjv o~o$iav wsavTCDS tovs fiev apyu- 
ptov tc5 ftovXofJLevcp TTcoXovvTas G0§iGTa$ wsirep irop- 
Vol>? aTrofcaXovcriv, 05Ti? Be, bv av yva> evefrva ovTa, 
BiBaa/ccov b tl av e%y ayaOov, (f)iXov iroifjTai, tovtov 
vofii^ofiev^ a tg> tcaXtp KayaOw ttoXitt) irposrjicei, TavTa 
iroielv. Eyco B ovv tcai avTos, o) Avtm^cov, cosTrep 14 
a\Xo5 Ti? r\ 17T7TW ayaOcp r\ tcvvi rj opvidi rjBeTai, 
ovtco icac eTL fioXXov rjBofJbac cj)iXoo<? aya0oi$ • feat eav 

324 xenophon's memokabil. ii. i. 

Ti o"%(o ayaOop, Bc&acnca) tcai aXXois awiGTripi, Trap 
o)V av 7jjQ>jjbai co<fie\rio'€(T0ai, tl clvtovs €6? aperr]v. 
Kal toi>? 07]aavpov% tcov iraXai aocfrcov avSpcov, ol>9 
e/ceivot, /caTeXcirov ev j3lISXlol$ ypatyavTes, aveXtTToyv 
KOivrj aw tols (piXois oiep^ofiat /cat, av tl opcopev 
dyaOov, eicXeyopceda Kal pueya vopt^opuev ArepSo9, eav 
aXXijXoi? (piXoL ycyvco/JueOa. E/jlol puev Sr] tclvtcl arcov- 
ovti eSo/cei avros T6 /ma/capios elvat, icai tovs aicovov- 
ra? errl tcaXofcayaOiav ayecv. 

15 Kal iraXiv nrore tov AvTicftcovTO? epopevov avrov, 
TTft)? aXXovs pev rjyetrai, ttoXltlkovs iroielv^ avro<; Se 
ov Trparrec ra TroXiTLKa, euirep eiriaTaTai • Uorepco^ 
S av, €(f>7], a) AvTMpcoi'i paXXov ra iroXtrtKa Trpar- 
Toipi^ ei fiovos avra TrpaTTOipi, r\ et, eTTtpeXoiprjv tov 
0)9 irXeiaTovs ttcavovs etvat irpaTTeiv avra ; 

BOOK II. Ch. 1. 

20 ,St^ Se #£ puev pqhiovpyiai icai ere tov Trapa^prfpua 
rjBoval ovt6 auipaTi eve^uav iitavai eiaiv evepya^eaOai, 
0)9 <paaiv oi yvpvaaTai, ovt€ tyv'xj} eiriaT^pTjv a£io- 
Xoyov ovBepcav epiroiovcnv * at Se Bca icapTepias eiri- 
peXeiai twv koXcov ts KayaOcov epycov e^ncveiaOat 
nroiovaiv, 0)9 §aciv ol ayaOol avhpes • Xeyei Se ttov 
Kal HaioSos • 

Trjv fiev yap KaKorrjra kol l\a$6v ccttlv iXecrOai 
. 'Pij'idias * Xe/77 fiev Sbos, jxaka §' iyyvOi vaiei. 
Trjs §' dperrjs idpeora Beoi TrpoirdpoiOev €0r]Kav 
'AOavaroi • [xaKpus be kcu opdios olfios es avrfjv 

EENO<M2NT02 B. 125 

Km Tpr)\v$ to TTp&Tov ' i7ii]v S' eh aKpov Ilkt^tgl, 
. 'Prj'idtr) dr) enetra neXei, )^aXe7rr) irep iovaa. 

Maprvpei Be Kai Eiri^apfio? ev rcpBe • 

Tcov TTovcav itooXoixtlv -q/juv iravra rdyad oi OtoL 

Kai ev aXX(p Be rorrw (prjcriv • 

T i2 7rovr)pe, fir) ra paXctKa jjlcoco, fxh to. (TicXrjp* exflS* 

Kai UpoBiKO? Be 6 aocj>o? ev t« crvyy papular i ray 21 
ire pt tov HpaKXeovs, birep Br) Kai TrXeiaroi? erriBeiK- 
vvrai, w?avr(D? rrepi 7779 apery)? airofyaiverai o)Be 
7r«9 Xeycov, baa eyco fie/uuvrj/nai • (f>rjai yap HparcXea, 
errei etc iratBcov ei? rj^rjv coppcaro, ev r) 01 veoi 77877 
avrofcparopes yiyvopuevoi BrjXoucriv, eire rr)v Bi aperr)? 
6Bov rpetyovrai eirl rbv fiiov eire rr)v Bia KaKias, efe\- 
dovra ei$ r\o~vyiav KaOrjoQai arropovvra, orrorepav 
rcov oBcov rpairrjTai • Kai (pavrjvai avra> Bvo yvvaitcas 22 
irpo'Cevai fieyaXas, ttjv puev erepav evirperrr) re iBeiv 
teal eXevdepiov, fyvaei /cetcocrfirj/jLevrjv to fiev aw/ua 
KaOaporrjn, ra Be bfi/JLara aiBoi, to Be cryr}ixa acocjypo- 
avvT), eo~0r)ri Be XevKrj • ttjv B erepav reOpa/ui/jievrjv 
fxev ei? TroXvaapKiav re Kai aTraXorrjra, /cefcaXXco- , 
TrujfAevrjV Be to puev ^pcojaa, oosre Xev/corepqv re Kai 
epv0porepav tov ovtos BoKelv (f>aivea9ai s to Be ayrjixa, 
6)976 BoKetv opOorepav 7779 <j>v aeco? eivai, ra Be bfipbara 
eyeiv avaTrerrrapeva^ ecrOyjra Be, ef 779 - hv fiaXicrra 
copa BiaXafJLTToi, KaraaKOTrelcrdai Be Oafjua eavT7)v,e7ri- 
crKOTreLv Be Kai, ei ri? aXXos avTr)v Oearai, iroXXaKi? 
Be Kai eis ttjv eavrrj? atciav arrofiXeireiv. 12? B eye- 23 
vovto TrXrjcriaiTepov tov HpaKXeov?, 'ttjv fiev rrpoadev 
prjdeiaav levai tov avrov rporrov, 7771/ B erepav <p8aaai 
ftovXo fievrjv irposBpafielv ra> 'HpaKXei Kai eiirelv • OpS> 

126 xenophon's memobabil. II. 1. - 

ere, co HpcifcXeis, airopovvTa, iroiav 6Sov eirL tov /3lqv 
TpdTTT) • eav ovv e/jue cpLXrjv rroL^aapievo^^ em ttjv 
7)8iaT7)v re /cat paarrjv 6Sov agco ere, kcli tcov fiev 
Tepirvcov ovSevos ayevcrTos ear\^ tcov Se yaXeircov arrrei- 

24 po$ Siafiicocrr). Upcorov fiev yap ov ivoXepcov ovSe 
irpayfiaTcov cfipovTLeis, aXXa erK07rovfi€vo$ Siecrrj^ tl av 
KeyapLtrfxevov rj gitlqv rj nroiov evpots, rj tl av iScov 
fy tl aKovaa<$ Tepcpdelrjs rj tlvoov ocrtppaLvofievos rj 
dirTOfxevo^ r)<rdec7)s, tlgl Se ttcliZlkols opbiXcov jubaXtar 
av eveppavdecrjs, Kai irco^ av [idXaKcoTaTa KaOevSois, 

- /cat ttcos av airovcorara toutcqv iravTwv Tvyyavois. 

25 Eav Se 7rore yevryraL tl$ v7royp^ca eriraveco^ a<f cov 
ecTrai ravra, ov </>o/3o<?, pur] ere ayayco eiri to irovovvTa 
nat TaXacTTCopovvTa Tcp ercofiaTL /eat ttj ^v^V TavTa 
iropt^eadai, aXX' ot? av oi aXXoc epyafavTai, tovtoi? 
av %pr)Gij, ovSevos direyofievo^, odev av SvvaTov rj tl 
KepSavaL • iravTayodev yap cocf>eXela6aL tol$ efiol %vv- 

26 ovctlv e^ovaiav eycoye Trapeyco. KaL o MpaKXrj^ 
axovaas TavTa • ' fl yvvai, e(f>r), ovofia Se aoL tl earw ; 
H Se l Ol fiev ejJLOL <J)lXol, ecp?], fcaXovaL fie EvSai- 

fjiovLav, ol Se fiiaovvTes fie v7TOKopL^ofievoL ovofia^ovaL 

27 fie Ka/CLav. Kai ev tovtco rj eTepa yvvrj irposeXOovaa 
elire • KaL eyco rjKco irpos ere, co HparcXeLS, eiSvia 
tovs yevvrjaavTas ere fcaL tt)v epvcriv ttjv arjv ev ttj 
iraiSeia KaTapuaOovaa • e£ cov eXTTL^co^ €L ttjv irpos efie 
6Sov TpairoLOy acf)6Sp av ere tcov koXoov KaL aefivcov 
epyaTrjv ayaOov yevecrOaL^ Kai epe eTL iroXv evTLfiore- 
pav Kai 67T aya6ol$ SLairpeTreaTepav tyavrjvai • ovk 
e%a7raT7]o-co Se ere nrpooipLLOis rjSovrjs, aXX , rjirep ol 
6eol SLeOecav, Ta ovTa Sir}yr\crofxaL fieT aX7)8eia<;. 

28 Tcov yap bvTcov ayaOcov KaL KaXcov ovSev avev ttovov 

EENOM2NT02 B- 127 

kgll. eirijxeXeia? Qeoi BtBoaaiv av0pco7rois • aXX eire 

T0V$ 06OVS iXeZd? elvai <TGL ffovXei, 0epaiT€VT6OV T0V? 

. Oeovs * eire v7ro (f>iX(ov e0eXei$ ayairaaOai^ tovs <fiiXov$ 

€V€py€T7]T€0V ' 6£T6 U7T0 T^O? TToXeCQS e7Tl0Vfjiei<Z Tljld- 

o~0ai, ttjv iroXiv Q)(fie\7}T€ov • eire vtto ttjs EXXaBo? 
irdcTTjs d£ioi$ 67T apery 0avjjbd^ea0ai, ttjv EXXaBa 
ireipaTeov ev iroielv * eire <yrjv j3ovXei o~oi tcapirovs 
a<f)0dvovs (j)epeiv t Tr\v yr)v 0epa7revreov • eire airo /3o- 
crKijfidrQyv olei Beiv irXovTi^ea0ai, tcov j3oaKr]fiarcov 
eTTijJbeXrjTeov • eire Sid iroXepLov opfias av^ea0ac tcai 
fiovXei Buvaa0ai tovs re (friXovs eXev0epovv /cat, tou? 
.js%0pov$ yj-ipov(j0ai i ras TroXefJUtcas re^va? aura? re 
irapa tcov h7narafievct)v pba0r\Teov xai ottcos aural? Bel 
y u pr\G0ai dcrKrjTeov * el Be /cat rd> acofiart fiovXet Bv- 
varos eivat, rrj yvcofiTj vTrrjpeTeiv euiareov to crco/ua 
/cai jvfivaaTeov aw irovoi? Kai iBpcori. Kai r\ Katcia 29 
wrroXaftovaa elrrev^ &)<? (f>rjai TIpoBaco? • Evvoels, o) 
Hpa/cXeis, to? ^aXeTTTjp Kau jma/cpav oBov eiri ra<; ev- 
cppocrwa? rj <yvvrj aoi avrrj oirjyeirai ; eyco oe paotav 
Kau ftpayeiav oSov eiri -tt]v evBaipboviav d%co ae. Kai 30 
Y) Aperr) elirev • 3 fl rXrjfiov, tl he av aya0ov e^eis ; 
rj it r]Sv ol<j0a, fjurjBev tovto)V evetca rrpaTjeiv e0e- 
Xovaa ; rjri? ovBe tt\v tcov rjSecop eiridvyaav avafievei?, 
aXXa irpiv eiri0vybri(jai iravronv ejjbTriirXaaai^ irpiv fiev 
Tretvrjv ecr0iovcra <i irpiv Be Bi-^rrjv nrivovaa, icai iva fiev 
7jSeG)s fyayrjS, otyojroiovs fjnj^avcofievr]^ iva Be rjBeco? 
TrivrjS, olvovs re TroXvreXel? nrapaaKevaQrj icai tov 
0epov$ yiova 7repi0eovora ^rjieh • Iva Be KaOvirvaHTrjs 
^Seco?, ov fidvov ra? <rTpoofj,vd<; fiaXa/cas, aXXa /cat, ra$ 
tcXivas real ra virojSaOpa rais icXivais nrapacrtcevaty] • 
ov yap Bia to iroveiv, aXXa Bia to firjBev eyeiv, 6 tl 

128 xenophon's memorabil. II. 1. 

7T<h?7<?, v7rvov €7T 16 'f Liel? • Tfl §e a<ppoBiaLa irpo TOV 
BteoOau avay/ca^ets, iravra LLr\yavw fievrj , /cat yvvaify 
/cat avBpaai %p(OLiev7j * ovrco jap iraiBevei^ rows eav- 
t?}? (piXovs, T?y? /^ez> vvfcros v/3pi£ovaa, rrjq B rjtiepas 

31 to %pr](JifjL(0TaTOv fcarafcoi/jLi^ovcra, Adavaros Be ovaa 
etc decov jjukv aireppi'^rai) vtto Be avQ pooiroov ayaOcov 
ari/JLa^rj • tou Se iravTcov tjBcgtou afcovo~LiaTO<z, eiralvov 
eavTrjs, avr)fcoo$ eu /cat rov Travrcov tjolgtov UeaLiaTo? 
aOearo? • ovBev yap ironrore aeavTrfi epyov /caXov 
reBeacrai. TV? B av aoi Xeyovar) tl 7riarev(rece ; t/? 
B av Beofievrj twos eiraptcecreiev ; rj Tts av ev (ppo- 
vcov rov aoi) Qiaaov ToX/jirjaeiev elvat ; dt veoi jxev 
ovTes tols aco/nao-LV aBvvaToi eiat, irpeor^vTepoi Be 
yevofievoi Tats 'xjrv^aos avor)Toi, airovcos Liev Xarapot 
Bta veoTTjTos Tpefyofjbevoi,, eiriTrovcos Be av^Liijpot Bia 
yrjpcos irepoovTes, tois fiev tt eir pay /me vols ato-^vvoLievoi, 
tols Be TTpaTTOfjuevots fiapwoiievoi, Ta fiev rjBea ev 
tt) veoTT)Ti BtaBpafiovTes, Ta Be ^aXeira eis to yrjpas 

32 aTToOefxevoi. Eyco Be avveifit fiev Oeots, Gvveifit Be 
avOpcoirois tols ayadots • epyov Be koXov ovre Oetov 
ovTe av6 pcoir ivov 'Xpapts efiov yiyveTai • Ttficofiat Be 
LtaXtaTa iravTcov /cat irapa Oeols teat irapa avOpooirois, 

, ot9 irposrjfcet, ayairrjTr) Liev avvepyos TeyytTats, irtaTTj 

Be cf)v\a^ otfccov BecriroTacs, evfievrjs Be irapaataTis 

' oitceTats, ayaOrj Be avXXrjirTpta tcov ev etprjvrj irovcov, 

/3e/3ata Be tcov ev iroXefico crvfifia%os epycov, aptaiT) 

33 Be (frtXias kolvcdvos. Ectti Be to7<$ fiev e/uols (j>tXots 
rjBeta fiev Kat air pay ficov ctctcov icai ttotcov airoXavais • 
ave'XpvTai yap, eco? av €7rt0Vfirjcr(oa-tv clvtcov. ^ Tttvo? 
B avTOL? nrapecTTLV rjBicov rj rot? ayboyOois, tcai, ovre 
airoXeL7TovTe<; avTOV ayOovTat ovtc Bia tovtov LheOiaai ' 

EENO<M2NT02 A. 129 

Ta oeovra irpaiTeiv. Kai 01 fiev veot Tot? tcov irpecr- 
(3vTepcov eiraLvoLS yaipovaLV, oL he yepairepoi tcu? Tan> 
vecov TLfjLCils ayaXXovTai • /cat rjhecos puev tcov iraXaicov 
irpa^ecov fie/bLvrjvrac, ev he ra? Trapovaas rjhovTcu irpar- 
Tovres, hi e/ue cfiiXoi pbev 8eol$ oj>t€9, ayairrfToi he 


fjuevov TeXos, ov puera Xrfir)^ aTipuoi KelvTai, aXXa fxera 
fjLV7)fjLr)s tov aei ypovov vpLvovpuevoi OaXXovai. Tocavra 
croi, co nrai rofcecov dyaOcov HpafcXeis, e^ecrTi hiairovr)- 
aapcevco T7)v pba/capi(jTOTaTr)V evhaipuoviav KeK^rjaOai. 

OvTCO 7TC0? hlCOK€l FF poBttCOS TTjV V7T Ap€T7]$ 'HpCt,- 34 

fcXeovs TraioevcTLV, e/cocrpLTjcre puevToi tcls yvcofia^ en 
pbeyaXeioTepoi? prjfiaai.v rj eyco viiv. HZol h ovv a^iov, 
co ApiaiLTrire^ tovtcov evOvpuovpuevco ireipaadai ti kcll 
tcov et? tov pLeXXovTd yjpovov tov j3iov cppowi^eiv. 

BOOK IV. Oh. 2. 

Tois Be vopbi^ovGL iraiheias re ttjs apio-Tr)$ TeTvyr}- 1 
tcevai tcai pueya cfypovovaiv eiri aocpia &)? TrposecfiepeTO, 
vvv hirjyrjaopLai, KarapuaOcov yap EvOvhrjpiov top kcl- 
Xov ypapLpbaTd ttoXXcl ' crweiXeypbevov iroirjTcov t€ tcai 


vojULc^ovTa ht.acpepeiv tcov tjXikicotcov em aocpia Kai 
fteyaXas eXTrihas eyovTa travTcov hioiaeiv tco hwaaOai 
Xeyeiv T6 icai 7rpaTTeiv, Trpcorov piev aiaOavopuevo^ av- 


tl /3ovXolto hiairpa^acrBai, rcadt^ovTa et? r]vioiroielov 
ti tcov eyyf? T779 ayopa?) eig .tovto kcli clvtos yet, 
tcov pue6 eavTOv tlvcls €^cov m Kat TrpcoTov pav ttvv- 2 


130 xenophon's MEMORABIL. IV. 2. 

Qavofievov tlvos, 7rdrepov ©efJbiaTOKXrj^ Bid crvvovalav 


Xitwv, &>9T6 7rpo? etcelvov airoBXeTreiv ttjv 7roXiv, oirore 
cnrovBaiov dvBpos BerjOecrj, 6 Sco/cpaTTjs j3ovXdp,evo<; 
tcivelv tov EvOvBrj/xov ebrjOes €<j>r) elvai to oLeaffat 
7a? fiev oXiyov a%ta<$ Te'^i/a? fjur) ycyveaOaL cnrovBal- 
ovs dvev BcBacrKoXcov itcavwv, to Be TrpoeaTavai 7rd- 
Xecw?, ttclvtwv epycov fieytaTOV ov, airo TavrofiaTov 

3 irapaytyvecrdaL to£? avOpcoirois. UaXtv Be irore ira- 
povTo? tov EvdvBrjfjiov, opcov avrov aTTO^OJpOVVTa TtfS 
crvveBpbas /ecu (fivXaTTOfievov, firj Bogy tov XoyKparrjv 
Oavpba^etv 67tl o"0(j)oa •" f Otl [iev, e<pr) y o) avBpes, Ev- 
dvBrjfjuos ovTocri ev rfkifciq yevopuevos, ttjs TroXeco? Xoyov 
irepi tlvos TTpoTiOeiar}^, ov/c acftegeTai tov avfiffovXev- 
etv, evBrfXov earTiv eg oyv eiriT^Bevev * Botcel Be /llol 
kolXov nrpooipbiov twv Brjjjirjyoptcov irapaaicevaaaaOat 
(frvXaTTOfjLevos, [17] Bogr) puavOaveLV tl irapa tov • BrjXov 

4 yap, otl Xeyecv apyopuevos d)Be irpooLfiidcreTai, • " TLap 
ovBevos fjuev ircoiroTe, &> avBpe? AOrjvcuoi, ovBev efia- 
6ov ovB afcovoov Tivds elvat t Xeyeiv t€ kcll irpcurTetv 
ucavovs e^iqTrjcra tovtol<; a/TL^a^ ovB e7refieXrj07jv tov 
BiBao-fcaXov puoi tivcl yevecrdat twv eirriarTapLevcDV, aXXa 
kcll TavavTta • BiaTeTeXetca yap (j)evycov ov yuovov to 
fiavdaveiv tl irapa twos, aXXa feat to BdgaL • o/mo? 
Be o tl av airo TavrofiaTov eiriT] puot avp,{5ovXevG(o 

5 vp2v. ApfjiocreLe B av ovtcd 7rpooLpua%eo-0aL /cao tol$ 
ftovXofjbevoL? irapa ttjs iroXeco^ laipiKOV epyov Xafielv • 
eTTLTr\Bei6v y av avToc? ecrf tov Xoyov apyeo~0aL ev- 
TevOev • a Hap ovBevo? puev 7TG)7roTe, <h avBpes A 0?]- 
valot, tj)p laTpLfcrjv Teyvrjv eyuaBov ovB 7 efyfrjera BiBaartca- 
Xov epuavTcp yeveaOaL tcdv LaTpcov ovBeva • BLaTeTeXefca 

£ENOI>{2NT02 A. ^31 

yap *fiv\aT70fJL€V0<; ov fiovov to fiaOeiv tl irapa tgov 
larpwv, aXXa tcai to 8o£cu fiefiaOijicevaL tjjp Te^yrjp 

TaVTTJV • OyCtft)? Be flOL TO LCLTplKOV €pJOV SoT€ ' 7T€Cpd- 

aofiac yap ev v/ulv airoKivBvvevcov iiavOaveiv?' IlavTes 
ovv ol irapovT€$ eyeXaaav eiTL rw Trpooipn(o. Eirel s 
Be (f>avepos rjv 6 EvOvBrjfio? 97877 fiev 0/9 6 SwKpaTr}? 
XeyoL 7rpo?€^ft)^, €tl Be fyvXaTTofievos avTos tl <p0ey- 
yeo~0aL koli vo/jll^cov ttj cncoirrj crcd<f)p0Gvvr)<$ Bo%av 
TrepiftaXkecrOaL, Tore 6 ScofcpaTT]? (3ovXo[ievo$ avTOV 
iravaat tovtov • QavfJuacrTov yap, ecj)7j t tl Trpre ol 
/3ovXo/juevoL KiQapi^eiv rj avXelv 77 nrireveiv r] aXXo tl 
touv TotovTcov iteavol yeveaOac ireipwvTai co? Gvvej^e- 
a-Tara iroietv o tc av ftovXcovTat, Bvvcltoi yeveadao 
feat ov /cad eavrovs, aXXa irapa T0Z9 aptaTOt^ Bo/cov- 
glv elvai, iravT'a iroLovvTes kcli virofjievovTe^ eveica tov 
fjLrjBev avev T779 etcecvoov yvoofiTjs Trqielv, 009 ov/c av 
aXXcos a^ioXoyoi yevofievot • r&v Be fiovXofievoyv Bvva- 
tcov yeveadai Xeyetv Te icai irpaTTecv tcl itoXltlkcl 
vopLitpvoi Tives avev 7rapaG~K€vrjg teat eirtfJieXeias avro- 
fJiaToi e^at(f)V7]q BvvaToo TavTa ivoielv eaeaOai. KatToi 7 
ye ToaovTCd TavTa e/cetveov 8v$fcaTepyao~TOTepa (fcaiveTai, 
bacp rtrep 7rXeLOvcov irepl TavTa irpayfjuaTevopuevcov eXciT- 
Tou? ol KaTepya^ojJbevot yvy vovTai • BrjXov ovv, otl icai 
eirtfjieXeLa^ BeovTai irXeiovos icai Lo")(vpoT€pa<; ol tovtcov 
€(f>C€{M€V0L rf ol efcetveov. * KaT ap%a$ fxev ovv^ atcov- 8 
qvtos Ev0vBr){iov, toiovtovs Xoyovs eXeye X(OKpaT7}<$ • 
&)9 B 7}o~0eTo avTov eTotfioTepov virofxevovTa^ 0Te Bca- 
XeyoiTo, KaL 7rpo6vfjLOT€pov arcovovTa, fiovos rjX0ev ei$ 
to r}VL07TOLelov • TrapafcaOe^ofJuevov B avTO) tov Ev0v- 

tj/llov • hiLire {iol, ecprj, co tLvuvorj/jbe, tco ovtl, oi^irep 
eyco afcova)) 7roXXa ypapniaTa o-vvrj^a<; tcov Xeyofievcov 

132 xenophon's memoeabil. iy. 2. 

aocfrcov avBpwv yey ovevai ; Nr) tov Ai , e<f>r), co ZcoKpa- 

T6? * KCLl €Tl <V6 aWajCO, €6>9 CIV KTrjCFCOfiai 0)9 av • 

9 Bvvcofiai irXelcfTa. Nr) rrjv ' Hpav, e<prj 6 2co/cpciT7}<;, 
ayafiai ye crov, Bioti ovk apyvpiov Kai %pvaiov irpo- 
eiXov OrjGCLvpovs KeKTrjaBai fiaXXov r) ao<pia$ • BrjXov 
yap, on vofil^ei? apyvpiov Kai %pvo~iov ovBev /3eX- 
tiovs iroieiv tol"? avOponrovs, t<29 Be tcov crocpcop 
avBpcov yvcofia? aperrj ttXovt i^eiv tovs KeKTrjfievovs. 
Kai 6 Ev6v$r}jbLos eyaipev a/covcov Tavra, vofii^wv 

10 BoKelv Ttp ScoKpaTei op8oo$ fieTievai rrjv aocfiiciv. ^ O 
Be KarapuaOwv avrov rjaOevTa toS eiracvq) tovtg> • Ti 
Be Brj fiovXcfievo? aya0o<; yevecrOai, e<prj, c5 EvOvBrjfie, 
avXXeyei? tcl ypajub/Jbara ; Ewel Be BiecricoTrrjo-ev 6 

EvOvBrjfJLO? GKOTTCOV, O Tt aTTOKpiVaiTO, TTaXlV 6 Sd)- 

KpaTTfjq • ' A pa fir) taTpos ; ecprj • rrroXXa yap /cat 
taTpoav ecTTL avyy pa fifiaT a, Kat o EvOvBrjfio? • Ma 
Ai , €<fir}, ovk' eycoye. — 'AXXa fir) apyiTeKTwv /3ovXei 
yevecrOai ; yvcofioviKov yap avBpos fcai tovto Bei. — 
Ovkovv eycoy\ ecprj. - — AXka fir) yecofieTpr)? eiriOvfiel^, 
€<j>r), yevecrOai dyaOo 1 ;, cosirep 6 OeoBcopo? ; — OvBe 
yecofieTprjs, ecj^r). — 'AXXa fir) ao~TpoXoyos, hfyr), fiovXei 
yevecrdai ; 'fls Be Kai tovto rjpvelTO • AXka fir) 
paty<pBos ; €(pr) • tcai yap Ta Ofirjpov o~e cfiacriv eirr) 
irdvTa KeKTrjaOai. — Ma AT ovk eycoy , efyr) • tou? 
yap toi patycpBovs olBa Ta fiev eirr) aKpiftovinaS) av- 
tovs Be iravv r)Xt8iov<; bvTas. Kai 6 ScofcpaTrjs e<pr) • 

11 Ov Brprov, oy Ev6vBr)fie, TavTrj<; ttjs apeTr)? e^iecrai, 

Bl 7)V aV0pCO7TOl 7ToXlTlKOl yiyVOVTai Kai OLKOVOfll/COl 

fcai apyeiv iKavoi Kai axpeXifioi tois re aXXois av- 
0pco7TOi<; Kai eavTol? ; Kai 6 Ev6vBr)fL0$ • %<f)cBpa y , 
e(j)r), a> *£(DKpaTe$, TavTr)<; t^? apeTr)$ Beofiai, Nr) 


At 3 ecfrrj 6 S co k pdrrfi, ttjs /caXXtaTrjs aperr}? /cat jute- 
ytGT7)s etpteaat Teyyiqs • ecrTt yap tcov (3acrtXecov amr) 
teal /caXetTat (3acrtXticr] • ardp, ecf)r), fcaTavevorjfcas, et 
oldv t earl jjlt] bin a httcatov ayaOov ravrd yevecrdat ; 

— Kat jutaXa, e<prj, /cal ov% oldv re ye avev St/cato- 
avvrjs dyadbv iroXtTrjv yevecrdat. - — Tt ovv ; ecf)r), av 12 
hrj tovto /caTetpyacrat ; — Olptat ye, ecf>r/, to Aco/cpa- 
re?, ovhevos av yjttov cj>avr)vat Stfcatos. — Ap ovv 
[e</>77,] tcov Stfcatcov earlv epya, co^irep tcov Te/cTovcov ; 

— kiGTi ptevTOt, ecprj — Ap ovv, ecprj, wirep 01 re- 
KToves eyovcrt Ta eavrcov epya eirthet^at, ovtco? ol 
St/catot Ta eavTcov eyotev av Ste^rjyr]craaOat ; Mr) ovv, 
e<p7) 6 EvOvSti/jlos, ov Svvafiac eyco Ta tt}s St/catocrvvr)? 
epya e^rjyricracrdat ; Kat vrj At eycoye Ta ttJ? ahtictas • 
eiret ovic oXtya ecrTt /cad e/caaTrjv rj/mepav TotavTa 
opdv re /cat a/covetv. BovXet ovv, ecj>r} 6 ScofcpaTrjs, 13 
ypatycoptev evTavOol fiev SeXra, evTavQot he aXc\>a ; 
eha b to ptev av hofcrj tj/mv Trjs St/catocrvvrjs epyov 
etvai, nrpos to heXTa TtOcoptev, d tl S av tt}? aht/ctas, 
7rpo? to aXcf)a ; — El Tt crot Sofcet, ecf>r}, Trpo&elv tov- 
tcov, TTotet wavTa. Kat 6 ScofcpaTrjs ypayjras, co^irep 14 
etrrev • Ovkovv, etfir}, ecrTtv ev dvOpdirots # to # ^rev- 
Secrdat ; — Eo~Tt puevTol, ecj)rj. — HoTepcocre ovv, e(f>rj, 

0a)jLt€v tovto ; — ArjXov, €$7), otu irpo? tt)v aSt/ctav. 

Ovkovv, ecj>r), /cat to e^airaiav ecrTt ; — Kat ptaXa, ecjyrj. 

— Tovto ovv iroTepcocre dcoptev ; — Kat tovto SrjXov 
ort, ecfzrj, 7rpo$ ttjv aSt/ctav. — Tt Se ; to /catcovpyetv ; 

— Kat tovto, ecj)rj. — - To Se av8pa7ro8t%ecr0at ; Kat v. 

tovto. — TIpos he tt). Stfcatocrvvr) ovhev tjjmv tovtcov 
/cetaeTat, cb EvOvhrjfjte ; — Aetvbv yap av ^etrj^l-ecpr]. — - 
Tt S' ; eav Tts GTpaTTjyos atpe9et<? aht/cov re /cat 15 

134 xenophon's memorabil. rv. 2. 

e%6pav rroXiv e^avBpa7rohiarjTai } (f)7]cro[iev rovrov aSt- 

/ceiv ; — Ov Srjra, e<fij). Aitcaia Be iroceiv ov cprjao- 

fxev ; — Kcll fjudka. — Ti B ; eav e^airara rroXeficov 
avrols ; — Alkcilov, e^y, icai rovro. — 'Eav Be tcXerrrrj 
re koI dpTraty) ra rovrcov, ov Bifcaca 7roi7]o~ei ; — Kal 
{ia\a, e<fir) • aXX eyco ere to nrpcorov vireXafiftavov 
rrpos rou9 (ptXovs /novov ravra epcorav, — Ovkovv, 
e<fir), oaa 7rpo? rfj aBiKia eOriKapuev^ rravra k&l rrpos 
ry Bacaioavvrj Oereov av eiy ; — Eotfcev, e<f>r). — 

16 BovXei ovv, €<p7] t ravra ovtco Sevres BiopiacofieOa rrd- 
XiVy irpo$ fiev rovs TroXe/uLiovs Biicaiov. elvac ra rotavra 
iroielv^ 7rpos Be tou? (fiiXovs aSt/cov, aXXa Becv rrpos 
ye rovrov? &)<? drrXovcrrarov elvac ; Haw puev ovv^ 

17 e<pr] 6 EvOvBrjjuos. Tl ovv ; e(f)?] 6 ScofcparrjSi eav 
rw arparyyo? 6pS)v a6viMd$ £%oz> T0 °"TP aT€V f jia tyev- 
aajjuevo?, cj>r}<T7] o-vfJLfJLayovs rrposievat teat r<p yfrevBei 
rovrcp rravarj ra^aOvpLLa? rov o-rparev/aaro?, nrorepcoOi 
rrjv air any ravrrjv 6r}aofiev ; — Aorcel [lot, e$>rj, rrpos 
rrjv BiKaioavvrjv. — f- Eav he T£? vlov eavrov Beopuevov 
(^apfjuatceta^ fcac prj irpo^iepuevov (^appuaicov e^arrarjicras 
&>? atruov to (frap/jbafcov B<p /cat rep tyevBet %p7}crd- 
/uevos ovtoos vyia rroLrjarT), ravrrjv av riiv arraryv tcol 
Oereov ; — Aorcel jjlol, e(f>7], Kai ravrrjv ei$ ro avro. 

10; eav ris ev auvpaa ovros cpcXov deccas^ /^ 
hta^priarirab eavrov, icXe-^n] 7) dprracrr) tj %c(j>o<? 7) aXXo 
n rotovrov, rovro av 7rorepcoae 8ereov ; — Kat, rovro 

18 vr\ Al , ecf)?], rrpos rrjv StfcaioavvTjv. Aeyeis, €(f)7], av 

ov&e 7rpo? tol>9 (fciXovs arravra Selv aTrXo'C^eaOai ; — 
Ma At,' ov Srjra, e(f)r) • aXXa fierarcde/aac ra ecprj- 
fieva, etrrep e^eari. — Ael ye roi, ecj)?] 6 Haiicpariis, 

19 e^elvai rroXv fiaXXov rj fjbrj op0co$ rudevai, Tcov Se 

£ENO<M2NT02 A. 235 

St] tovs (fiiXov? e^aiTarcovTcop errl fiXaftT), Iva p,r)he 
touto TrapaXiTrcopuev aaKeinov, iroTepo^ ahiiccoTepds 

€CTTLV, O etCCOV 7] CtfCCOV / AXX , CO 2,GL)KpaT6$, ov/ceTi, 

/aei/ eycoye TriaTevco ot? arroKpivopbai • /eat <yap ra 7rpo- 
cr#ez/ Travra vvv dXXco<$ eyeiv hotcel [jlol, rj a>9 €<ya> 
Tore wofirjv • o [Mas oe eiprjauco puoi aoifccoTepov eivai 
tov efcovra ^revhopievov tov cocovto*;.:— Aoget he aoi 20 
fiaOrjcris tcai eTriarrjpiT) tov hifcalov eXvai, cosTrep rcov 
ypap,{iaTC0V ; — Epcoiye. — Tldrepov he ypapLjuarLiccoTe- 
pov fcpiveis, b<? av efccov pirj op0co<? ypa<\>r) fcai avayiy- 
voyafcj) 7] 69 av atccov ; — *" O9 av i/cdv, eycoye • hvvatTO 
yap av, ottotg /3ovXolto } koI op0co$ aura iroidiv. — 

VKOW JJL6V €fCG)V jJLTj opucos ypacpcov ypapLpLaTLKOS 

av eiT], 6 he atccov dypaptpaTos ; — H£>$ yap ov ; — 
Ta Si/caca Be irdrepov 6 e/ccov 'tyevhopLevos fcal e^aira- 
tcov olhev 7] 6 ctfccov ; — ArfXov, otl 6 eiccov. — Ovkovv 
ypajjupLCLTLtccoTepov fiev tov eircardpievov ypafifiara tov 
fiTj eTno-Tafjievov cf>r)<; elvai. ; — Nac. — Aitcaiorepov he 
tov eiricTTdpLevov Ta hitcaia tov jit) eTriGTapuevov ; — 
Qaivofjuai • Sokco he jjlol teal TavTa, ovk olh 07r&)9 5 
Xeyeiv, — Tl he hr], t 09 av fiovXopievos tciXtjOt) Xeyeiv 21 
fi7]he7T0'ze Ta clvtcl irepl tcov avTcov Xeyy, aXX ohdv 
Te (ppa^cov ttjv avTTjv TOTe jmev Trpos eco, tot6 he irpos 
eairepav (fipaty) kcll Xoyicrpbov a7ro<fiaLvopL€vo$ tov av- 
tov tot e ptev TrXetcQ, tots h *eXaTTco, a7ro<fiaiv7)Tai, tl 

croc Sok(b2 9 6 tocovtVs ; ArjXos vr) Av elvat, otl a 

cpeTO ethevat ovk olhev. — - Ola 6 a he Tiva? avhpaTrohco- 22 

hew icaXov pbevovs ; ' Eycoye. UoTepov hid cro<piav, 

7] hi ayuadiav ; AtjXov, otl hi apuadiav. ' Ap ovv 

hia t?^ tov yaXKeveiv dpuaBlav tov ovdpuaTos tovtov 
Tvyyavovo~iv ; — Ov hrjTa. — AXX dpa hid ttjv tov 


T6fCTaiV€crdai ; - — Ov8e 8ia ravrrfv. — AXXa 8ia ttjv 
tov cTKVTevecp ; — Ov8e 8l ev tovtcov, ecf)?], aXXa /col 
TOvvavTiov ' 01 yap irXelcrTOi tcov ye ra tolclvtcl eiri,- 
arajnevcov av8pa7ro8a)8ei$ eialv. — ' Ap ovv tcov ra 
KaXa zeal ayaOa koli Sifcaca jmr) ecSorcov to oyo\ia tovt 

23 6<jtIv ; — ' E/Jboiye Soxel, e(j>rj. — Ov/covv 8el ttclvtl 
rpoiro) 8iaT6Lva[jL€Vovs (jievyeiv, otto)? fi7] av8pairo8a 

Cd(Jb€v. AWa, vr) T^vq 0eovs t ±€(f)r), to SawpaTes, iravv 

o)jitjv (f>iXocro(f)elv (friXoaocfriav, ,8i ^9 av jxaXtaTa evo- 
fii^ov iraihevOrfvai ra irposrjKovTa av8pi fcaXo/cayadias 
opeyojuLevG) • vvv be 7ra>9 ooec fie auvfJLws eyeiv opcovra 
efjuavTov 8ia p*ev ia TrpoTreTrovTjjULeva ov8e to epcoTco- 
fjuevov airotcpiveaQai 8vva{ievov virep otiv fiaXicrTa %pi] 
eihevai, aXXrjv he 68ov ovSeputav e^ovTa, rjv av 7ro- 

24 pevofxevos ffeXTicov yevoi\ir\v ; — Kal 6 ^wKpaTr)^ • 
Etire jjboi, 60?;, d) Ev6v8r)fjLe, eis AeX(f)ov$ Be r)8r) irdi)- 
TroTe a(pt/cov ; — Kai 8l$ ye vrj Aia, e<t>7). — KaTefiaOe? 
ovv irpos T(p va<p irov yey p a fifjuevov to TvcoBl aavTov ; 

Eycoye. UoTepov ovv ovhev croc tou ypafipuaTO^ 

ep,e\r)o~ev, rj irpo^ea^e^^ T6 /cat eire^eiprjaa<; aavTov 
eTUGKOTrelv, ostw eciis ; — Ma Ai ov 8r}Ta, ecfry-fcfri 
yap 8rj iravv tovt 6 ye qfyirjv eiBevat • a^oXrj yap av 

25 aXXo tl rjSecv, eoye jjltiS epuavTov eyiyvmanov. — Ylo- 
Tepa 8e aot 8oKel yiyvwcnceiv eavTov 6977,9 Tovvo/na to 
eavTov fiovov olSev, 77,09779, cos7rep ol rov9 Ittttovs 
(Dvovfievoi ov irpoTepov oioinai yiyvcoafceLv, by av (Bov- 
XcovTac yvcovai, Trpiv av eTricncetytoVTai, iroTepov ev- 
TreiOr]^ eaTiv rj 8v^7rec0riq i Kat iroTepov Lcr%vpo<$ eaTiv 
7] aa9ev7]<;, /cat, iroTepov Ta^v? rj ^paSu9, feat TaXXa 
ra 7rpo9 ttjv tov lttttov ^peiav eTTLTir]8eta T€ Kat ave- 
TriTT]8eia 07r<w9 e%€^, ovtcos o eavTov eirio tce'tyap.evos, 


oiroios eari irpos rrjv dv6pG)7rlvqv j^pelav^ eyva>/ee T7jv 
avrov Bvva/Miv ; — Ovtcos efioiye Bo/cei, e<j>7}, 6 fii] evSa)? 
rrjp eavrov Buvafiiv ayvoelv eavrov. — E/celvo Be ou 26 
Aavepov, htyrj, on Bia puev ro eiBevai eavrov? ifKelarai 
ay ad a rrda^ovaiv oi avffpco7roi, Bia Be ro e^revaBai 
eavrS>v irkelara tca/cd ; ol p>ev yap eiBores eavrov? rd 
T€ e7rirrjBeia eavrov? taaai teal Biayiyvcoa/eovaiv a re 
Bvvavrai teal a pur\ • teal a fjuev erriaravrai rrpdrrov" 
re? iropifyvrai re <ov Beovrai teat ev rrparrovaw^ <ov 
Be jbLT) erriaravrai direypixevoi dvajadprijroi yiyvovrai 
km Bia<p>evyovai ro tea/eS)? rrpdrreiv • Bia rovro Se /cat 
rov? aWov? av0pd>7rov? Bvvafievoi Botcifia^eiv /cat Bia 
rrj? r&v aWasv %peia$ rd re ayada rropi^ovrai teat 
ra /catca (f>v\drrovrai. Ol Be fit)' elBores, aXKa Bieyfrev- 27 
(Tfievoi rrj? eavr&v Bvvdfieco? . rrpo? re rov? aXkov? 
avOpvirov? teal raXKa dvdpcomva 7rpdyp,ara o/jloko? 
Sia/ceivrai • teal ovre <ov Beovrai laaaiv ovre o t& ' 
irparrovaiv ovre ol? xpcovrai, aWa iravrcov rovrcov 
oia/jLaprdvovre? ra>v re dyadoyv dirorvy^dvovci teal 
?oi? tea/coi? rrepirriirrovcn. Kal ol fiev eiBore?, o n 28 
iroiovaiv, emrvy^avovre? wv rrpdrrovaiv evBogoi re 
teat rifjLLOt yiyvovrai • teat ot re bfioioi rovroi? rjBea>? 
Xpasvrai, oi re arrorvyyewovre? rcov rrpay/iiarcov emOv- 
fiovci rovrov? virep avrwv fiovkeveaOai teat rrpoiara- 
vvai re eavrwv rovrov? teal ra? eXrriBa? rcov dyaOSyv 
& rovroi? e%ovai teat Bia rravra ravra rravrm* pa- 
A.e<7Ta rovrov? dyarroaaiv. Ol Be p,rj elBore?, o re 29 
iroiovat, /catca)? Be alpovfievoi Kal ol? av erri^eip^crcoaiv 
Q-irorvyxavovre? ov fiovov ev avroi? rovroi? tyjfiiovvrai 
T * Kai tcoXdtpvrai, aWa teal dBo^ovat, Blcu ravra teal 
KarayeXaarot yiyvovrai tcai Karaj>povovfievoi tcai an- 

138 xenophon's memorabil. rv. 2. 

pa^o/ievoi ffio-ip • 6pm Be Kai twp iroke&v otc oaai 
av ayvor}<jacai ttjp eavrwv Bvpafiip KpeiTToai TroXefirj- 
acoaip, at fiep avacnaroi yiypoPTai, ai B e£ ekev0e- 

30 poop BovXai. Kai 6 Ev0vBr}fio$ • f2$ irdvv fioi Bokovp, 
€<j>7), co Soo/cpares, Trepi ttoXXov TroiTjreop etvai to 
eavrop yiypcoaKeiP, ovtcds ig0i • ott60€p Be yprj ap£a- 
o0ai eTTiaKOirelp eavrop, tovto tt^oo? ae ttTroySXeVcD et 

31 fioi €0e\7]aai$ ap e^7)yr i Gaa0at. Ovkovp, €$7) 6 Xw- 
KpitTT)?, ra fiep ayaGa Kai ra KaKa oirola eon, itup- 
tg>9 7rov ytypGxr/ceis ; — Ntj Ai , e<f>7) • et yap firjBe 
ravra olBa, Kai tg,p apBpairoB&p (pavXoTepo? ap eirjp. 

101 8r], e<f)7], Kai efiol ejjr'iyrjaai avrd. — *AX">C ov 

*)(akeirop> e<j)7] • irpw-rop fiep yap alio to vyiaiveip 
aya0op elpai pofufyo, to he poaelp ttanop, eireiTa ra 
aiTia ifcarepov avroop, Kai rrrora Kai ft para Kai cttltt)* 
BevfiaTa, ra fiep 7rpo$ to vyiaweip ^epopra ayaBd, 

32 ra Be nrpo<; to poaelp KaKa, — Ovkovp, e(f>7], Kai to 
vyiaipevp Kai to poaeip, otov fiep ayaOoy twos ania 
yiyprjTai, dya0a ap eirj, OTap Be KaKOv, KaKa, — UoVe 
B dp, e<f>7)) to fiep vyiaipeip kcikov oitiop yevoiTO, to 
Be poaelp aya0ov ; — OTap ptj Ai , €$77, aTpareia? 
T€ aiaxpds Kai pavTiXia<; /SXaySeyoa? Kai aXXcop iroXXcop 
toiovtcdp 01 fiep Bia pcofiTjp fieTaaj^ovie^ airoXwvTai, 

01 Be. Bi aa0epeiap a f 7ro\ei(f>0ePT€<i gg)0<ogip. AXtjOt) 

Xeyei? • aXV o/?a?, e(j)7), oti ko! twp cocjieXifioop 01 
fiep Bia pcofirjp fieTe^ovavp, ol Be Bi aoGepeiap diro- 
XeiiropTai. — TavTCi ovp, e<f>7}, ttot€ fiep cocpeXovpTa, 
7TOT6 Be /3Xa7TTOPTa fiaXXop aya0a rj KaKa eaTip ; — 
OvBep fia Aia <paipeTai KaTa ye tovtop top Xoyop. 

S3 AXX rj ye toi aocjjia, a> Sa)KpaTe$, apafi$is$ , qTr(T<o$ 
'aya0op eo~TiP • ttoIop yap ap tis irpdyfia ov fieXTiop 

EENOS12NT02 A. ' 139 

Trpdrroi crocpos tov rj afia0r)$ ; — Tl Bat ; tov AalBa- 
Xov, 6(5617, ovk afcrj/coas, ore Xrjqb0el^ viro Mivco Bia ttjv 
aocf>iav qvayfcd&TO eiceivw BovXeveiv Kai ttJ? t€ Trarpi- 
So? dfia teal T979 eXev0epia<; eo-reprjOrj kcll erriyeiptov 
diroBiBpdaKeiv fiera tov vlov tov re iraiBa aircoXeae 
tcai avTO$ ovk rjhvvr)9r] aco0r)vai, aXk aireve'^flei? 61$ 
tol>9 /3ap/3apov$ iraXiv €K€i eBovXevev ; — AeyeTai vrj 
Ai , e<jf>?7, ravra, — — Ta Be FtaXafn'\Sov$ ovk aKrjKoa? 
iraBrj ; tovtov yap Br) TravTe? vjjlvovctiv, *»? Bid go* 
<j)iav <f>0ovr}0eh viro rov OBvaaeco? diroXXvTai, — Ae- 

yerai teat TavTa, €<pr}. AXXovs Be irdcrovs oiei Bia 

aofyiav avapiracTovs irpos fiaariXea yeyovevai Kai €K€i 
BovXeveiv ; — KivBvvevei, e<f)i], a> SojKpare?, avafxcjyiXo- 34 
ycoTarov ayaOov elvai to evBaip,ovelv. — Eiye firj ri? 
auro, €(j>7], w Evdv8rjfjL€) eg ap,cf>iXoycov aya6S>v avvTi- 
0ei7). — Tl S ' dv, €$77, tcov evBai/uoviKcbv dfi^lXoyov 
eirj ; — OvBev, ecfyrj, eiye fir) Trpo<;0rjcrop>€v avra> koXXo? 
r) ivyyv rj irXovrbv rj B6%av r) Kai tl aXXo twv toiov- 
tcov. — AXXa vr\ Aia 7rpo$0r}aop,€V, e(j>r] • 7r<w? yap dv 
t*9 avev tovtcov evBai/xovolrj ; — Nrj Ac , etprj, irpos- 35 
0rjaofiep dpa e% c&v iroXXa Kai ^(aXeira crvfifialvei rocs 
ap0pco7roi$ • *jroXXol fiev yap Bid to koXXos vrrb tcov 
eiti rot? topaioi? irapaKeKivijKOTcov 8ia<f)0eipovTai, iroX- 
Xol Be Bid tt]v layyv p.ei%oaiv epyoi? e7ri^eipovvTe^ ov 
fiiKpois KaKol? TrepnMTTovai, iroXXol Be Bid rov ttXov- 
tov Bia0pv7TTOfjbevoi Te Kai eirifiovXevopevoi diroXXw- 
Tai t ttoXXoi Be Bia Sogav Kai ttoXitik7]v Bvvapiv pueyaXa 
Kaxa 7re7rov0ao'iv. — 'AXXa firjv, 6^77, eiye prjBe to 36 
evBaipuovelv erraivoov op0£)$ Xeya), ofioXoySy purfBe o tl 
irpos tov? 0eov$ ev)(ea0ai %pr} eiSevai. 'AXXa Tama 
ftev t e<j)7] 6 StoKpaTT}?, laco? Bid to acj)dBpa TTiareveiv 

140 xenophon's MEMORABIL. IV. 2. 

elhevai ovh' ea-Keyjrat • en-el he iroXecos orjiioKpaTovfjLe- 
vrjs Trapaarfcevdty] irpoeardvat, hrjXov, on hrj/iOKparlav. 

37 ye olada, re ecrru — IIdvTCQ$ hrjirov, ecj)7}. — AoKel 
ovv aoir hvvarov etvav STj/mofcparcav eihevai firj echora 
hrjfiov ; — Ma AV ovk efiotye. — Kal n vofil^ec^ 
hrjfiov eivat ; — Tovs TrevTfras tcov ttoXltcov ey&ye. — • 
Kal tou? TTevqTa^ apa olaOa ; — ITgj? yap ov ; — 
' Ap ovv Kal tovs ttXovglovs ola6a ; — Ovhev ye vynov 
rj Kal tovs Trevrjras. — IIqlovs he TrevrjTas icai iroiovs 
ttXovglovs KaXels ; — Tov? fiev, oifiai, firj tKava e%ov- 
ra? eh a hel reXelv TrevrjTas, tov? he irXecco tcov 

33 [fcavwv ttXovcfiovs. — Kara fie fiaBi) teas ovv, on evioi? 
fiev iravv oXiya eyovatv ov fiovov apteeo ravra, aXXa 
Kal TrepLirocovvrac air avT&v, evtois he irdvv TroXXa 
ov% iKava ecu ; Kat, vr) At , e(f>r} o Eudvhrjfio? • 
opdeos yap fie avafiifivr\aKei^ • olha yap Kai rvpdv- 
vov$ rtvas, oi hu evhecav, wirep oi aTropcoTaroi, avay- 

39 KaXpvrai dhtKeiv. Ovkouv, e<f>7) o* ScoKparr)?, etye 
ravra oi/tg)? ^X €Lt rov<i ^ v TV P avvov< * W T0V hrjfiov 
6r\aofiev t rovs he oXiya KeKTrjiievovs, eav oiKovofiiKol 
coo-lv, et<? Tou? ttXovcflovs ; Kat o Evdvhrjfios e<jyr) • 
AvayKa^ei fie Kat ram a ofioXoyetv hrjXov otl rj efirj 

<f>avXoTT)<; • Kat cjypovrt^co, at) Kpaitcnov jj fiot ciyav* 
Kivhvvevco yap dirXw? ovhev ethevai. 

Kat irdvv aQvfiws e^cov airrjXOe Kat Karacppovrj" 
era? eavrov Kal vofiio~a$ rq> ovrt avhpanrohov etvai. 

40 IloXXot fiev ovv tcov ovtcd htaredevrcov vtto $G)Kpd- 
tou? ovKert avrtp TrposTjeaav, o!>? Kat fBXaKtorepovs 
evofiL^ev, o he EvOvhrjfios v7reXa/3ev ovk av aXXeoq 
avrjp afyoXoyos yeveo~6ai, et firj ore fiaXtara ScoKpa- 
rec crvvetrj • koI ovk direXeLTrejo en avrov, et firj n 

3ENCKK2NT02 A. J41 

-"-• »-~ 8e 

avajKatov eir) • evia 66 tcai ejaijaecro cov e/cetvos e7re- 
TrjSeveu * d 8e ©? eyvco avrov outg)? e^ovra^ r)ta<jra 
jjuev Sceraparrev, dvrXovcrTaTa Se /cat, cra^eaTara e^rj- 
yelro a re evo/jul^ev ecSevai $e2v teat eTTLTrjBevecv icpd- 
tlgtcl elvai. 


(Chiefly after the text of C. F. Hermann.) 







a I. Avros, d> <2WSo)i>, irapeyevov ^cofcparet, efceivrj 
rrj rjfiepa, rj to ^ap/jbafcov eiriev ev tg> Beafio)T7]pta) s 
rj aXKov tov rjtcovaas ; 

<f>AIA. Avrds, <5 E^efcpare^. 

ILA.. 1 1 ovv or) eanv arret, evrrev o avrjp irpo tov 
Oavarov ; icai 7r<S? ereXevra ; rjBeco? yap av eyco 
afcovaatfiL Kai yap ovre tcdv itoXltcov QXiacricov 
ovBeis ttovv ri err tyoD pia%ei ra vvv Adr)va^e^ ovre ns 

B £evos a<f>itcrai yjiovov avyyov e/ceWev, bans av rjfuv 
oa(f)6<? to ayyelXav oio$ r rjv rrepi tovtcov, ttXtjv ye 
Brj on (pap/jiafcov ttlcov airodavob • twv Be aXXcov ov- 
Sev ei%e (f>pa£etv, 

58 <&AIA. OvBe Tfl rrepi Tr)<$ Blkt]? apa errvOeaBe bv 
rpoirov eyevero ; 

EX. Nat, ravra pbkv r)/uuv rjyyecXe Tt<?, real eOav- 
fxa^ofxev ye on vraXai yevofievrjs avrrjS iroXXa* vare- 
pov (paiverao airoffavcov, tl ovv r\v rovro, co QatBcov ; 

HAAT0N02 <J>AIAON. 143 

&AIA. Tu%r) T£9 avrq), 00 Exe'fcpares, crvvefir) • 
6TL, X 6 r Y a P 7 V irporepata rrj^ SifCTjs r\ irpvpuva ecrrepb- 
fievv) rod irXolov b 66? Ar\Xov AOrjvaiob irepjirovcnv. 

EX. Tovro Se Sq t£ eanv ; 

&AIA. Tovrd eon to irXolov, ft)? fyacriv 'A0r)- 

VCllOL) €V ft) @7](T€VS 7TOT6 66? Kp7]T7jV TOV$ <)6? 67TT(X 

eiceivovs <pX ero * ar i<& v Ka ^ eacoae re icat, avros eo-o)07}. 
To) ovv AttoXXcdvl ev^avTO, ft)? \€J€TCUi T0T6, €L (TO)- B 
Beiev^ e/cacnov erovs Oecopiav cnra^eiv 669 ArjXov •- 77^ 
S/7 ae6 /tat z^£)z/ en e£ etcewov tear eviavrov ra> deep 
rrepuirovcriv. eirecBav ovv ap^covrai rrjs 6eo)pia<z, vofios 
ecrnv clvtoIs ev ra> XP 0V( P rovrcp fcaOapeveiv ttjv ttoXiv 
kcll hrjfioaia puySeva anroKTVVVvvai, irptv av 66? ArjXov 
a<pifcr)Tai to irXolov koL ttclXlv hevpo * rovro 8 swore 
ev rroXXa) XP 0V( P yiyverai, brav TV)(CDaLv avepioi airo- 
Xa(3dvre$ avrovs. apXV $ eo ~ TL T V^ Oecopia^^ eirethav . 
6 lepevs rov AnroXkayvo^ areyfrr] ttjv rrpvpbvav rov 
7tXolou • rovro S 6Tir^ez>, cocrrrep Xeyco^ rr) rrporepaia 
rr)<; SifCTjs yeyovos. Sia ravra icai rroXu^ xpovos eyev- 
ero ray ^ayfcparei ev ra> heapucorripicp puera^v tt}? 
Six?)? re fcac rov Oavarov. « 

II. EX. Tl Se Brj ra irepi avrov rov Oavarov, 
cw $>al8cov ; rcva rjv ra Xe^Oevra /ecu 7rpax@evra, kcli 
rives oi rrapayevopuevoi rcov ernrrfhei(ov ra> avBpi ; r/ 
ov/c eucov oi apxovres rrapeivai, aXK eprjpios ereXevra 
<pcXo)v ; 

&AIA. QuSapLcos, aXXa Trapr\o~av rive? teal 7roX- d 
Xol ye. 

EX. Tavra Srj iravra 7rpo6vpb7]67]Tt ft)? o~a(f)eo-raTa 
7]/uiv airayyelXat,, ei pi?] T6? croi ao-^oXca Tvy%avei 


&AIA. ' AXXa o"%oXa£co ye Kai Treipacrofiai vpulv 
8i7jyr]cracrdai • Kai yap ro fiefivrjadai HcoKparovs teat, 
avroy Xeyovra Kai aXXov atcovovra epuotye aei rrdv- 
rcov rjSiarov. 

EX. 'AXXa fiTjU, G) tfratScov, kcll tou? afcovao/jie- 
vovs ye tolovtovs erepovs eyeis • aXXa rreipco a>? av 
hvvT) aKpi^earara SieXdeiv rrdvra. 
E &AIA. Kai firjv eycoye Sav/maaia eiraOov rrapa- 
yevopuevos. ovre yap cos Oavarco rrapovra p,e avSpbs 
eirirrjheiov eXeos eicryei • evSai/ncov yap p.01 dvrjp ecfrai- 
vero, ch Eyexpares, /cat, rov rpoirov /cat rcov Xoycov, 
cos aBecos Kai yevvaicos ereXevra, ware fioi eicelvov 
rrapiorraaOai fivfi eis AiBov tovra avev deias pioipas 
tevai, aXXa Kaiceicre acpifcofievov ev rrpa\;eiv, eiirep ris 
59 ircoirore /cat aXXos. Bia Srj ravra ovBev rravv fxoi 
eXeeivov eiarjeii cos eiKos av So^eiev elvai rrapovri 
rrevQei • ovre av rjBovrj cos ev cpiXocrocjzia rjficov ovrcov, 
coarrep eicoOeifiev • Kai yap oi Xoyoi roiovroi rives 
rjaav • aXX areyvcos arorrov ri jjloi nraOos iraprjv Kai 
ris dr\67)s Kpdcris airo re rrjs rjSovrjs avy/ce/cpafievr) 
6/jlov teal arro rrjs Xvtttjs, evOvjiovpievcp on avriKa 
€k€lvos ejneXXe reXevrav. Kai rravres oi Trapovres 
ayeBdv ri ovrco Siexeifieda, ore puev yeXcovres, eviore 
he SaKpvovres, eh Se tj/jlcov Kai Biacpepovrcos, ArroX- 
XoScopos • olcrda yap rrov rov avBpa Kai rov rpoirov 
B avrov. 

EX. TIcos yap ov ; 

&AIA. 'Efcewds re roivvv rravrarracriv ovrco? etye, 
Kai avros eycoye ererapaypurjv Kai oi aXXoi. 

EX. Ervyov Se, cb 4>ai8cov, rive? rrapayevop.evoi ; 

&AIA. Ovr o? re Br) 6 AiroXXoBcopos rcov erriyco- 

<J>AIAX2N. , 145 

pioov iraprjv /eai 6 KpirofiovXos /eai o Trarrjp avrov 
\_KpiTcov~\y kcll en 'Epfjioye'vrjs zeal ^Eiriyevris zeal Aiayi- 
vrjs zeal 'Avriade'vrjs • rjv Be zeal KrrjaiTnros o Ilaia- 
vievs zeal Mevegevos /col aXXoi rives rcov emytopitov • 
IlXdrcov Se, olfJbai, rjcrdevei. 

EX. tievoi Be rives rraprjaav ; c 

$AIA. Nal, ^ifipiias re ye 6 ©rjffaios /ecu Kefirjs 
kcll ^aiBcoviBrjs^ zeal Meyapddev Ev/eXeiBr)s re /ecu 

' EX. Ti Be ; ^ Apiarnnros zeal KXeopiftporos rrape- 
yevovro ; 

<!>AIA. Ov Brjra* ev Alyivrj yap eXeyovro elvcu. 

EX. ( AXXos Be ris rraprjv ; 

&AIA. X^eBov ri olfjicii rovrovs rrapayeveadai. 

EX. Ti ovv Brj ; rives, </>???, rjaav oi Xoyoi ; . 

III. $AIA. 'Eyco aoi e% apXW ' 7raVTa Treipaao- 
ficu Bur]yy\(jaadai. . aei yap Brj zeai ras rrpoaOev rj/ue- 1> 
pas eicoOei/nev cf>oirav icai eyco /eai oi aXXoi rrapa rov 
Scofepdrrj, avKXeydpievoi ecodev eis ro Bi/cao-rrjpiov, ev 
go ieai rj Biter] eyevero • 7rXr}o~iov yap yjv rov Becr/Jbco- 
rrjpiov. irepiefxevofjiev ovv e/caarore, kcos avoi^Oeirj ro 
Seo-fjiayTripiov, Biarpi/3ovres pier aXXrjXcov • aveeoyero yap 
ov rrpcti • erreiBr] Be avoiyOeiv), eiarjeipev rrapa rov 
XcoKparr) /eai ra ttoXXo, Birjfiepevo/jiev pier avrov. /eai 
'Brj /eai roie nrpwl'airepov ^vveXeyrjfiev. rrj yap nrpo- 
repaia [rj/xe'pa] eireiBr) e%rjX6op,ev etc rov BeapicorTjpioy 
eairepas, eirvddpieOa on ro rrXolov eie ArjXov afyiypie- E 
vov eirj. rraprjyyeiXafjiev ovv aXXr]Xois r)ieeiv cos rrpcoiai- 
rara eis ro eicoOds, zeal rj/eo/jiev zeai rjplv e^eXdcov o 
Bvpcopos, bcrirep eicoOei vTratcoveiv, ehrev ewipieveiv /eai 
prj rrpdrepov rrapievai, kcos av avros /ceXevay • Xvovac 


yap, etf>V> 0i zvBeifa ScoKparr} icai TrapayyeXXovav 
bircos ay rrjBe ttj r\p:epa TeXevrrjar). ou ttoXvv B ovv 
yjpovov eTTicr^cov 7]tce k.cll e/ceXevev rjfids eicnevai, ei- 

60 aiovres ovv fcareXap,/3avofiev tov puev ^cofcparr) aprt 
XeXvpuevov, tt\v Be ^avdtmrrjV, yiyvcdcnceis jap, eyov- 
adv re to nratBiov avrov /cat 7rapafca07]fievrjv. cos 
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Characters : Timon, Zeus, Hermes, Plutus, Penia, Gnathonides, 
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cOcotos, <»9 eot/cev, oyrco ftapetav fccLTatfiepcov rrjv Bi/ceX- 

EPM. Out coat ptev etirelv, xp7]o~TQT7]<? eireTpttyev 8 
avTOv /cat (pcXavOpcoTTia /cat 6 irpos tovs Seopuevovs 
airavTas oltcTos, o)9 Se aXrjOel Xoya), dvoia /cat evr\6eta 
/cat a/cptata Trept tcov (fitXcov, b? ov avviet /copa^t /cat 
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/coSatpbcov /ceLpofjuevos to ryirap <ptXov$ elvat avTovs /cat 
eratpovs &>6to, vtt evvoia? Trj$ 7rpo<? avTov yatpovTas 
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01 TrXovrovvre? Trap avrov fjuaXa vrrepoTrriKcoq irapep- 
yovrai ovBe rovvofia, ei Tipucov kclXolto, eiBores. 
9 ZET2. Kal [Jb7]V ov irapoTTTeo^ dvrjp ovBe ajJbeXr)- 

T609 ' eiKOTCO? jap T}yaVaKT€l BvCTTV^COV • €7T6i kal 

bfJioia 7roir\crofjb€V to&9 fcaraparoi? KoXatjiv eKeivoi? em- 
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Trior'ara Kavcravros rjfiiv em tcov ftcopbcov • en yovv ev 
rais picri rrjv Kvltrav avrcov €^co. ttXtjv vtt cKJ%oXias 

T€ Kai 0Opv/3oV TToXXoV TCOV eTTlOpKOWTCOV KCLI fiia^O- 

fievcov teat dprra^ovrcov^ en Be Kai cfidftov tov irapa 
tS>v lepocrvXovvrcov — nroXXoi jap ovroi Kal Bvacpv- 
XaKTOL Kai ovBe err oXiyov Kara five ai r\plv ecf)iao~i — 
jroXvv rjhrj yjpovov ovBe aTre/3Xe\}ra e? rrjv Attiktjv, 
Kai pbaXicrTa e% ov cpiXoabcfua Kai Xoycov epiBes eire- 
TroXaaav avrois • fjbayofievcov yap irpos aXXrjXovs Kai 
K€KpayoToov ovSe erraxoveiv earn, tcov evyoav • coare rj 
eTTi/Bvcra/JLevov yjpv) ra cbra KaOrjaOai }] eTriTpi(3rjvai 
Trpos avrcov , aperrjv riva Kai acre*) par a Kal Xrjpovs 
fxeyaXrj rjj <f)covj) avveipovrcov. Bia ravra toi Kal 
rovrov afieXrjdrjvai crvveftt) TTpos 7]fj<cov ov cpavXov bvra. 
10 6/xft)? Be tov UXovrov^ w Epfirj, irapaXa/Scov arriQi 
Trap avTov KaTa Ta^o? • ayeTco Be 6 IlXovros Kal 
tov 0r)cravpov fxe6 avrov Kal fjbeveTcocrav afjucpco irapa 
tco Ti/mcovi fJbrjBe aTraXXarrecrdcocrav ovrco paBicos, kclv 
on [laXioTa vtto ^prjarorrjro^ av0i$ €k8icok7) avrov? 
ttjs oiKia?. irepi Be tcov koXukcov eKeivcov Kai rrjs 
ayjupicrria?^ rjv erreBei^avro rrpos avrov, Kai av0i$ fxev 
cTKeyfrojuiai Kal Biktjv Bcoctovctiv, eTreiBav tov Kepavvov 
eTTiaKevaaco * Kareayjuevai yap avrov Kal airecrroiico- 
jMevau eicrl Bvo aKTlves ai fieyicrTai, prrore (piXorifAore- 
pcfp rjKovriaa rrpcpTjv eTrl rov crocpicrTrjv ' ) Avd^ayopav, 

V. T1M12N 8-13. 183 

o? eireide tov$ 6{ii\7)Ta$ firjBe oXcos elvai rj/jias tou? 
Oeovs. aX)C e/cetvov fikv $L7ifjLapTov, — virepea^e ydp 
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ev roaovrcp teal avrrj rtficopla earai clvtols, ec vrrep- 


EPM. Olov rjv to fieya tcetcpayevai /cat oyXiqpov 11 
elvat Kav dpaavv. ov rol$ BitcaioXoyovcri /jlovols, aXXa 
/cat tol$ evyoixevoLS rovro xprjcr l/aov • iBov ye toi av- 
rifca puaXa ttXqvcfios etc rrevecrrarov /caraarrjaerai 
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^>o)9, eTt av ecrfcarrrev afieXovpievos. 

IIAOTT. 'AXX* eyco ov/c av drreXOoipLi^ to Zed, 
Trap avrov. t 

ZETS. Aia Ti) o) dpcare IlXovre, /cac ravra e/jiov 
tceXevaavTos ; 

IIAOTT. f/ 0n vrj Ala vftpt^ev eU e/jue fcal e%e<fid- 12 
pet Kai €9 7roXXa tear € fie pt^e teat Tavra nrarpepov au- 
ra (j)lXov ovra, /cat pLovovovyj, Bt/cpavots e^ecoOec fie 
rrjs octcca? tcaOairep 01 to irvp etc rebv yeipwv airop- 
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BityOepav Trap avrfjs Xa/Sovre? /cac Bc/ceXXav ayairarco^ 
aav aOXtoc rerrapas 0/30X0U9 airocpepovres, ol Se/cara- 
Xavrov; Boopea? apueXrjic rrpo'iepLevot. 

ZETS. OvBev en roiovrov 6 Tcjucov epydcrerai 13 


irepb ere * iravv yap aviov rj StfceXXa TreTrabhayojyrjrcev, 
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ere avii ttj$ irevbas tt poai peto uai. crv fxevrot iravv 
pbeptybpLOipos elvai pcob So/e€69, 09 vvv pep top Tiponva 
airia, Stdri erob Ta9 6vpa$ avaireraaa^ rj^tei irepivo- 
arelv eXevdepcos ovre awoKXebcop ovre ^tjXotvttcop • 
aXXore Se tovvclvtlov r/yava/cfecs tcara tcop ttXovglcov 
KaraiceicXelaOai Xeyojp 777)09 avrcop vtto pLo^XobS tcai 
tcXeiai Kai (TTjpeLcov e7Tb/3oXa7$, &>9 /x?;Se irapaKV^rab 

O~0b 69 TO (f}00$ SvVCLTOV 6LVCII. TaVTd yOVP aTTCoSupOV 

777)09 JjL6 airoirviyecxQai Xeyoyv ev 7roXXa> ray ctkotg) • 
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irXecos, avvecnraiccDS tovs SaKTvXovs 777209 to e9o<$ tcop 
Xoyccrpicbv Kab aTroSpacrecrdab airebXcop, eu Ktxipov Xa/3otOj 
Trap avrcov • . Kac oXo>9 5 to irpaypa vnepoeivov eboKet 
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TratSaycoyoLS apaTpe(j>opepov v T<p Tokg> Kab tw Aoybcrpucp. 
14 aronva yovv irocelv ecfiaaKes avTOvs epcovTas puev et<? 
v7repf3oXr)p, e^op he airoXavecv ov ToX/ucovTas, ovhe eir 
aSeia? xpeopepovs tco epcoTL Kvptovs ye oPTas, aXXa 
(pvXaTTetv eyprjyopoTas, €9 to a^jjuetov Kai top fio-^Xop 
acrKapSajbLVKTi ftXeiropTas, iKapr]P airoXavacp obopbepov? 
ov to avTovs anroXavebV eyew, aXXa to p^rjBePb pueTa- 
hthopab T779 aTroXavaecDS, KaOairep ttjp ep ttj cpdrpj) 
Kvva pbrjTe avTrjP eaObovcrap tcop KpbOcop yurfre toj birircp 
iretvcoPTb eiriTpeTrovaap. Kai irpoaeTb ye Kai KaTeye- 
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TaTOP avTovs ^tjXotvttovptcop, ayvoovpTcop he C09 KaTa- 

paTQS ObKeT7}5 7] QbKOPOpLOS TTeDoTpbty V7T€bCrbO)P XaBpabo)? 

epbTrapobPiqaei top KaKoSab/.iopa Kai avepaaTOP heo-iroT^p 

V. TIMS2N 13-18. 285 

Trpos apuavpov n /cat, purcpOGTopiov Xv^yiBiov /cac Bcyfra- 
Xeov 6pvaXXcBiov enraypvirvelv eacras Tot? to/cocs. 7r<w9 
ovv ovk aSi/ca ravra, iraXac pcev etcetva acTcao~9ac^ vvv 
Be T&) Tipccevc to* evavTca etrcKaXecv ; 

UAOTT. Kal firjv el ye TaXrjOe? e^era^oi?, apfyco 15 
aoc evXoya Bo^co irocelv • tov re yap Tipcovos to iravv 
tovto avecpcevov apeXes icac ovk evvocKov &w irpos epce 
61/cotcds av BoKocr), tov$ re av fcaTcLKkeio-Tov ev Ovpacs 
kcll gkotco (pvXaTTOvras, o7Tft>9 - avTOis ira^VTepos yevoc- 
purjv /cac rrrcpeXr^ /cac virepoyKO^ eircpceXovpLevovs, ovre 
nrpoaairTopevgv^ avTOvs ovre €? to <fico<; TTpoayovTas, 

ft>? pL7]8e O(j)0€C7)V 7T£>0<? TCVO?, UVOTjTOVS eVOpCC^OV elvaC 

aXXcp tcvc tcov evBacpuovcov pe KaTaXcirovTes. ovt ovv 16 
e/ceivovs ovre tovs iravv ir po%ecpov<$ ecs epe tovtovs 
eTratvct), aXXa rou?, oirep apuiTov eaTC, peTpov e7rc6r\- 

<J0VTCL$ TCp TTpaypbaTl KCLI p7]T€ aCpefjopceVOV? TO TTapd- 
TTCLV p7]T6 TT pOTjGOpeVOV^ TO 0X0V TCLVTO, fCdl 17 

clvtos ayavafCTco irpos evccov pcev aTcpcos XaKTC^opcevo? 
/cac XafyvTTopuevos teat e^avTXovpevos, vir ivccov Be 
coairep GTiypLdTias BpanreTT)? 7re7reBr}iuevo<;. 

ZET^. Tc ovv ayavatcTels kclt avTcov ; BcBoacrc 18 
yap apbcpco kcxXtjv Trp) Bcktjv ol puev aiairep 6 TavTaXos 
clttotoi Kac ayevGToi /cac %rjpoi to o~Topa, eTTCKe^rjvoTe^ 
povov to) xpvGLay, ol Be fcadairep o <&ivev$ cltto ttJ? 
<ftapvyyos ttjv Tpocfrrjv viro tcov Apirvicov acpaLpovpevot, 
aXX ciTTiOi rjBrj acocppoveaTepa) irapa iroXv tco TiputavL 

UAOTT, Efcetvo? yap iroTe iravaeTai coairep etc 
tcocpivov TeTpvirrjpevov, TTpiv oXoos etcrpvrjval pue, tcaTa 


(T7rovSr]v ~e%avTXcov, <f>6a<rai /3ovXo/uevos ttjv e7nppor)v, 
pr) virepavTXos tairecrcov eTTiKXvcrco avTov ; cooTe e? 
tov tcov AavcCiBcov ttlOov vSpo<pop?]aetv fiot Sokco kclc 
fiarrjv eTravrXi'jaeiv, tov kvtovs fir) aTeyovTos, aXXa 
Trpiv eicrpvrjvai, a%eBov eK^vOrjaofievov tov eiuppeov- 
T09 • ovtcos evpvTepov to TTpos tt)v e/c^vatv Ke^qvos 


19 ZET£. OvKOVV €L (JUT) €p.<fipa%€Tai TO Ke^JJVOS TOVTO 

kcli 6? to antral^ avaireTTTafievov, eK^vdevTOS ev /3pa%€i 
gov paBicos evprpei tt)v Btobdepav av8is kcli tt)v BiKeX- 
Xav ev Trj Tpvyi tov ttlOov. aXX airiTe rjBrj kcll 
irXovTitpTG avTOv • ov Be fie/jLvrjao, co Epfir), eTravicov 
nrpos rjfjuas ayeiv tovs KvkXcottcls eK ty)s Altvtjs, ottos 
tov Kepavvov aKovrjcravTes eTTicTKevacrcocTiv • cos r)Brj ye 
TeQt)y\ievov avTov Berjcrofieda. 

20 EPM. TlpoCcofiev, ch IIXouTe. tl tovto ; vttogkcl- 
%ets ; eXeXrjOets /^e, co yevvaBa, ov ~TV<f>Xos /ulovov, aXXa 
kcll ycoXos cov. 

I1AOTT. Ovk aei tovto, co Ep/nrj, aXX ottotclv 
fiev airico nrapa Tiva TreyLc\>Qeis vtto tov Alos, ovk olB 
ottcos fipaBvs el/bit kcli yuiXos afufioTepois, cos fioXts 
TeXelv cttI to Tepp<a, TrpoyrjpacravTos eviOTe tov irepi- 
fievovTOs, ottotclv Be airaSXaTTecrSai Bey, ttttjvov btyeL, 
ttoXv tcov oveipcov coKVTepov • afia yovv eireoev rj 
vGTrXrjy^ Kayco rjBrj avaK7)pvTT0fxat veviKrjKCOs, wnep- 
TrrjBrjaas to cttciBlov ovBe lBovtcov eviOTe tcov OeciTcov. 

EPM. Ovk aXr}6r) ravTa cfyrjs • xyco Se tol ttoX- 
Xovs civ ei7T€LV e^oc/ml Got yOes fxev ovBe o/3oXov, cocTTe 
7Tpcao~6ac fipo^ov, eayrjfcoTas, ac\>vco Be T7]f±epov ttXov- 
glovs kcu TToXvTeXels eTTC XevKOv ^evyovs e^eXavvovTas, 
ols ovBe kclv ovos virrjp^e ttcottot6 • kcll o/jLcos TTopcpvpoc 

V. TIMQN 18-23. Jg^ 

fcac ypvaoyeipe^ irepiepyovrai ovB avroi irLcrrevovre';^, 
olfjuat, on fJL7] ovap irXovrovcnv. 

IIAOTT. Erepolop tout eanp^ d) Epfjir}, icai ov%e 21 
•70Z9 efjLCLvrov TTocri fiaBi^co Tore, ovBe 6 Zev$, aXX 6 
TIXovtcov airoareXXei pue 'Trap clvtovs are 7tXovtoBott}s 
Kai pbeyaXoBcopos Kai auros cop • BtjXoI yovp kcll tco 
ovofjLCLTt. €7T€i$av TOLvvv pbeTOLKiaBrjpai Berj pe 7rap 
erepov 777309 erepop, e? heXrrov epfiaXovTes pe kccl Kara- 
crrjiJurivapLevoi eTrtpLeXcos (popaBrjp apayuevoi pLeratcopbi^ovaL • 
fcac fiev veKpos ep aKoreivcp irov ttj$ ocKias irpoKei- 
rai virep ra yovara nraXcua ttj qBovtj crKeirofjuevo^^ 
irepipaxrjTOS ral$ yaXals^ epue Be oi eTreXiucrapTes ev 
rrj ayopa irepipuevovac KeyrjPOTes coairep tt\p yeXiBopa 
irpoaTrejOjievTjv rerpiyores ol veorroi. eireihav Be to 22 
crrjpelov afyaipedfi Kai to Xivov evTpLr)6y Kai rj SeA/ro? 
avot^jdrj Kai avaKrjpvj(6r] puov 6 tcaivos BecnroTT]^ y]tol 
avyyepr\<$ T£9 rj KoXa'^ rj /caTawvycov ocfcerr}? e/c iraiBitccov 
Ttptos, vire^vprjfjLevos gtl ttjp yvadov, ovtl ttolklXcov Kai 
iravToBaiTOLiV tjBovgjv, a? r]Br) eijcopos cop VTrrjperijaep av- 
T(p 3 pueya to paaOcopba yevvaios airoXaftcDP, exelvo^ 
(lev, bans av fj 7tot6, dpTraaapLevos pie avrfj BeXrw 6ec 
4>epC0v avTi tov rew? Ilvppiov r/ ApopLcovos tj Tb(3iov 
MeyaxXrjs rj Meyafivtps r) Tlpcorap^oq pceTOPopacrdeis, 
tovs parrjv Ke^nqpora^ exeivovs eh aXXrjXov? uTrofiXe- 
Trop'vas /caraXcircov aXr)0e<; ayovra? to 7reV#o9, oiop 
avTOv$ 6vvvo$ eK p^vyov tt}$, crayr\v<Y)<$ Bie<fivyep ovk 
oXiyop to BeXeap KaTavnaiP. 6 Be efiireacov d@poo$ ei$ 23 
ep,e cnretpoKaXos Kai TrayvBeppos avOpcoiros, en 'ttjv 
ireBrjp 7re<f)ptKco<; Kai ei irapicdv pbacrTt^eie r^?, opOiov 
€(j)icrTa$ to ou<? Kai top pbvXcova oxiTrep to ApaKTOpov 
nrpoo~Kvvcop ovKeri (poprjTos eo~Tb T0Z9 evrvyyavovaiv^ 


aXXa tovs Te eXevBepovs vfipi^ec fcai tovs 6{ioBovXov$ 


cttlV) aypc av tj e? iroppuBLOP ti efxirecrcov rj nnroTpo- 
<j)ia$ €7TL0v{ir}(ra<; 7) /coXa^c rrrapaBovs eavrop opupvovaLP 
rj firjv evfiopcf)OT6pop fiev Ntpeco^ elvai avrop, evyepe- 
arepop Be tov Ketcpoiros rj KoBpov, <rvv€T(OT€pop Be tov 
OBvcrcrecDS) TrXovcncorepov Be avpapua Kpocacop eiacaL- 
Be/ca, ep cucapel tov ypopov aBXtos etcyei) ra /car 
cXiyop etc ttoXXcop euiopKi^P tcai dpiraycop tcai irapovp- 
yicop avpeiXeyfxepa. 

24 EPM. Air a rrov cryeBop (py? ra yiypdfiepa • otto- 
rap cS' ovp avTOTrovs fiaBifys, 7r<£? ovtco TvcfiXos cop 
evpLcnceis tt)p oBop ; rj itco^ Biayiypcoo-fcets ecj> ovs ap 
ere 6 Zevs diroaTeiXT] Kpipas elpai tov irXovrelp 
a%iov$ ; 

UAOTT. Ocec yap evpio-KeiP pue olnpes even ; fia 
top Ala ov irdpv • ov yap ap ApLarecBrjp KaraXnrcop 
^Iiriropoccp Kal KaXXia Trpocryecp tcai iroXXot? aXXois 
AOrjpaccop ovBe oftoXov afyois. 

EPM. IIXr)p dXXa Ti irpaTTeis tear air eii$6ei<$ ; 

UAOTT. Apo) /cat, fedrco irXapcofiat, ireptpoarcop, 
ayjpi ap Xa6(o tvpi epuveacop • o Be, octtj? ap irpcoTos 
fioi irepLTvyrj^ airayaycop Trap avrop eyei, ere top 
Ep/jbrjp eirt tgs) irapaXoyco tov icepBovs irpocrKVPCop. 

25 EPM. Ov/covp e^r)7rdrrjTai 6 Zevs oiofxepos ere 
Kara to avTco Bokovp TrXovTL^eiP baov<$ ap oirjrai tov 
rrXovrelv a\;iov<$ ; 

IIAOTT. Kal fiaXa Bifcatco^, coyaOe^ 6? ye tv(J>Xop 
opt a ecBcos e7refi7rep dpa£rjT7]croPTa BvaevpeTOP ovtco 
yprjfjba /cat irpo ttoXXov e/cXeXoiTros etc tov /3iov, birep 
oi>B' 6 Avytcevs av e^evpoi paBim, dfiavpov ovtco nai 

V. TIMfiN 23-27. 189 

fwcpov ov. Toiyapovv are toov fiev ayaOwv oXcycov 
ovtcdV) irovrjpwv he nrXeiGTCDv ev TaZ? TroXecn, TO ITCLV 
eire^ovTcov, paov €9 tou? tolovtovs efxiriTTTW irepucov 
fcai, aayqvevofjbat nrpos clvt&v. 

EPM. Elra 7r&)9, eirethdv KcndkLTTrjS avrovs, pa- 
Bicos (f)€vy€L<; ov/c echo)? ttjv 6Sov ; 

IIAOTT. O^vhep/cr)*? tote ttco? tcai aprnrovs ytyvo- 
fiai irpcx; /uLovov tov fcaipov ttjs (f>vyr}<?. 

EPM. Etc Sy) fiot Kav tovto airoKptvav, 7ra>? 26 
Tvcf)\o<; wv^ €Lpr)cr€Tat yap, Kav nrpoGeTV &)%/oo? fcal 
fiapvs etc toIv GKeXolv togovtovs epa<jTa<$ e%W, co<tt6 
iravTas anrofiXeTrevv 69 ere, Kav TvyovTa^ fiev evhavfio- 
velv oveoOav, ev he amoTvyoiev, ov/c aveyeoQav £aWa<? ; 
olha yovv Tivas ovk oXvyovs civtcov ovtco crov hvGepco- 
ra? bvTas, ctxxre feat 69 /3a0vKrjTea ttovtov cjyepovTe? 
eppv^rav avTov? Kav ireTpcov /caT rjXtfiaTcav virepopa- 
cQai VO/jLl£oVT€$ V7TO GOV, 0TL7T€p Ovhe TTjV apyr\v ecopas 

clvtovs. irXrjv aXXa tcai ov av ev olha otv 6fioXoyr r 
aeias, el tl gvvlt)? aavTQV, tcopvftavTiav clvtqvs epce- 
fxevw tolovtg) €7rvfiefir)voTa<;. 

IIAOTT. Ol'ev yap toiovtov ofo? evfii opaaOai 2T 
civtovs, ycoXov rj TvcpXov rj oaa aXha fiot irpoGeGTiv ; 

EPM. 'AXXa tto)?, o) IIXovTe, el fir) Tv<f>Xol real 
avTou iravTes eiovv ; 

IIAOTT. Ov TV<f)Xol, & apicrTe, aXX* r) ayvota 
Kav 7] airaTT], aWep vvv tcaTeyovai to, iravTa, eiriGKia- 
fyvovv avTovs • eTi he Kav auT09, 009 fir) iravrairaaiv 
ctjjLopfyos e'Lrjv, irpoocoTTeiov tl epaafiiwTaTov Trepidefievos, 
hvd^pvoov fcal XcBoKoXXrjToVi teal 7roc/aXa evhvs ev- 
Tvy^dpco avTols • ol Be avT07rpoGco7rov oiofievoi opav 
to tcaXXos epwGL real diroXXvinac fir) Tvy ydvovTes. &)9 


ei ye ta? avToh oXov diroyvfAVcocras eirehei^e fie, BrjXov 
to? fcareytsyvcoafcov av avrcov afi/3Xvo)TTOVTe^ tcl ttjXl- 
kclvtcl teat epoovTes avepacrrcov icai ap-opcpcov Trpay/naTcov. 

28 EPM. Tl ovv otl /cat ev avrw rjBr] tco irXovTelv 

'J6VO/jL6VOC KOLb TO TTpOCTCOTreloV aVTOL 7T€pt,06/JL€VO(, €Tl 

e^airaTcovTat^ koi rjv Ti? afyaiprjTai avrovs, Oclttov av 
ttjv KecpaXrjv rj to TrpoacDTrelov Trpooivio ; ov yap orj 
Kai tot€ ayvoecv €LfCO$ avTovs &)<? eTTiyjpioTOS t] evfiop- 
<pia eaTLV, evhoOev Ta iravTa opcovTas. 

IIAOTT. Ovk oXtya, i> 'Ep/jbrj, Kai 7rpo? tovto 
fjLOL Gwaywvi^Tai. 

EPM. Ta woia ; 

IIAOTT. ^EiretBdv tl$ evTvywv to TrpwTov avaire- 
Tao~a<z tjjv Ovpav eaSe^rjTac fie, crvp/KapeiaepyeTai fieT 
e/uov Xa0o)v 6 Tvcfios /cal rj avota icai rj fxeyaXav^ca 
fcal [laXaKia kcu, vfipis Kat, airaTT] Kat ' aXX aTTa 
fJLvpca • vtto Brj tovtcov airavTcov KaTa\r)cf>0€i<z tt)v 
ifrv)£r)V 6avjjLa%6L Te Ta ov 0avjmao~Ta Kai opeyeTai 
tcov (fievKTcov KUjjbe top nravTcov eKeivcov iraTepa tcov 


tgov, Kai iravTa TrpoTepov r rra0oi av rj epue TTpoeo-Qai 

e / s/ 

uirofieiveiev av. 

29 EPM, e f2<; Se Xeto? el, ch IIXovT6y Kai oXta0rjpo^ 
Kat §vo~KaToyo<$ Kai BtacpevKTLKos, ovBe/ntav avTiXa/3r)v 
m-ape^pfjbevo^ fiefiaiav, aX)C coairep ai eyyeXeis rj ol 
o<fiec$ Sta tcov BaKTvXcov Bpa7T€TeveL<; ovk olB^ bircos • 
rj Ilevta B e/jbiraXiv l^coBtjs Te Kat evXaj3r]<z Kat fiupca 
Ta ayKLcrTpa eKirefyvKOTa e£ airavTos tov crcojiaTO^ 
e^ovaa^ &V TrXiqaiavavTas ev0vs e^ea0ai Kat, /bur} e^eiv 
paBicos aTroXv0rjvai. aXXa fiera^v <pXvapovvTa<$ r][ia$ 
irpayfia r}8r) ov jMKpov 8ieXa0e* 

V. TIMGN 27-32. " J9J 

IIAOTT. To iroiov; 

EPM. f Otl top Grjcravpop ovfc €7rr]yaydp.€0a, oiirep 
eSec /LLaXcara. 

IIAOTT, Sdppei tovtov ye eveica • ev rrj yrj au- 30 
top aei KaTaKiTTCOV apep^opbat irap iz/xa? €7ri,(Tfcr)'yras 
€V($ov jjieveiv eirucXeicrafJLepov ttjp dvpav, avotyeuv Be 
fiTjSevc, rjp fir) e/nov a/covar) j3or)aaPTo<;. 

EPM. OvKOVP 67rc/3aiVQ){A€V 7]StJ TTjS AtTLKT}^ ' KCtl 

fjboi e7rov e%ofiepo<? rrjs %Xa{ivSo<i f ci^pc av irpos ttjp 
eaycuriap a<^iKWfxai. 

IIAOTT \ Ev Troieis, co 'Epfxrjy ^et pay coy cop * iirel 
7]v ye airoXLTTTj^ fie, 'TirepfioXq) Taya rj KXecopL €fi7re- 
crov/jLCU TreptvOGTcev. aXXa t^? o tyo(po<; OVTOS €<TTt, 
KaOairep atBrjpov 7rpos \l6ov ; 

EPM.. TipLCQV ovtogl cncaiTTei ttXtjctlop opeivov 31 
kcll vttoXlOop yrjStop. TrcLTral, icai 7] Tlepca Trapeart 
/cat 6 Hovos eKelvos, rj Kaprepta re icat r\ Xofyia /cal 
7] AvBpeia nac o tolovtos o^Xo? tcop vtto toj Aifico 
TarTOfievcov amavrcov^ iroXv afieipov? tcop acop Sopv(f>d- 

IIAOTT. Tt ovp ovic ciTraXXaTTofieda, co 'Epfirj, 
rrjp ra^tarrjP ; ov yap ap ti rjfiecs Bpacraifiep a£id- 
Xoyop 7rpo? ap$pa vrro ttjXi/covtov arpaioTre^ov irepie- 

EPM. AXXcos eSotje tc5 Ah • fir) airoBeiXicofiep 


IIEN. Hoi tovtop airayei^, co ApyeifyopTa yet- 32 
paycoycop ; 


TOU AlO$. 



eyco fca/ccos eyovra vtto ttj? Tpvcfyfjs 7rapaXa(3ovo-a, 
TovTotorl trapaBovcra, rfj Xofyca kccl to> flopcp, yev- 
valov dpBpa kcli ttoXXov a^tov aireBet^a ; out to? apa 
€V/cara(f)popr)ro<; vpuiv r\ TJevia ookco kcli evaBiKTjTos 
coaO b julopop KTTjfJia elypp afyaipeiaOai /ze, atcpificos 
tt^oo? aperrjp e^ecpyacrfiepop, iv avdis 6 UXovtos nrapa- 
\aj3cov avrov Tj3pec kcll Tvcj)(p ey^eipLaa^^ o/jlolop to) 
TraXai, puaXOaKOP Kat ayevvrj kcli aporjrop airo<f>r]vas 
clttoBg) iraXiP efioi patcos rjBr] yeyeprjfievop ; 
EPM. EBo^e ravra, &> Ttevia, tco All. 

33 IIEN. Airepyofxai • zeal vfiels Be, co Hove kcli 
£o(f>ia kcli oi Xolttoi, aKoXovOetre fioc. ovio<; Be iaya 
etaerac oiav fie ovaav cnroXec^rei, ayadrjp avpepyop 
teal SlBuo-kuXov rwy apicrrcov, fj gvpcdp vyieipo? fiev 
to acofia, eppcoftevos Be rrjv ypcofirjp BiereXeaev, avBpos 
fitov £(ov Kat, 7rpo<? avrov airo^Xeircop, ra Be irepura 
km nroXXa Tama, coo~7rep eariv^ aXXoipia vTroXap,- 
{3 dp cop. 

EPNT, Airep^ovrai * rjfjbels Be irpoatayfiev avTa>. 

34 TIM. T/z/e? eare, o* Kardparoc ; ?; tl fiovXofievoi 
Bevpo 7]K€T€ dvBpa epydrrjp kcli pLiado^opov evo%Xr r 
covTes ; dXX* ov %aipovT€<; dartre \xiapoi Trdvres bvres • 
eyco yap v/uas clvtikcl puaXa fiaXXcop rats fiooXocs Kat 
Tot? XlOois avpTpf^rco. 

EPM. Mr)BctfjLW<;, co Tlficov, jjlt] fiaXj]? • ov yap 
dvOpcoirovs opra? fiaXeis, aXX eyco jaep Epfirj^ upa, 
ovrocrl Be 6 IIXovto? • eirepL'^re Be o Zevs eiraKovaas 
tcop evycop. ooorre aya8rj tv^tj Be^ov top oX(3gp citto- 


TIM. Kal v/neU ol/ubd>^ea0e rjBrj Kalroi 6eoi wre?, 
g>? (pare • irdvTas yap ap,a Kat apOpcdirovs Kau Qcovs 

V. TIM12N 32-36. J93 

jxicro)^ tovtovc Se tov TvepXov, octtis av j), kcll ennpi- 
* tyeiv fioc 8o/ca) rrj SifceXXr). 

IIAOTT. ATrLCdfJieV) to < Ep{ir), Trpo? tov Aio$ • 
fieXay^oXav yap 6 avdpcoTrds jjlol ov fieTptoos Bofcel, 
[JbT] tl kclkov arreXOco it poo-Xa/Soov. 

EPM. MrjSev atcaLOV) cb Tlfjuayv^ aXXa to iravv 35 
tovto aypiov teal Tpayy KaTaftaXcov irpoTeivas tco X 6 ^P e 
\a/uj3av6 ttjv ayadrjis Tv^rjv kcli 7tXovt6c iraXiv kcli 
lctQl ABiqvaicdv to, 7rpa>Ta /cat, virepopa tcov a^apiaTCdv 
etceuvwv fiovos auTO<? evSaifiovcov. 

TIM. OuSev vficov Beofiai • fir) evo")(XelTe /jloi, • 

L/cavos €/jlol ttXovtos rj BifceXXa • Ttt S aXXa evSaLfio- 

vecrTaTos ei/JLLi {irjSevds fioi TrXrjo-id^ovTO?* 

EPM. Outgo?, a> rav, clttclvO pennons ; 

Tovbe (foepcD Alt jivdov drrrji/ea re Kparepov re_; 

/cat /jufjv eitcos rjv fiicravOpcoirov fiev elvai ere Toaavra 
vtt (ivtgov Seiva nreirovOoTa, pacroOeov Be {irjBafjicos, ov- 
to)? eTTifjceXov/iievcov crov tcov decov. 

TIM. AXXa aou fiev, d> e Epp,r), tcai tco Ail TrXet- 36 

CTT7) X<lplS Trj<? €7Tl{A6X€iaS f TOVTOVC Be TOV UXOVTOV 

ovk av Xa/3oL/mi. 

EPM. Tl Bj ; 

TIM. Otu Kao iraXai fxvpicov /noi fcatccov atTio? 
outo? /caTecrTT) KoXa^L T€ irapaSovs teal eirifSouXous 
eirayaycov icat /lugos eireyeipa? tcau 7]BvTra0eca Biacp- 
Oetpa? Kao e7rccf>0ovov airoc^-qva^^ TeXos Be acfivco Kara- 


Be Ilevca ttovols fie toZ? avBptKcoTaTois KaTayvjubvaaaaa 
fcai jieT aX^Oeta^ /cat irapprjata^ TrpoaopLiXovaa Ta Te 
avayicaia icafivovTi Trapeze icat tcov ttoXXcov etcetveov 
tcaTacfipovelv eiracBevev e£ avTov epuov Ta? eXirihas 

13 " 


aTraprrjO-aaa fioi tov fiiov kcil Setfja<ra octtia rjv 6 
ttXovtos o e/i-o?, ov ovre KoXa% Ocoirevcov ovre ctvko- 
cfravTrjs cpoftcov, ov Stj/jlo? Trapo%vv0€L$, ou/c efc/cXrjcrta- 
o~tj)$ yfrrjcpocpoprjcra^^ ov rvpavvos €Tn/3ov\€vcra<; acpeXe- 

37 aOac hvvaLT dv. eppcofievos TOLyapovv vtto tcov irovcov 
rov aypov tovtovl c^lXottovcos epya^ofievos, ovSev opcov 


irapa rrjs dLKeXX?}?. coare rrraXLvSpo/jsO?, co EpjuLr), 
airiOi rov IIXovtov airaycov tw All • epuoL he tovto 
L/cavov rjv, iravja^ avdpcoirovs rjfSrjSov ol/jLco%€lv Troiijcrai. 

EPM. M^SayU-co?, coyaOe • ov jap iravTes eLcrlv 
eTTLTr]heLOL 7rpo<? otficojrjv. dXX ea ra opyLXa ravra 
kcll /aeLpa/cLcoSr} kcil tov IIXovtov 7rapaXaj3e. ovtol 
a7roj3Xr}Ta ean ra Bcopa ra rrapa tov Alo<$. 

JJAOTT. BovXeL, co Tl/ucov, SLfcaLoXoyqacopLat Trpo<? 
ere ; rj ^aXeiravel^ fioc XeyovTL ; 

TIM. Aeye, firj fiaxpa fievTOL, firjhe fiera rrrpooi- 
fiLcov, coanrep ol eTCbTpLTTTOL prjropes • ave^ofxat. yap o~e 
oXljcl Xeyovra Slu tov Epfirjv tovtovl. 


ovrco TToXXa vtto gov KaTTjyoprjdevTa • ofico? he Spa el 
tl ere, &)? <£#?, r/hLKrjfca, b? tcov p,ev tjSlcttcov drravTcov 
aLTLos ctol KarecTTTjv, TLfJLTj^ KaL rrpoecpLas kcll arecpa- 
vcov KaL T77? aXX^? rpv$>r]$, TrepL^XeiTTO^ tg ko! aoL- 
Sl/jlos Bl epie rja9a Kal 7repLCTTrovhacTTo<; • €L he tl 
^aXeirov eK tcov KoXa/ccov ireirovOa^^ avaLTLos eyco ctol • 
juaXXov he avro? TjhLKr)fxaL tovto vtto crov, Slotl fie 
ovtcos utl/jLCOs vTTej3aXe^ avhpaoL KaTapdroLS eiraLVOvcri 
KaL KaTayorjTevovcrL KaL iravra Tpoirov eiTL$ovXevovcTi 
fjLOL ' KaL to ye TeXevralov ecprjada co? irpohihcoKa ere, 
TovvavTLov he avTOS eyKaXeaaLfiL ctol iravTa rpoirov 

V. TIMQN 36-41. ^95 

aireXaOeL? vtto gov icai em KecpaXrjv e^ooGdecs ttjs 
oifclas. Toiyapovv avTi pbaXatcrjs ^Xavcho^ ravrrjv rrjv 
Stcpde'pav r) TLficayrdTT} gov Tlevta TrepiTeQencev. coare 
fxaprvs Epfirjs ovtogl 7Ttt>9 aceTevov tov Ata /nrjfceO 
7]fC€iv nrapa ae ovrco Sva/mevcos fjuot irpOGevrjveypievov. 

EPM. AXXci vvv o/m?, o> IIXovTe, olos rjSr} yeye- 39 
vrjTai ; co(TT€ Oappcov GwSiaTpifie avra> • fcac gv fiev 
aKairre a>? e%e£? • gv he tov &7)<ravpov virayaye tj) 
StfceWT} ' vTraKOvcrerai yap epbftorjGavTt, goi. 

TIM. UetaieoVy co Eppur), /cat av6i$ nrXovT7]Teov 9 
tl yap av fcac iraOot T6?, 6ttot€ 01 6eoi /Bia^oivio ; 
ttXtjv bpa ye €ls oia pie it pay puai a epftaXXeis tov 
/cafcoSalpova, b? ^XP L v ^ v GvSaifioveGTara Scaycov %pv- 
crop ct(j)vco togoviov Xri'^rofiab ovhev aSLK7]o~a$ kcli to* 
aavTas (fipovTthas avahe^opuai. 

EPM. ^TiroaTrjBi^ a> Tijulcov, So epe, tcai ei yaXe- 40 
itov tovto tcai ovic olgtov ecrTLV, ottcds oi tcoXatces 
ercelvoi Siappaycoacv vtto tov <j)6ovov • eyco Be virep 
tt)v AItvtjv 69 tov ovpavov avaiTTr\Gopiai, 

IIAOTT. e O fiev cnreXi)Xv6eV) &>? hotcel • TeKfiai- 
popuat yap T7) eipeaia tcov TTTepoov • crv ce avTov 7repi- 
fieve • avaTrepb^co yap croi tov Orjaavpov aireXOwv • 
puaXXov he Trace. ere <f>r]fii, Orjaavpe %pvG0v, vira- 
kovgov TtpLcovc TovTcp'C icai Trapaa^es aeavTov aveXe- 
a6ai. aKCLTTTe^ <S Tipucov, /Badeta? fcaTacj^epcov. eyco 
he vfilv vTreKGTiqcropLaL. 

TIM. 'Aye, (S hi/ceXXa, vvv puot eirtppWGOV aeavTrjv 4L 
Kol fir] recipes etc tov fidOov? tov QrfGavpbv e? tov/jl- 
cfraves nrpoicaXovpbivri. d> Zev TepaGTie Kai (j)tXoi Kopv- 


T) ttov bvap TavTa eo~TL ; SeSca yovv pui] avOpaica? 


evpco apeypopuepos ' aXXa fjurjp ^pvcriop ecrrlv, emar]' 

fAOV) U7T€pV0pOV, /3dpV fCCLl T7]P TTpOGQ^LV UTrepjjhiaTOP. 

3 Q, xpv(T€, de^LcofjLa KahXtOTov ftporols ' 
acOofievov jap rrvp are htaTrpeirecs /cal Pv/CTcop teal 
jjieO r)p,epap. *eX9e, o) (pcXrare /cat epaafjucoraje. 
vvv ireiOopac ye /cat Aia irore yepeaOai yjpvaov • t*9 
yap ovfc av irapdepos avaireirTafjievoL^ row koXttols 
vrrehe^aro ovrco /caXop epao~TT]P Sia tou reyovs fcarap- 

42 peovra ; co McSa /cat Kpolae Kai ra ev AeX<f>ol<? 
avadr]fjbaTa co? ovhep apa rjre cos irpos Ti/juoopa teal 
top Ti/jlcdvos ttXovtop, eo ye ovhe 6 ftaaiXevs 6 ITep- 
awv Laos. o) hi/ceXXa /cac cpcXraTT] hc<j)0epa, v/jlcls puev 
ra> TLavL Tovrcp apa0elpac tcaXov • avros Be 77877 iraarav 
Trpcafievos rrjv eayanav, nrvpytov ocKohofMyaa/jiepos virep 
rov drjcravpou, pbovcp e/Jtoc c/capop ephcacTaaOac, top 
avrop /cal rdcfiop aTrodavoov e^ecp fxoc ho/cco. heho%0co 
Se ravra teal pepofioderrjorOco irpos top eircXocirop ftcop^ 
apec^ta nrpos anravTas /cat, aypcoaca /cat virepoyfrca • 

. (pcXos he v) £epo$ r] eracpos rj EXeov ftco/AO? v0Xo<? 
ttoXv? • /cat to oc/crecpai, oa/cpvoPTa r) eTrcfcouprjcrac 
heopepq* irapapofica /cac /caTaXvacs tcop eOcop * p,opr]pr]<$ 
he rj hcacTa fcadairep toIs Xv/cocs, /cac cpcXos eh Ti/ucop. 

43 oi Se ctXXoc irapres e^0poc teat €7rcj3ovXoc • real to 
TrpocrojjLtXrjaaL tcpc avTcop ficaa/ma • /cat rjp tivl chco 
fjiovop airocjypas rj rjpepa • /cac oXoos aphpcapTCOP Xc0c- 
pcop r] ^aXfcoyp piTjhep tj/jlcp hcacfrepercoaap • /cal /mrjre 
/C7]pv/ca he^cope0a nrap avTcop purjTe enrophas aTrevhoa- 
fieda • rj eprjjjiia he opos eoTco nrpos avTovs. (frvXeTai 
he /cat, <f>paTepe$ /cab hrjfioTaL /cac rj iraTpts avTr] 
tyv^pa /cal aPGKpeXrj ouopuaTa /cat aporjTCOP aphpayp 
<piXoTt,p,7]/LLaTa. TrXovreiTco he Ti/llcop (jlopos /cai wire- 

V. TIMON 41-45. \Q>J 

poparcd diravTcov feat, rpytparco puovos fca0 eavTOV, ko- 
Xafceia? kcll eiratvcdv (popTi/ccov aTrqWay/jLevos • tcai 


bpuopo?, efca? cov tgov aXXcov. icai a/rra^ eavrov Se^cco- 
aaadai BehoyOco, r}v Serj airoOavelv^ Kau. eavroj are<pavov 
eireveytcelv. kcll bvojaa fiev earco 6 Micrav6poo7ro$ r)8i- 44 
gtov, tov Tpoirov he yvcopLcrpLaTa hvcr/coXia tcai rpa- 
'XyTrj's /cat, GfcaiOTT]^ kch, opyrj kcil airavOpcoiTLa • ei^ he 
Tiva ihoipbi ev irvpc hcatpdetpo/jbevov Kat icaTacrftevvvvai 
acerevovTa, ttltty) tcao eXaicp Kaiaapevvvvai • tcao tjv 
Tiva tov -^ei/JLcbvo^ 6 TroTapos 7rapa<p€p7), 6 he Ta9 
^etjoa? opeycov avTcXafteaOat heyrao, codecv Kat tovtov 
ein fcecfiaXrjv fiaTTTi^ovTa, co<? fjirjhe avaicv^rat hvvrjdeir). 
ovto) yap av ttjv ccrrjv a7roXa/3otev. eicr7]y7]aaT0 tov 
vo/jlov Tificov E^eKpariSov KoWvrevs, eTre^frrjCpccrev ev 
rrj efCfcXrjaca Tificov 6 avTos. elev, ravra rjficv heho^Oco 
kcll avopifcco? e/Lijaevcofiev avrois. ttXt\v aXXa irepi 45 
ttoXXov av eTroirjaafJirjv arracn yvcopt/jta 7ra)<? ravra 
yeveodai, hion virepTrXovTco • ayyovr] yap av to 
Trpayfia yevotro avTols, Katrot tl tovto ; <pev tov 
Ttt^oi;?. iravTayoQev avvOeovat Ketcovipuevoi /cat irvev- 
criiteVTes, ov/c olSa o8ev ocrobpacvofievoL tov ^pvcriov. 
irorepov ovv em tov irayov tovtov avaj3a$ aTreXavvay 
avrovs rot? Xi6ols e£ vwepheljicov afcpof3oXity(JLevo$, rj 
to ye ToaovTov Trapavofjirjacopiev eccraira^ avTols oficXr}- 
aavTes, ft>? irXeov avicpVTO virepopcDfjuevot ; tovto olfiau 
Kat a/uecvov. cjcrre he^cofieda tjStj avrovs viroaTavTes. 
(pep chco, T£? 6 TrpcoTOS avTcov ovros e&Ti ; Tvadctivi- 
S779 o fcoXa^ 6 TrpcprfV epavov aLTr\cravTi fioc operas 
tov ftpoyov, ttlOovs oXovs Trap epuot TroXXaicis efiTj/ne- 
koos. aXX ev ye eirolrjaev acpifcofievos • ot/jico^eTai yap 
Trpo tcov aXXo)v. 


46 TNA&. Ovk eyco. eXeyov g)<$ ovk, afxeXiqoovai Tl- 
/jlcovos aya6ov avBpo? 01 6eoi ; yplpe Ti/uuov ev/iop- 


TIM. Nr) Aia /cat av ye, go TvaQwvlBr), yvirwv 
cnravToov fiopcoTare teat avOpconrcov €7r or purr or are. 

TNA0. Aeu (jyiXoatccojuLjuLcov av ye • aXXct ttov to 
avjjuiroaiov ; co$ icaivov tl aoi aa/xa tcov veoBiBafCTcov 
SiOypa/uificov tjuco kojjlc^cov. 

TIM. Kai /jltjv eXeyeta ye aarj fiaXa TreptiraOcos 
vtto ravTT) ttj BiKeXXrj. 

TNAS. Tc tovto ; tracecs, 6) TifjLGov ; fiaprvpo- 
/jlcu • go HpaicXeLS) lov wv, Trpoa/caXovfiai ae rpav- 
fiaro? ecs Apeiov irayov. 

TIM. Kai /jLtjv rjv ye fitfcpov en ftpaBwr}?, <f)ovov 
Taya irpoaiceicXriaopai. 

TNA&. M7)8a[iQ)s ' aXXa av ye ttcivioos to Tpav/xa 
taaai fiiKpov eir itt aa as ^tov yjpvaiov • Beivcos yap 
layaijmov eaTi to (frapjuaKov. 

TIM. ' Etl yap [level? ; 

TNA&. ATreifjbt • av Be ov yaipr\aev$ ovtco cfccub? 
e/c %pr)aTov yevofievos. 

47 TIM. Tls ovtos eaTiv o nrpoaioov, 6 avacf)aXav- 
nas ; $t\ia8r)$, KoXafccov anravTWV o /38eXvpcc>TaT0$. 
ovto? Be aypov oXov Trap e/Lov Xaflcov fcai ttj 6vya- 
Tpo Tfpoltca Bvo TaXavra, fiiaOov tov enratvov^ oiroie 
aaavra [ie nravTcov aicoir govt gov pbovos vireperryveaev 
eTTOjxoaafxevos (pBifcooTepov elvai tcov kvkvgov, eireiBr) 
voaovvTa nrpcprjv elBe fie teat TrpoarfXdov eTriKOvpias 
Beo/Ltevos, irXrjyas o yevvaios irpoaeveTewev. 

48 <I>IA. '/2 ttjs avaiayyvTias. vvv Tifxoova yvcopi- 
£eT€ ; vvv Tva8(oviBr)<$ (j)tXos Kat avfL7roTrjs ; Totya- 

V. TIM12N 46-50. 199 

povv Bb/caba nreirovdev ovto$ ayapbaTos oov. r)/ueb$ Be 
ob iraXab auvrjdeb? /cab avvecj)r]f3ob /cab BrjfioTab bfioos 
fierpid^ofjb€v 9 cos fir) eirbir^Bav Bo/cobfiev. ^aLpe, oo Be- 
airora, teat, ottoos tovs fibapovs tovtovs /coXa/cas (pvXa^rj, 
tov? eiri ttjs rpaTre&s puovov, Tci aXXa Be /copa/coov 
ovBev Biafyepovras* ovfceri, nriaTevrea toov vvv ovBevi • 
7ravTe$ a^apiarob rcab irovrjpob, ey(jo oe TaXavTOV aob 
/co/ubfav, <W9 €X ot/i > ^P ^ Ta /careTreiyovTa yprjaOab, tcaO 
oBov rjSrj irXr t abov rj/covaa <w? TrXovTObrjs vTreppueyeOrj 
Tiva ttXovjov. tj/cco robjapovv Tavra ae vovOerrjaoov • 
tcauob av ye ovtoo aocjoo? oov ovBev baoos Ber)o~7] toov 
irap efjuov Xoyoov^ b? tcab too NecrTopb to Beov irapai- 
vecrebas av. 

TIM. EcrTab TavTa, oo 0bXbaBrj. irXrjv aXXa irpoa- 
idb • /cab ae (f>bXo^>povr]aofiab ttj Bb/ceXXrj. 

<&IA. AvdpooTToby Kareaya too Kpavbov vtto tov 
a^apbCTToVf BioTb Ta avjucfzepovTa evovOeTovv avTov. 

TIM. 'IBov TpbTOS ovtos 6 pr\roop Arjfieas irpoa- <A 
e PX eTat ' X l rr ]4 >t ' cr / J ' a € % cov ev T V Be^ba /cab avyyevqs 
rj/uerepo? elvab Xeyoov. ovtos e/c/cabBe/ca irap 1 efiov Ta- 
XavTa puias rjfiepas e/cTbaa$ ttj iroXeb — /caTeBeBb/caaTO 
yap /cab eBeSeTo ov/c airoBbBovs, fcayoo eXerjaas eXvaa- 
firjv avTov — eirebBr) TTpoorjv eXaj(e tt) EpeydrjiBc (jovXrj 
Bbave/nebv to Oeoopbfcov fcayoo TrpoarfxOov abToov to ybyvo- 
fievov, ov/c ecf)7] yvoopb^ebv nroXbTrjv bvTa fie. 

AHM. Xalpe, oo Tifioov, to fieya bfyeXo? tov 50 
yevovs, to epebcrfia toov Adrjvoov, to irpoftXrjfia ty)$ 
EXXaBo? • /cal firjv nraXab ae 6 Brjfios avvebXeyfievo? 
/cab ab fiovXab aficfyorepab 7repb/JLevovab. TrpoTepov Be 
atcovaov to yfrrjcfrbafia, b virep aov yeypa<fia • ic eirebBr) 
Tifioov EyetcpaTbBov KoXXvTevs, avr)p ov fiovov icaXos 


tcayaOos, aXXa /ecu crocpos «? ov/c a/Wo? ev rrj EX- 
XaBi, irapa rravra ypovov BiareXei ra apicrra irpar- 
rcov ry TroXet, vevifcrj/ce Be ttv% real 7raXrjv /cat, BpOpUOV 
ev 'OXvjubTTLa /ua? rjpLepas fecu reXeicp apfiari /cat awco- 
pcBc ircoXi/cj] — 

TIM. *AX)C ovBe edecoprjera eyco ircoirore et? 


AHM. Ti ovv ; Oecoprjcret? varepov • ra roiavra 
Be 7roXXa rrpocricelcrOai afieuvov. a /cat rjptarevae Se 
virep rrjs rroXe<o<; rrepvat rrpos Ayapvals /cat tcare- 
Koyjre IleXoiTovvrjatcov Bvo puopas — 

51 TIM. I7a>9 ; Bta yap to ptrj eyetv oirXa ovBe 
rrpovypatfirjv ev roj /caraXoycp. 

AHM. Merpia ra rrept cravrov Xeyets, rjfiets Be 
a%apto~rot av etrjfiev d/bLvrjfiovovvres. a en Be /cat ^77- 
(fucrfjLara ypacpcov teal crvp,{3ovXevcov /cat, crrparrjycov ov 
fjbifcpa 0)<j>eX7)ae rr\v rroXtv • ent rovrois arracn BeBo^Ow 
rrj /SovXjj /cal ra> Br\ficp icai rrj HXtata Kara tyvXas [ 
/cat Toi<? BrjjULOis tBia feat tcotvrj iracrt yjpvaovv avaarr}- 
crat rov Ttficova irapa rrjv Adrjvdv ev rrj a/cponroXei, 
/cepavvov ev ry Be^ta eyovra /cal a/crlvas errra rrept 
ry /cecpaXrj, /cal arecpavcocrat avrov ^pvaoi^ arefyavots 
/cat ava/C7]pv^0r)vat rov? <tre<pavovs rrj/jtepov Atovvcrtots 
rpaywBols /caivols — ayQr\vai yap Bi avrov Bel rrjpLe- 
pov ra Aiovvoia. — eirre rrjv yvco/mrjv Arj/neas o prjrcop, 
crvyyevrjs avrov ay ^tcrrev^ /cat, fiadijrrj^ cov /cat, yap 
prjrcop apiaro? o Ttficov /cat ra aXXa rravra orrocra 

52 av e0eX7j." rovn ptev ovv croc ro tyrjcpta fia. eyco Be 
/cat rov viov efiovXofirjv ayayelv rrapa o"e, ov em rep 
cra> ovopuart Ttpucova covoptafca. 

TIM. J7a>?, d) Arjptea, b? ovBe yeyap,7]fcaS) baa ye 
icai ^puas etoevat ; 

V. TIMI2N 50-54. 201 

AHM. AXXa yct/uoo, rip oiBcp #eo?, e? record kcli 
iraihoTTOir]crojJiai kcli ro yeppr)6r)o~opLepop — appev yap 


TIM. Ov/c olSa ei yapuels ere, c5 out'o9 5 Ttjkiicav- 
rrjp nap efjbov rrXr)yr)p Xapufiapcop. 

AHM. OijjLOL, ri rovro ; rvpappioi y Tc/jlgop, enTi^ei- 
pels feat rvrrrei^ rovs eXevdepovs ov fcadapcos eXevOe- 
po$ ovS aoros cop ; aXXa ScoaeLS ep ra^ec rr)p hifcrjp 
ra re aXXa /cat ore rr\p aicporroXvp eperrprjaas. 

TIM. 'AX7C ov/c €jjL7re7rp7)araL t 00 fiiape, 7] aicpo- 53 
TroXts • coare SrjXos el crvfcocftaprcop. 

ARM. 'AXXa kcli irXovrels rop omaBohopLOp Sco- 

TIM. Ov &ia)pvfcrai ovSe ovros • coare arridapa 
gov kcli ravra. 

AHM. Aiopvy6r\(7erai puep varepop • rjor) Be ov 
irdpra ra ep avrop e^ecs. 

TIM. Ovkovp Kal aXXrjp Xapffape. 

AHM. O'lpLOL ro fjierdcj)pepop. 

TIM. Mr) KeKpayQi • Karoiaco yap croi kcli rpi- 
ttjp • err el kcli yeXola nrafxirap ap rraOoipa ovo puep 
AatceSai/jLOpLoop puopas KaraKo^ras aPorrXo^, ep Be puia- 
pop avOpooiTiop fir) eTTirpi^ras • fiarrjp yap ap eirjp icai 
pePLfcrjfccos OXvpLTrca ttv% icai rraXrjp. aXXa rt rovro ; 54 
ov @paGvicXr}<$ 6 (f>iXoo~o(po<; ovros earip ; ov puep ovp 
aXXos • etcrreraaa^ yovv rop ircoyoopa kcli rd$ ocfrpv? 
cwarelpas kcli /3pep0vofiepos n 7rpos avrop ep^erai^ 
riravte&es fiXerroop, apacreGo(3r){JL€i>o<; ttjp eirl roo fie- 
rco7TG) KOfir)p, Avro{3opea$ n$ rj Tpcrcop, oiovs 6 Zev- 
£t$ eypwvfrep. ovros o ro a^rj/na evaraXr)$ kcli ko<t/xlo<; 
ro fidota-fia feat, GCDCppopLKOS rr)p apa$6Xr)p ecoOep fiv- 


pea bcra irepi aperrj^ Sbe^bcov kcll tcov rjSovr/ yaipovioav 
Karrjyopwv kol to oXiyapKes eirabvcov, eirebhr) \ovcra- 
pevo<? iKpofcocro 6ttc to helirvov /cat o irai<$ pueyaXrjv 
ttjv icvXifca ope^eiev avTco — tg5 ^coporepep Se yaipeb 
jxaXiGTa — fcaOairep to Arfit)^ v&cop eicwKOv evavTiw- 
rara eTriheacvvrai rols e<o6ivoL<$ efceivous Xoyob? irpoap- 
tra^oov coairep lktIvos to, b\jra Kab tov irXrjGiov irapay- 
KCDVi^o/Jbevos, icapvfcrjs to yevebov avairXecD?, kvvjjBov 
epbfyopovpevos, €7n/c€/cv(pco<; f Kadairep ev tclls Xoiraat 

TTjV Clp€T7]V €Vp7]G6bV TTpOCT&OKCOV, dfCpifScOS TO, Tpv/3Xba 

tS Xb%avco airoapjixywv^ ft)? prjoe oXtyov tov plvttco- 

55 tov KaTaXiTTOL. puep-^rbpuobpo^ aei, kclv tov ttXcucovvtcl 
oXov 7] tov gvv puovos tg)P aXXtoV \af3r), b Tb irep 
Xt,%v€ia<; feat airXnrjGTbas o$eAo? 5 puedvGos tcai Trapoivos, 
ov/c ccvpi (pSrjs tcai op%r)o~Tvos puovov, aXXa Kab XobSo- 
picis kcli opyrjs. irpoaeTi tcai Xoyou iroXXob eirl Ty 
kvXikl, tot6 Brj tcai paXiGTa, irepi GCO<ppoGW7}$ Kai 

KOGpLlOTTjTOS * KClb TaVTa <f)7]GbV r)Srj VTTO TOV a/CpUTpV 

irov7)pcD<; £X C0V lcai viroTpavXL^cdV yeXotco? • eWa epueTos 
em tovtois * Kab to TeXevTalov apapevoi Tive<$ e/ctfre- 
povGtv avTov etc tov GvpmoGiov, irXrjv aXXa Kab 
vrjfpcov ovhevt tcov nrpwTeicov Trapaywpr]Gei€V av tyev- 
apLQTOS eve/ca \] OpaGVTrjTos r\ <f>iXapyvpba<$ • aXXa koI 
/coXa/ccov €gtl tcl 7rpcoTa Kau enrbopicel irpoyeipoTaTa, 
Kab 7] yor)T€ba ' irporjyebTab Kab rj avaiGyvvTba Trapo- 
pbapTel, Kab bXcos iravGOcf)Ov Tb xprpxa real vravTayodev 
aKpbfie? Kab TrobKbXeos evTeXes. obpco^eTab Toiyapovv 
ovk e? paKpav xprjGTo? oov. Tb tovto ; nrairai, XP°~ 
VLO$ rjpuiv GpaGVKXrjs* 

56 ... ©PA^S. Ov KaTa TavTa d> Tcpbcov, to?<? TroXXobs 
TovTOb? a<fibypbab, WGirep ob tov ttXovtov gov T60t]- 

V- TIMGN 54-57. 203 

7TOT69 apyvpcov teat y^pvcriov kcli SetTrvcov rrroXvTeXcov 
eXiriSb GvvSeSpa/jLrjfcacrL iroXXrjv rrjv KoXaiceiav eTrcSei- 
^dfjLGvot irpos avSpa olov ae dirXoitcov /ecu tcov ovtcov 
KOivcovLfcdv • olaOa jap a>? jaa^a puev epuoi Senrvov i/ca- 
voVy 6\[rov Se rjStarop Bvpiov r] icapSapbov rj eu irore 
Tpvcj)o)7]v^ oXiyov tcov aXcov • ttotov Se rj evveaKpovvos * 
6 Se rptficov ovtos rjs fiovXei TropcpupcSos ajmetveov. 
to y^pvatov fiev yap ovoev TLpbicoTepov tcov ev tol$ 
aiyiaXoLS tyrjfyiScov [xoi Sotcel. ar)v Se avrov %apiv 
earaXrjv, co? fir} SiacpOeiprj ere to /ca/aaTOv tovto /cat, 
eirifiovXoTaTov fcrrj/ma o ttXovtos, o 7roXXoi$ ttoXXcuci? 
aiTios avrj/cecTTcov av/ncpopcov yeyevr)p,evo$ • ev yap pot 
TrelQoio, fiaXcara puev hXov e? tt)v OaXarrav epfiaXeis 
avrov, ovSev avaytcalov avSpi aya6a> ovtl /cat rov 
cpiXoaocfiias ttXovtov opdv Svvapevco • pur) fievrot 69 
/3a#09, coyaBe^ aXX' ocrov e? /3ov/3cova$ €7re//,/3«9 oXi- 
yov irpo t?7? fcvpiaTcoyrjs, epov opcovTos /uovov • a Se 57 
jubTj tovto fiovXet, gv Se aXXov Tpoirov ap,eivco KaTa 
Ta%o<; etccpoprjerov avTOV etc 7-779 oiicias purjo opoXov 
aavrcp aveis, ScaStSovs arrant to?? Seofievoi?, ' a> pev 
nrevTe Spa%p,a<;, <p Se pbvav, cp Se rjpbtTaXavTOV • ei Se 
tis cf)iXoo~o<fio<; eirj, Sipboiptav r] TpipbOipiav (pepeaOac 
SiKaios • ep,o\ Se — /cacroc ovtc epuavTOv yapiv atTco, 
aXX ottcos fieTaSco tcov eTaipcov toI$ Seoptevois — Ixa- 
vov eu TavTrjvl ttjv irrjpav e(CTrXr]o-a<; irapaa'^oi^ ovSe 
b\ov<$ Suo pLeSipbvovs ycopovcrav AiyivriTiKOVs. oXtyapfcr) 
Se Kai fieTpiov xprj elvai top <j)i\oo~o<j)ovvTa icai pLrjSev 
VTrep Tr)v Trrjpav (fypovelv. 

TIM. ETraivco Tavra croi/, a> @pao~vKXei<$ • irpo 
yovv T779 7T?]pa9, et Sofcel, cfiepe <roi tt)v tce<f>aXr)v e/x- 
7rXrjaco kovSvXojv eiupieTp7 t o-a$ tjj SiKeXXrj. 

204 AOYKIANOY V. TIM12N 57, 58. 

&PA%. 9 f2 SrjfjLOKpaTia Kai vofioi^ TraiofieOa viro 
^tov KCLTapaTov ev eXevOepa rfj iroXet. 

TIM. Tl ayava/cTels, ooyaOe ; fioov TrapaKe/cpovafiaL 
<i€ ; Kai fJL7]v t7re/u/3a\co yoiviicas virep to fxerpov rer- 
58 rapas. aXXa tl tovto ; 7toXXol awzpyovTai • JBXe- 
yfrla? etceivos kcll Aa%r)$ kcll Tvitfrcav kcll 6\et)? to 
cvvTayfAa iwv otfico^ofievcjv. cocrre tl ovk €7rL tt\v 
ireTpav TavTrjv aveXOcov ttjv /jl€V Bc/ceXXav oXiyov 
avaTravct) iraXaL ireTrovrjicviav, auxo9 oe otl 7rX€L<JTovs 
XiOovs avfKJjoprjaa^ eiTL^aXa^w TToppcoOev av toI$ ; 

BAEW. Mr) fiaXXe, co TIjjlwv airL/xev jap. 

TIM. AXX ovk avaifjLCDTL ye vfxeis ovSe avev Tpav- 




cf. = Latin confer, i. e. compare, see. 

comm. = common or commonly. 

Die. Antiqq. = Dictionary of Antiquities (Smith). 

et al. = et alii, and others. 

if = and the following. 

fr = from. 

G. = Goodwin's Greek Grammar. 

H = Hadley (Larger Greek Grammar). 

KTe. = /cat to. erepa = etc. 

Lex. = Lexicon of Liddell & Scott (not abridged). 

lit. = literal or literally. 

perh. = perhaps. 

sc. = scilicet = namely, understood. 

S. Gr. = Smaller Grammar ( Hadley 's Elements). 

st. = stead, i. e. instead of. 

usu. = usual, or usually. 

w. = with. 

It is thought the remaining general and most frequent abbreviations will be easily 
understood. The special abbreviations, in connection with the several authors, are 
here subjoined. 


Am. = Ameis (Leipzig, Teubner, 1869). 
Cr. = Crusius (Hannover, Hahn, 1857). 
Diintz. = Diintzer (Paderborn, Sch'nningh, 1863). 

F. = Faesi (Berlin, Weidmann, 1867). 


Ab. = Abicht (Leipzig, Teubner, 1866). 
B. = Baehr (Leipzig, 185 -1861). 

G. = Goodwin. 
Kr. = Kr'uger. 

R. = Rawlinson (New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1872). 

Sch. = Scheighaeuser. 

St. = Stein (Berlin, Weidmann, 1868). ; 


Boeh. = Boehme (Leipzig, Teubner, 1864). 

01. or Class. = Classen (Berlin, Weidmann, 1869). 

Kr. or Kr'dg. = Kr'uger (Berlin, 1860). 

Pop. = Poppo (Gotha, 1843-1856, 4 voll.). 


Breit. = Breitenbach (Leipzig, Weidmann, 1854). 

Kiih. = Kiihner (Leipzig, Teubner, 1857). 

Rob. = Robbins (New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1853). 

Schneid. = Schneider. 

W. = Weiske (Leipzig, Fritsch, 1802). 


B or Bek. = Bekker (London, Priestley, 1826). 
C — Cousid ((Euvres de Platon traduites, Paris, 1846) 
G. = Grote (History of Greece, Grote's Plato). 
H. = Hermann (0. P.) (Leipzig, Teubner, 1854). 
J. = Jowett (New York, Scribner, 1871). 
Schl. = Schleiermacher ( Uebersetzung, Berlin, 1809). 
St. = Stalbaum (Leipzig, 1821). 


W. or Wes. = Westermann (Weidmann, Berlin, ] 

Reh. = Rehdantz (Leipzig, Teubner, 1865). 

lies. = Heslop (Catena Classicorum, Sever, Prancis, & Co , Boston, 1871). 

Ch. = Champlin (James Munroe & Co., Boston, 1848). 


Eng. = Engelmann (Griechisch u. Deutsch, Leipzig, 1861). 
Sint. = Sintenis (Leipzig, Weidmann, 1849). 

Barl. = Barlaeus. 

Ben. = Benedict (Amsterdam, Blaev, 1687). 
D. = W. Dindorf (Leipzig, Tauchnitz, 1858). 
Graev. = Graevius. 

Hemst. = Hemsterhuis } (Amsterdam Wetst ein, 1743). 
Reitz. = Reitzms 3 ' ' 

Jac. = Jacobitz (Leipzig, Teubner, 1862). 


The student is recommended to read the chapter on Homer in* 
Smith's History of Greece ; or, still better, Grote's chapter on the 
Homeric poems ; also, the interesting little volume on the Odyssey 
in " Ancient Classics for English Readers." 

That suggestive and excellent work, Tylers " Theology of the 
Greek Poets," will be found valuable, not only in connection with 
the study of the Odyssey, but of all the Greek poets.' 

The various reviews and other writings on Homer are too numer- 
ous to be specified here ; nor should the attention of the young stu- 
dent be diverted more than is necessary from the poet himself to the 
endless writings about him. 

BOOK I. — Council of the Gods. Athena's Advice to Telemachus. 

Vv. 1 - 10. Invocation of the muse, and statement of the subject of 
the poem. 

Y. 1, &vSpa (obj. of £vv€TT6), the man. Note the omission of the 
article in Hm. H. 524; S. Gr. 374; G. § 140. — tfvveire : Lex. eveW 
— Compare with this first expression, Virg. Aen. 1 : 1. Arma mnomque 
cano. — MoOo-a. Later poets speak of Calliope as the Muse of epic 
poetry ; but Hm. nowhere mentions the names of the muses, and only 
once (Od. 24: 60) their number. — iroXuTpo-rrov : join with &v8pa : is 
usually understood to mean here cunning, wily. So Am., Diintz., F. — 
iroXXd, : adv. ace. — V. 2. irXd-yx® 1 ! '• ' ir ^-^ <0 ' n °te in Hm. the frequent 
omission of the augment. H. 307 D ; S. Gr. 687 ; G. § 122. Also, the 
stem in 77. H. 328, b, note: S. Gr. 223, d. — TpoiTjs : gen. of designa- 
tion. H. 561 ; S. Gr. 405 ; G. § 167, 6, note. Instead of gen., the ace. 
in appos. with TrroXU0pov would be the usual prose construction. — Upov, 
sacred; either because there were temples in the city, where the gods were 
worshipped, so that it might be considered sacred to the gods and under 
their protection ; or, according to Eustathius, because the walls of the city 
were built by Apollo and Poseidon. Diintz. renders it mighty, and says 
the meaning sacred is only secondary ; but his suggestion is not generally 
adopted. — girepo-ev (iripQoi) : Odysseus did not alone destroy the city ; but, 
as the contriver of the wooden horse, and a prominent warrior, he might 


be spoken of as the destroyer of the city. — V. 3. VSev : notice, again, the- 
omission of the augment ; Att. prose form etSev. — vdov is also, as well as 
&<TT€a (from fiorv), limited by ttoXXcov dv9. ; and knew their mind. ■— 
Y. 4. iroXXd qualifies BXyza. : and yet the subst., separated from the adj. 
and placed after the verb, has somewhat the force of definitive apposition. 

— 87s (epanaleptic), expressed for perspicuity and emphasis : he at least, 
he certainly. — irdOev (irdcrxw) : augment omitted. — ov (H. 238 ; S. Gr. 
137; Gr. § 82) ico/rd Qv\l6v, in his mind. — V. 5. i\v : possess, pron.: 
cf. 6v above. — Y. 6. ov8* m (note the accent : in Att. usu. ovtoos), not 
even thus, i. e. not even with all the effort he made, while striving to secure 
(dpvvp.€vos), etc. — ippv«ra.TO, pvojxai. — Upevos (fr)|u) : trip, intens. The 
concessive idea though lies, I think, entirely in the participle (H. 789, f ; 
S. Gr. 540, f ; G. § 277, 4), although greatly desiring (it). — Y. 7. av- 
t<3v <r4>eT€pT)<riv (= crc()wv) : H. 675, b; S. Gr. 460, a ; G. § 137, Note 1. 

— For the ending -tjctiv, see H. 129 D ; S. Gr. 642 ; G. § 39. — dTaorOa- 
XiTjO-iv : an abstract noun in the plur. H. 518, c ; S. Gr. 369, b, through 
their presumptuous acts. — oXovto (oXXujjw) : augment omitted. In Att. 
the comp. dirdXXvjju is the usu. form. — ■ Y. 8. vtfjmoi has the form of an 
exclamation : foolish men ! who devoured, or, in that they devoured, etc. — 
Ka/rd goes with 4j<r0iov (Icr0tw) : separated by tmesis. H. 477 : 616 ; S. 
Gr. 450; G. § 191, Note 3. — Tireplovos (Lex. 'Y-n-eptwv) 'HeXioio (Lex. 
"HXios), of Hyperion Helms: for the ending 010, see H. 140 D ; S. Gr. 
643; G. § 44. — Y. 9. 6 (H. 524; S. Gr. 374; G. § 140) ; this one, or 
simply he, meaning Helius. — d<|>€iX€To (dcjxupeo), w, usu. mid. dcjxupovfMH ) : 
often with two accusatives. Here with ace. and dat. (of interest), took away 
from them (toictiv. H. 239, D ; S. Gr., 681 ; G. § 78, Note 2). — Y. 10. 
tcov (demonst. cf. note on 6) : partitive gen. with dtr4 (imperat. notice the 
accent). — dp.o0€V (djids = tis, and -0ev, from) : of these things, (starting) 
from any point, speak, etc. — 0ed : cf. note on Movcra, v. 1. — Kal rjp.iv : 
to us also, i. e. to us, as well as to others : to us, i. e. to the poet and those 
to whom he sung. 

Yv. 11-21. Odysseus, followed by the wrath of Poseidon, is detained 
by the nymph Calypso, being the only one of the Grecian heroes, engaged 
in the Trojan war, who had not yet reached home. 

Y. 11. cfwyov ($evya>), augment omitted. — Y. 12. &rav : H. 4^6 
D ; S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, I. Note. — Y. 13. tov, demOnst.: cf. note 
on 6, v. 9 : obj. of £pvK€. — otov : note the breathing : not to be confounded 
with otov ; but this one alone, in distinction from all the other heroes (dXXoi 
p.ev irdvTes) : or, as some understand it, this one alone, i. e. bereft of all his 
companions. — K€Xpi\\Livov : Lex. XPAI2 (B). YI. longing for, with gen. 
vocttou .... yuvaiKos : note the absence of the article. — Y. 14. KaXinj/cd : 
see Lex. , and note the probable derivation and meaning. — 8ta : Lat. diva : 
blunderheads sometimes confound this word with the prep. 8id. — 0€ac-v : 
H. 128 D, a ; S. Gr. 641 ; G. § 39. — Y. 15. o-ireVo-i : Lex. cm-cos.— yXa- 
«j>vpoi<n. : H. 140 D, b ; S. Gr. 646 ; G. § 44. — Y. 16. £ros : note again 


the absence of the article, the year came, etc. — irepiirXopivcov : irepiireXo- 
[xcu : stem vowel € syncopated. — Ivio/utwv : &ros, the generic word for year : 
Iviclvtos, a period of time ; often rendered year : when now the year came, 
in the revolving periods of time. — V. \Hm tw : as relat. H. 243 D ; S. Gr. 
682 ; G. § 140. — o! (enclit,), dat. H. 230 ; S. Gr. 133 ; G. § 79 : ItoekXw- 
cravro, iiriKXcoGw (notice the metaphor in this word) : in which the gods had 
appointed to him (lit. had spun the thread for him) to go, etc. — V. !§• 
ov8* ZvQa is understood by Ameis as correl. of Stc 8-fj, v. 16 : not even then 
had he escaped from conflicts ; even among, his friends. The thought seems 
clearer to understand ovS ZvQa .... <|>iXoi<ri as parenthetical and explan- 
atory of 'lOcLKTfv : not even then (after his arrival in Ithaca ; in allusion to 
his contest with the suitors) had he, etc. So Faesi and others, who follow 
Aristarchus. In this case, 0€ol 8* would begin the principal clause, to 
which 6t€ St] is subordinate. H. 862, b ; S. Gr. 585, a b ; G. § 227, 2 : 
ovS' 2v0a is sometimes rendered, and not improperly, not even there, i. e. in 
Ithaca. — dIOXwv, gen. with Tre<|>-u-yp,€vos : said to be the only instance of 
this construction : usu. with the ace. ; may be rendered, released from con- 
flicts. — V. 19. pgTd with dat. poetic. H. 643; S. Gr.- 447, o. — V. 
2®. IlocreiSdwvos, Att. IXocreiSwvos. Notice everywhere in Horn, a ten- 
dency to uncontracted forms. H. 32 D, e ; S. Gr. 614 ; G. § 30, 3. — 
Y. 21. 'OSwrfJL: H. 189 D; S. Gr. 661 ; G. § 59, 3. — irdpos .... 
LK«r0cu, before he readied, etc. For the infin. with irptv, or irdpos, see H. 
769 ; S. Gr. 531, c ; G. § 274. — <fjv : possess, pron. ; cf. v. 5, -fjv. 

Vv. 22 - 95. In the absence of Poseidon, at the instance of Athena, the 
gods resolve on the return of Odysseus to Ithaca. 

V. 22. 6 piv, this one, he (i. e. Poseidon), correlative with oi 8£ &XXot, 
v. 26. — AUUoiras (Al6iox|/) : notice the derivat. and meaning. See Lex. 
■ — }xeT6KLa06 : Lex. p.€TaKid0to, II. — lovTas : H. 406 D ; S. Gr. 734, s ; G. 
§ 129, I. Partic. — Vv. 23 and 24L are parenthetical, and explanatory of 
Al0toiras. — Tot=ol', relat. pron. : cf. note on ra, v. 17. — SeSalaTai : Lex. 
Sal© (B). For -aTat ( = -vrai), see H. 355 D, e ; S. Gr. 705 ; G. § 122, 2. . 

— &rxaToi agrees with toi, and is further explained by ol |xev . . .- . ot 
8* .... : some, of the setting Hyperion, others, of the rising (i; e. some, of 
the West, or belonging to the West ; others, of the East). The attempt to 
settle the exact geographical situation of nations, of whom Homer had only 
the most vague ideas, seems like being " wise above that which is written." 

— dvaro\i(vov } pres. in meaning; aor. in form. G. Appendix 8vg> : H. 349 
D ; S. Gr. 699. — V. 25. avriowv : fr. dvndcov, contr. avncav, with Epic 
duplication avnowv. H. 370 D, a; S. Gr. 713 ; G. § 124, 1. Ameis and 
Faesi regard it as future here, to partake of, to enjoy: Duntzer, as pres., 
going to meet, going in quest of. ^ It agrees with 6 p.ev, and takes the gen. 
iKCLTOfjip^s. — V. 2<6« 2v0 s 6ye t there he, etc. cf. note on 8-ye, v. 4. — Sairi 
belongs in idea both with Tepirero and with irapif[p.svos. — ol Se 8tj &XX01, 
but they now, the others. H. 500, d. "In Hm. the demonstrative," etc. : 
S. Gr. 353, c ; G. § 140, Note 2. — - V. 28. toi<ti : Ameis takes this as 


dat. of interest (H. 601 ; S. Gr. 437 ; G. § 184, 3, Note 2), depending on 
the combined idea of \l£Q&v ^jpx € > lit. began words to them, i. e. began to 
address them : Diintz. and Cr. take it in the sense amo?ig these. I agree 
with Ameis. — V. 29. \Lvf\<roiTo (]o-Kc«>), augment omitted : with the 
gen., for he bethought himself, in mind, of etc. — Aiyl<r0oio : see Classical 
Die. Aegisthus. — Y. SO, tov, as rel. pron., whom, obj. of 'ixravi (ktcwo). 
— p=pd: a word of frequent occurrence in Horn. : also in the forms dp, 
and dpa : see Lex. dpa (not to be confounded with dpa, interrog., nor 
with dpa a subst.) : frequently omitted in translating : yet the student 
should learn to notice and, if possible, /eeZ its force in the Greek. — V. 31* 
€iri|Ay*]o-0€LS, eTrijAijxvifjcrKG) : Hire ■=■ #rrea, obj. of ueTipSa (p.£Tax;8d<w). Notice, 
t\v is a diphthong : usu. pronounced as €t> : -8a contr. fr. -Sae, imperf. 3d 
sing. ■ — Y. 32. "ft iroiroi : an exclamation of astonishment, pain, or dis- 
satisfaction. In a connection similar to this Grote renders it, Heavens I — 
otov 8^ vv (Lex. vvv), how now, etc. — alnotovTai, alTidojxat : cf. Gr. ref- 
erence on dvTtoov, v. 25. — Y. 33. Tjp.sW (H. 233 I) ; S. Gr. 678 ; G. 
§ 79, Note 2) : two syllables in scanning ; synizesis, G. § 10 ; H. 37 ; S. Gr. 
617. — Kdx = KaKa : notice the accent of k<xk . G. § 24, 3 ; H. 100 ; S. Gr. 
61. — Ipjuvcu. H. 406 D, 1, Inf. ; S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, 1, Infin., 
that calamities are from, etc. — Y. 34. <r<|>fj<n.v (o"<j>os, G. § 82, Note; 
H. 238 D ; S. Gr. 680) aTa<r0. cf. v. 7, and notes. — Y. 35. 'ATpetSao : 
patronymic. H. 466 ; S.- Gr. 318 ; 1st declens. gen. G. § 39 ; H. 136 D, 
1 ; S. Gr. 638 : limits d'Xoxov. See Clas. Die. Atrides, or Atreides. — 
Y. 36. ■yijp.' (yajiew) : augment omitted ; ending elided ; = gys]p.€(v). — 
fivt|<rrijv : adj. p,vi]o-Tcs. — tov, this one, him, i. e. Atreides. — V. S 1 ? 1 . 
€iSws (agrees with Afyio-Gos) : concessive, though he knew : o'XeGpov, the 
destruction, i. e. the penalty that would follow the murder. — irpo .... 
d'irojisv : separated by tmesis : we forewarned him: ot (after irpo) enclitic ; 
hence the two together written irpo oi (lit. we said to him beforehand). — 
Y. 38. ire'iul/avTes, denotes means, by sending. 'Ap"ysi«j>ovTr|v ; for the 
myth, see Class. Die. — Y. 39. \l4\t .... Krdvav, not to slay 'him 
(Atreides), depends on -n-po .... ei'irojjisv. — p,vdao-0ai, by duplication of 
the vowel, for p.vdcr0at (Lex. A) : H. 370 D ; S. Gr. 713. — Y. 
4©. rlous .... 'ATpetSao, an avenging of Atreides : &r<r€Tai, H. 406, 
D, 1, Fu. ; S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, I. Note. — Y. 41. ffityrQ : TJjBao. 
— r\s (cf. oV, v. 3) : possess, pron., agrees with al'-rjs (fr. ata = yata = 
Att. yfj). — ijigipeTai, in the same const, with tjPt)<H], hence, subjunc- 
tive. For the short connecting vowel, frequent in Hm., see G. § 122, 
2-, Subj.; H. 347 D; S. Gr. 697: and shall desire his land. Accord- 
ing to Odys. 3 : 306, Orestes was at Athens at the time of his father's 
death.- — Y. 42. m = otmos, thus: to be carefully distinguished from 
ws (proclitic) : &f>a0' (!<|>aro), fr. <fafu'. H. 404 D, 2 ; S. Gr. 734, d ; 
G. § 129, IY. Note. — V. 43. ir€i0 s = &rr€i0€, augment omitted: dya0d 
<j>povewv, lit. although thinking (or meaning) what was good: i. e. in warn- 
ing Aegisthus not to murder Agamemnon. — direrio-ev, dirorivo), has atoned 
for all things together. — Y. 44. tov: obj. of tjp.€ip€TO (Lex. dp.€£j3c«>, 


II. 2, answered, replied to). — V. 46. Kal XCtjv (= Att. XCav), and surely : 
Keivos, Att. Ikclvos, made emphatic by -ye. H. 850, 1 ; S. Gr. 580, a, that 
one at least, he at least, i. e. Aegisthus. — eoiKon (Lex. £oiKa, II. 2), agrees 
with. oXeOpco (dat. of place, G. § 190 ; H. 612 ; S. Gr. 446, a). —V. 47. 
a>s diroXon-o : H. 721, 1, a ; S. Gr. 489, a, b ; G. Greek Moods and 
Tenses, § 82, Note 3. —oris : H. 246 D ; S. Gr. 683 ; G. § 86, Note 2 : 
would that any other one also might perish, whoever should, etc. — V. 48. 
p.oi: ethical dat. H. 596, c; S. Gr. 432^ d ; G. § 184, 3, Note 5.-— dpj>t 
with dat. poetic ; about, for. — SaUTai (Lex. AJH3LCI (B) ; but for my part 
(lit. for me) my heart is distracted for, etc. — Y. 4#« 8uo-p.6pa>, os kt!., 
unhappy one, who, etc. It is better to introduce this word in the English 
sentence, in the same place in which it stands in the Greek ; and so, in 
general, to present the thought in English in the same order as in the 
Greek, so far as the idioms of our language will admit of the same 
arrangement. — <jnXcov cltto : anastrophe. G. § 23, 2 ; H. 102 D, b ; 
S. Gr. 634. — Y. 5®. d\L^ipvrr\ : dp.<|>(.pvTos (dfjuj^? around, pew to flow), 
sea-girt. — 60i tc, where. Note carefully this use of re. H. 856, a ; S. 
Gr. 583, b. 6p.cj>aXbs OaXdo-a-^s, the centre of the sea. — Y. 51. vi]o-os 
8evS-, sc. Itrri, the island is woody. So Am., Diintz:, Faesi. But Cr. 
takes vfj<ros as in appos. with ojJujmXds. — 4v, adv. G. § 191, Note 2 ; H. 
615 ; S. Gr. 449. S^clto, may perhaps be rendered as singular, on the 
same principle as pacriXeia, Anabasis, 1, 2, 7, and there (more literally, in 
it) a goddess inhabits a mansion. — Y. 52, 6o-t€, and v. 53, 84 T€ : cf. note 
on #8i t€, v. 50. — '4\a • • • • pascpas, and holds himself alone (a^Tos) 
the long pillars, etc. Homer seems to have conceived of the heavens as sup- 
ported by columns, somewhat like the ceiling of a large hall. Faesi. — 
Y. 54. at ... . d[u|>ls %%pv<r\.v, which hold asunder, etc. — Y. 5t»* rov : 
demonst. as usu. in Hm. Note in this verse again the absence of the ar- 
ticle with 0v*ydTT]p and with Svo-ttjvov : the daughter of this one detains the 
unhappy man (Odysseus), although he mourns (oSvpofjievov, concessive). — 
Y. 5 *3. Q£kya, sc. airrdv. — ImX^jo-eTai, emXavOdvco. Notice the fat. 
indie, with Sttws. H. 756 ; S. Gr. 522, a ; G. § 216, Note 1 : to the end 
that he shall forget, etc. — Yv. 58, 50. tep-evos .... tjxeipeTai, longing 
to perceive even the smoke .... (from utter despair) yearns for death. 
GaveW (GWjo-kco), H. 352 D ; S. Gr. 701 ; G. § 122, 2, Infin. — V. 50. 
ovSe vd ... . fJTop, nor now is thy heart turned within thee : uttered re- 
proachfully. <roi is made emphatic by trip (enclit.). — Y. 6®. <|>lXov : 
see Lex. 4>^os, 3. — oiS vv t : vv in a question, see Lex. vvv : Cr., Am., 
F., and others take t here for toi (= o-oi. G. § 79, Note 2 ; H. 233 D ; 
S. Gr. 678) : for the elision, see G. § 12, Note 1 ; H. 70 D ; S. Gr. 626 : 
did not now Odysseus .... favor thee, etc. Yet Diintz. takes t for ri in 
the Epic use, as in v. 50. The best critics are against him. — vr\va-C (two 
syllables) = Att. vavtri. H. 189 D ; S. Gr. 666, ad. ; G. § 54. — Y. 62. 
Tpotrj : spoken either of the city or of the country. Here used in the latter 
sense ; in the spacious Troad. — tl vv oi (dat., as appears at sight from 
the accent of vv) : why now, etc. — coSvorao : H. 363 ; and 363 D ,* S. Gr. 

6 ■ NOTES. 

711 ; G. § 114, 2, Note. No pres. 68i;<r<ro|jicu, such as coSvcrao (1. aor., 
indie, mid.) would suggest, appears to have been used. — V. 63. ve<|>€- 
XY)7 € p€Ta : H. 136 D ; S. Gr. 637 ; G. § %$. — V. 64. gpicos : partitive 
appos. with ere : what manner of word has escaped (thee), the fence of thy 
teeth! H. 500, b ; S. Gr. 353, b. —V. 65. irws kt4, how then (how after 
all that which you have named) could I, etc. — V. €6. irepl .... k<rri 
(irepteifu), separated by tmesis ; takes the gen. regularly : here with ppo- 
t<3v : vdov (H. 32 D, e ; S. Gr. 614 ; G. § 43) ace. of specif., is superior to 
mortals in intelligence. 'Diintzer connects ppoT«v more closely with 6s. 
This seems less natural, though logically and grammatically admissible ; 
who, of mortals, is superior in, etc. — irepl (adv.) 8' . . . . fc'Swice, and 
especially has given, etc. : tpct (fr. ipdv), Att. lepct. Observe that the poet 
represents the man who excels in intelligence as especially devoted to the 
gods. — V. 67. toI relates to 06Oi<riv : cf. note on tol, y. 23. — ovpavov 
note again the absence of the article : Eng. idiom, the wide heaven. Yet 
in Attic Greek the article is not unfrequently omitted in common designa^ 
tions of place and time. H. 530, b ; S. Gr. 379, c. — V. 69. KvkXw 
iros (note the deriv.) : gen. of cause, on account of the Cyclops. See Class. 
Die. — 5v relates to KiJKX&nros : dXcuocrev (dXaojo), subj. 'OSvcrcreus: 6cj>0aX- 
jiov joined with dk&ao-tv as a verb of depriving. H. 580, a ; S. Gr. 422. 
aa ; G. § 174 : whom he deprived of an eye (lit. whom he blinded of an eye) 
V. 7®. HoXiS^fAov, appos. with 8v. — 6ov : H. 243 D ; S. Gr. 682 
G. § 86, Note 2. — &tk€ (blunderers confound this with &rxe) : H. 406 D, 
1, 3d pers. ; 410 D ; S. Gr. 734, s ; 738 ; G. § 129, I. Note ; § 122, % 
Iterative endings. — Y. 7\* iraa-iv (v movable before a consonant to 
make the ultima long by position) RvkXcSttco-o-i (H. 154 D; S. Gr. 655 
G. § 59, 1), among all the Cyclopes : may be viewed as -dat. of place, or 
perhaps dat. of interest in looser relations. So Faesi. — p.iv (H. 233 D 
3d pers. ace. sing. ; S. Gr. 678 ; G. § 79, Note 2) obj. of t€K€ (= Sr€K€, fr. 
t£kto>), bore him. — Y. 72% |j.sSqvtos, ruler of, etc., or as particip. ruling, 
etc., explains ^dpicuvos. — Y. 7S* cnrrecro-i : G. § 59, 1 ; H. 154 D, b 
S. Gr. 655 ; fr. o-rreos. — IIo<r€i.8- pleura (p,l"yvv|w), having met with Posei- 
don. — Y. #4. ItcToi): "always temporal in Hm., and refers to v. 69.' 
Am., Diintz. Yet.Cr., following the scholiast, makes it causal : 8Yj is re- 
sumptive. H. 851, a ; S. Gr. 580, d, from that time, I say (the time 
when Odysseus made the Cyclops blind) ; or, on. this account, I say. — 
Y. 75 9 otfn. .... 8e, does not (indeed) slay .... but drives (lit. causes 
to wander), etc. — iraTpiSos ai/qs : notice here Trarpis as adj. : in Att. usu. 
subst. — Y. "76. dye©' (= d-ysTe) : an exclamation, but come! Cf. Lat. 
age! — ir6pi<|>pa^tiSp,€0a : H. 720, a ; S. Gr. 488, a ; G. § 253 ; let us, who 
are present (ol'Se, fr. 68e, lit. these), all plan, etc. — Y. 77* 6irws £X0yjo-i 
(?pXO|xai, 2d aor. subjunc. 3d, sing. w T ritten also £X0*]o-i. H. 361 D ; S. Gr. 
710; G. § 122, 2, Subj.), to the end that he may go (home). — jj,€0^<t€i 
(p.e0tTj|JLs.), a simple declaration, denoting the confidence of Zeus, the speaker: 
will remit, will give up. — Y. 78. 6v, possessive, his: cf. i\v, v. 5. — 
ov . . . . ti, not in any respect, not at all : cf. otfra, v. 75. — Y. 7®» 


&0av- dlKT]Ti Gecov, without the consent of the immortal gods, is added to 
avria TT&vnov, against all, for emphasis. So Am., Diintz., Faesi. — epiSai- 
V£>sv : infin. H. 359 D ; S. Gr. 708 ; G. § 122, 2, Infin.— otos agrees 
with subj. of Swtjo-ctcu : note the breathing and distinguish fr. otcs. — 
Vv. §0, 81. cf. vv. 44, 45. Such repetitions are frequent in Hm. — 
Y. 82. to-Oto cj>i\ov, sc. io-ri : if now this is agreeable to, etc. — Y. §H» 
'08vcri]a, subj. of vocTT^o-ai, that the prudent Odysseus return, etc. — 6V8g 
SojxovSe -..meaning of the ending -Se ? H. 203, c; S. Gr. 114; G. § 61. 
Other local endings and their meanings ? Notice that it is here annexed 
-both to the noun and to pronoun : to his home. — Yv. 84, §5. 'Epjistav 
obj. of 6Tpvvo[A€V (subjunc. G. § 122, 2 ; H. 347 D ; S. Gr. 697 : cf. ipd- 
p€Tcu, v. 41 : an exhortation, cf. irepi^pa^inQa, v. 76, note), let us de- 
spatch Hermes, etc. — ©c^pa .... el'irrj, that he may announce, etc. — 
Y. 8@. €VTrX.OKajJia> (gtj, well ; irXoKajxas, a curl, or a braid; ttXckw, to 
twine, or to braid) : usu. rendered fair-haired ; but this is not very accu- 
rate. It means either, with fair curls, or with well-braided locks, — prob- 
ably the latter. So Diintz. and Am., who cite in illustration II. XI Y. 
176. xcuras irelajievr], x 6 ? "^ TrXoKajAovs ^irXelje <j>>OTJS (spoken of Hera), 
having combed her hair, with her hands, she braided her shining locks. — 
Y. 8f . vocttov, appos. with povX^v : our infallible purpose, the return of, 
etc. — «s K€ ( = Attic. &v) veTjTai, to the end that he may go : an emphatic 
pleonasm, similar to Sirm £X0vja-i, v. 77. — Yv. 8§, 89. avrap, correla- 
tive of (i€v, v. 84. — ot (enclit., and hence in the text without accent) in 
vv. 88, 89, "dat. of interest in looser relations" : H. 601 j S. Gr. 437 ; G. 
§ 184, 3 : is not properly, I think, viewed as "dat. of the possessor": 
that I may the more rouse up for him his son, etc. The second ot (in v. 89) 
refers to vidv. — kv fypzorL Notice here a frequent idiom in Hm. , 4v with 
dat., joined with a verb expressing or implying motion. Force of this 
construction? H. 618, a; S. Gr. 448, b. — Geuo (tiG^i) : G. § 128, 2; 
H. 400 D, i ; S. Gr. 730. — Y. 90. Kakicravra (instead of KaXcVavTi 
agreeing with ot) agrees with the implied subj. of dir€t'ir€fj,€v (= Att. d-rrei- 
ireiv, G. § 122, 2, Infin. ; H. 359 D ; S. G. 708) : (cf. XapovTa, Anab. 1, 
2, 1 ) : that he having called .... speak out (a prohibition) to all, etc. — 
Y. 01. ol're (So-Te) : H. 856, a ; S. Gr. 583, b : relates to jj.vri<mrjp€oro-iv 
(H. 154 L>, b; S. Gr. 655 ; G. § 59, 1). — ot (enclit,), dat. of interest, to 
his injury, at his expense: cf. ot, yv. 88, 89. — Y. 9S. fi/fjX 5 (= ji/rjXa) : 
Lex. p/qXov (A). — Y. OS. -irejjuj/to, sc. avrov, I will send him (Telem- 
achus). — Y. 94o voVtov, obj. of irevcrdjievov (fut. particip. denoting 
purpose, fr. iruvGdvofitu), to inquire about the return of, etc. — Y. 9e5. 
kXcos, subj. of ly^rw (pres. subjunc' 3d sing. ; cf. 2X0tjg-i and note, v. 77): 
lit. and that a noble fame may possess him, etc. 

BOOK II. —Council of the Chiefs of Ithaca. 

BOOK III. — Telemachus. attended by Athena in the Form of Men- 
tor, proceeds to Pylns, and has an Interview with Nestor* 


BOOK IV. — Telemachus proceeds to Sparta. Interview witli 


BOOK V. — Departure of Odysseus from tlie Island of Calypso. H© 
is wrecked on the Island of Pliaeacia. 

BOOK VI. — Nausieaa, Daughter of Alcinous } King of Pliaeacia, dis- 
covers Odysseus. 

BOOK VII. — Odysseus repairs to the Cou?t of Alcinous, and is favor- 
ably received. 

BOOK VIII. — Entertainment and Games in Honor of Odysseus. 

BOOK IX. -— Odysseus rehearses his Adventures. The Cicons, the 
1-otophagi, the Cyclops. 

Yv. 152-215. A hunt and feast on an island not far from the land of 
the .Cyclops. On the following day, Odysseus sails to the land of the Cy- 
clops and repairs to the cave of Polyphemus. 

Y. 152. c[>dvir] (4>aiv&)), augment omitted. — V. 153. vtjo-ov, the 
island: described in the passage just preceding. Notice here again the 

omission of the article. {ieo-0a (Att. -p^Ga) : G. § 122, 2 ; H. 355, D, 

d ; S. Gr. 704. — kclt cwt^v, over it, in it, i. e. the island. — V. 154. 
<ap<rav (opvuju), roused, started up; takes afyas for obj. — al71.ox.oto (Att. 
ending -ov) : Lex. aryioxos. — V. 15*2'« v?]<3v (Att. vetSv) : G. § 54 ; H. 
189 D; S. Gr. 666, ad. — 81& .... koo-jju]0€VT€s (8iaKoo-p,€G>) : tmesis: 
G. § 191, Note 3; H. 477, 616; S. Gr. 450.— T P i' X a, adv. ; having ar- 
ranged ourselves in three parties. — V. !5§. pdXXop,€v, imperf. with 
.omitted augment. — V. 159. £Kd<rTv\v, sc. vfjct (Att. vavv). — V. 16$>. 
Xct*yx avov •' Lex. Xa-yx.^ vto j i y - — €p.ol .... ol'co, for me alone. — ^jeXov 
(i^aipeo)) : (augment omitted, and hence the accent drawn back on the 
prep. H. 368, b ; S. Gr. 249, a), they took out. Cf. v. 550 ff. — V. 161. 
•fjeXiov (Att. -fjXiov) : notice here again the fondness for the confluence of. 
vowel sounds in the Ionic dialect. — -V. 162. axrirera,, abundant. — V. 
16&. €|€4>8tTp : Lex. 4k<j>9iv&>. — V. 164. eve'-qv (Att. evfjv, fr. 4v, 
eljxC) : subj. otvos : but it lasted, (or held out) in {them, the ships). — ttoXXov 
(= Att. iroXvv, sc. otvov), obj. of Tj«[>vo-ap.€v (a^va-crat). — 4v dp.4 >L< f > °P' 
notice here the use of Iv with the dat. H. 618, a ; S. Gr. 448, b : we each 
drew much (wine and stored it) in jars. — V. 166. kavrcov (dpi) : H, 
406 J); S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, 1, Note: agrees with KvkXcGtiw. — V, 
5 6 l 7. kcwtvov and <j>8oYyi{v are both placed as objects of IX€tSo-o-op.€v 
(Xevo-o-co) ; <f>0o77t]v by zeugma. H. 882 ; S. Gr. 595 (c). In v. 16'6, 
4X€iJo-(rop.€v is intrans. : here, trans, we looked into the land of, etc. . . 
we beheld the smoke {and heard) the voice of themselves and of the sheep, etc, 

— V. 168. 4-jrl .... ^X0€v, tmesis : KV€«f>as, subj., darkness came on. 

— Y. 16®. Koip,T]0T]p.€v (Kotp.dco), aug. omitted. — V. Itfl. dyop^v 
(notice the Ionic preference for the vowel n\) Ge'jxsvos, having appointed an 


assembly. — Notice jierd with. dat. H. 643 ; ' S. Gr. 447, o : among all 
(Att. iv with dat.). -"fcwrov : H. 450 D, 8 ; S. Gr. 740, e k ; G. Appen- 
dix. — V. 1*7 2* "AXXoi, appos. with subj. of p,ip.veT€, do ye, the others, 
etc. — eptrjpes, Lex. €ph]pos. — V. 173* krdpoia-iv : Lex. €Tatpos. — 
V. X74:» eXGwv .... Tretp^a-ofjiai (notice the vowel r\), having gone, 
will try; or more freely, ivill go and try : tcovS* dvSptev (Att. twvSc t«v 
dv8p<Sv. H. 538, a ; S. Gr. 382, d ; G. § 142, 4), yonder men. — V. X75. 
§ . . . . t|€ : whether . . . . or. — p* = pet. Lex. dpa : epic usage. Note 
the frequent use and the meaning of this word in Hm. Not usually- 
rendered. — ol'-ye, they : cf. Bye, 1 ; 4 ; sc. elciv. — Y. 1 76, Kai <r<juv 
(= <rcf>i(riv : G. § 79, Note 2 ; H. 233 D ; S. Gr. 678. Dat. of possessor. 
G. § 184, 4 ; H. 598 ; S. Gr. 434) .... itrri : and there is to them, and 
they have, etc. — Y. 177, dvd vr s bs (= Att. ve<6s, fr. vavs) 2J3tjv is ex- 
plained as an instance of tmesis, equivalent to vrjbs dv€J3i]v ; the gen. vtje's 
being thus dependent on the compound verb, and not on the preposition. 
So Am., Diintz., and others. Would it not seem more natural, and in ac- 
cordance with the apparent fact, to admit that dvd may take the gen. ; and 
in this and similar instances — of which several occur — to make vrjds de- 
pend on dvd] So Cr. ; G. § 191, 1, Note. — Y. X78, civtoijs agrees 
with the subj. of dp-pcu'veiv (= dvapoivetv. H. 73 D ; S. Gr. 628 ; G. § 12, 
Note 3), both to embark themselves, and, etc. — dvd .... Xv<rcu : Lex. 
dvaXvw, to loose, etc. — Y. If®, el'crpaivov (= €ure|3aivov) : aug. omit- 
ted, and hence the accent on the preposition. Cf. 2|eXov, v. 160, note. — 
kXt^io-i : Lex. tcXeis, iv. — Y. 180. tvtttov (tvittw) : aug. omitted. — 
Y. 1§1. tov x<Spov. H. 551 ; S. Gr. 396 ; G. § 162. But when already 
ive arrived at the place (or perhaps tov as demonst. at that place), mentioned 
v. 166. — Y. 182. 'ivQa 8 € '. H. 862, b ; S. Gr. 585, a b ; G. § 227, 2 : 
then, etc. Note carefully this use of Se. — eV ia-xan^, at the extreme part, 
at the very border (of the place) : made still more definite by the description 
ctyx L 0aXao-o-T]s. — V- 184. oies .... atyes : appos. with fj/qXa, flocks. 
— laveo-Kov : lavo). Force of the ending ctkov ? H. 410 D ; S. Gr. 738 ; 
G.,§ 122, 2. — irept : adv. round about : avX^j, a yard, a court-yard. — Y. 
1§5. 8e8jxT]To, pluperf. : aug. omitted. Lex. 8e'p.a>. — KaTcopvxeeo-o-t 
(Lex. KaTu)pvxT|S and KaT<Spv£) XtOoicriv, with deep-laid stones, "which 
might serve as seats." Am., Diintz., and others. — Y. 1&7* ivCave (iv, 
lava)), lodged within : -ireXoSpios, a monster. — pd, Lex. dpa. Epic use. Cf. 
v. 175, note : ri, epic use. H. 856 ; S. Gr. 583, b. — Y. 188. irotp-at- 
V€o-K€v (irotfJiaiva)) : aug. omitted : iterative ending. Cf. note on laveo-jcov, 
v. 184. — Y. 1§9. d0e{ tjSt| (oI8a), knew lawless (deeds): i. e. 
acknowledged' no laws. — Y. 1@©» Kal Yap connects this sentence closely 
to the foregoing both in a copulative and in a causal relation. It is usual 
to render only the latter word, for. — Itstukto (tgvx<«>), he had been made, 
he was a gigantic wonder, etc. — Isokci, gonca. — oVe .... otov, when it 
(the woody peak) appears .alone, etc. — F., Am., and Cr. read 6 t€, which, 
etc. — Y. 194. cwtov, adv. as often in Att. : irdp = irapd. H. 73 D ; 
S. Gr. 628 ; G. § 12, Note 3 : there by the ship. — gpvcr0dt. H. 405 D, 2, 

10 NOTES. 

b ; S. Gr. 734, n ; Lex. kpvv, iv. — V. 196. pfjv = ifav, fr. (3a,Cv<o. — 
al'yeov do-Kov, a goat-skin, such as is still used for the same purpose every- 
where in Greece and the neighboring lands : %x°v = etyov : o'ivoio limits 
cLctkov. — V. 19§. 8s ... . ajxtfjiPePriKet (dp4i(3aiv«), lit. who had 
walked about Ismdrus (the city of the Ciconians), i. e. who had protected 
Ismdrus, before it was sacked by Odysseus. — Y. 199, ovvetca, because, 
introduces the reason why Maron gave the wine to Odysseus. — piv (H. 
233 D, under &> : S. Gr. 678 ; G. § 79, Note 2), obj. of rapio-xopsOa ( Lex - 
•jrepUxo, mid.), we protected him together with, etc. — Y. 200. toscei, 
oIk€w. — Y. 201. iropev (Lex. iropa). In what tenses used?) : he gave, 
etc. — Y. 204. otvov, sc. 8<3k€ (Att. e'Scoice). — Iv . . . . irdo-iv, in jars, 
twelve in all : or, in full twelve jars : tt&o-iv agrees with dpc|>-. — Y. 205. 
aiJTdVj i. e.. otvov, obj. of ^etSt] (otSa. G. § 130, 2, Note ; H. 409 D, 6 ; 
S. G. 737, i). — 8p<Siov (irreg. accent. G. § 25, 3, Note ; H. 160, exc. c ; 
S. Gr. 92, c) and dpt|>nroXc»>v limit tis, nor did any one of, etc. The dis- 
tinction between these two words in meaning is not very clear. Yoss ren- 
ders, Keiner der Knecht', und keine der dienenden Magd' in der Wohnung 
(None of tlie men-servants, and none of the maid-servants, etc.). The ety- 
mology (Sptocov fr. Safidio, to subdue, enslave; dp.sJH'irdXcov?, dp«j>i, around, 
and iroXeo), to turn, to go about) indicates rather a distinction of class than 
of sex. So perhaps we may render it, nor did any one of the slaves or of 
the attendants, etc. — Y. 20 ?• dXX' clvtos, but he himself, i. e. Maron. — 
<jh\t| qualifies &Xo\os. — pC ol'-q : an emphatic expression : one (person) 
alone. — tov, demonst. : otvov, definitive appos. H. 500, d ; S. Gr. 353, 
c. — 6t€ mvoiev : hypothet. relat. sentence. H. 757 ; S. Gr. 523 ; G. 
§ 233 : and whenever they (the persons mentioned in the verse above) 
drank of this, the honey -siceet, red ivine. — Y. 209. epirX^o-as (Lex. ep- 
mirX'rjp.i., fr. ev, iripTrXifjpL H. 403, 7, Eem. a ; S. Gr. 273, f. Kem. f a) : 
sing, although the plur. mvoiev is used just above : lie having filed one cup 
(with the wine). — iiSo/ros limits perpa. — dvd, separated by tmesis from 
\iv (= <£x* V€ i aor - fr- X& ) : ? ie poured on (it, in the mixer) twenty, etc. : . 
or, as Ameis, Faesi, and others understand it, he poured (it, the cup of 
wine) on ttventy, etc. The former seems more natural. — Y. 210. dBto- 
8ei : o£g>. The same stem with 68pr| : can hardly be imitated in English 
(a sweet smell was smelt). We may render it, a sweet odor arose, etc. — 
Y. 211. 0€o-tt€o-It] : more emphatic than TjSeta, and in an emphatic posi- 
tion : a divine (fragrance). — ovroi : a strengthened negative: join with 
<j>£Xov : it would not indeed be pleasant to abstain from (it, the mingled wine 
and water) : diroo-X€O"0ai, dtrex^ '• ^v, cf. 1, 18.- — Y. 212. tov : gen. 
with verb of filling. H. 575 ; S. Gr. 418 ; G. § 172 : <j>€*pov = fcfcpov : 
having filled- a large skin with this (wine) I bore (it). — ^a : Lex. IJia, sc. 
<j>€pov : and in a leathern sack (I bore) provisions also for the way: {]a may 
be in form 1st pers. sing, imperf. indie, of etpi. See Gr. The verb and 
the noun can, therefore, be distinguished only by the connection. — Y. 
213. otcaro : Lex. ol'opai : my daring mind suggested to me the thought, 
etc. — Y. 214. The best critics differ as to the const, of &v8pa: some 


taking it as subj. ; others, as o"bj. of the eomp. verb lireXevo-eo-Gai (lirepxo- : that I should go to a man, etc. ; or, that a, man would approach. On 
the whole, I am inclined, with Ameis, to the latter const. Ci. €irf]X0€, v. 
233. — lirieijxevov : Lex. hnivvvpx. : dXK-rjv, const. ? H. 553, a ; S. Gr. 
398, a ; G. § 164 ; § 166, Note 2 : clothed in great i 

Yv. 216-251. They reach the cave of Polyphemus: the companions 
of Odysseus wish to return to the ship ; but he remains till the Cyclops 
returns with his flocks, and espies the strangers. 

V. 216. ovSe in rendering is often divided into its component parts ; 
hut we did not find him (piv), i. e. the Cyclops. — Y. 217. (notice 
the accent, distinguishing it from vojaov law) k&to, (anastrophe. Cf. &jto, 
1: 49), he was feeding his fat fiocks in a pasture. — Y. 21§. €0T]€V(j.€cr0a 
(0?]€O|Aai) : for the contraction eo = ev, see H. 32 D, f ; S. Gr. 615 ; G. § 124, 
2 : ending -p.eo-0a. H. 355 D, d ; S. Gr. 704 ; G. § 122, 2. — Y. 331. 
HpXaro (Lex. ctp-yca, and Upycai) : pluperf., indie, pass., 3d pers. plur. : the 
ending -vto, changed to -citq, and the preceding mute aspirated. G. § 122, 
2 ; H. 355 D, e ; 392, Bern, a ; S. Gr. 261, a ; 705 : being separated (8ia- 
KeKpijjievai, SiaKpivto) into distinct flocks, they were kept apart. — X W P >L S 
p-ev .... x w P' L S $€.... X w p' L S 8' a ^' : ™ l one place .... and in an- 
other .... and again in another. — Y. 222. vaiov : Lex. vaica, A. III. 
— Y. 223. T€Tiryjj,eva (Lex. Te^X 05 ? II- 2) : agrees with dyyea : and all the 
vessels were filled with whey, both the pails and pans, well made, into which 
he milked. — Y. 224L. 7rp6ria-Q 3 = irpwrio-TO, : followed by cdVr&p &ir€iTa : 
first of all .... but after that, etci — Y. 225, Tvpcov : partitive gen. : 
alvu|ji€VQ'us agrees with the subj. of llvai, sc. f^ds : that we taking of the 
cheese go, etc. — Y. 227. IgtAdo-avras, same const, with alvvpe'vous : 
that we having driven hastily from, the folds to the swift ship both kids, etc. 
-*- V. 228. $\ t dv . . . . fyv : and surely it 'would have been far better, 
sc. €i €7ri8dp/r]v, if I had yielded. H. 746, 752 ; S. Gr. 514 ; 520, b ; G. 
§ 222 ; § 226, 2. — Y. 229, o^p' .... i'8oip.i : closely connected with 
dXX* .... ttiQ6\l7\v. The intervening clause is parenthetical. — Y. 230. 
ovS* .... &recr8cu, but he (the Cyclops) was not, when he appeared, a,bout 
to be, etc. — Y. 231. tc/javTes : Kalo>. — ko.1 avTol .... t^d-yop-ev (Icr0t«), 
ourselves also .... ate. Not only did they offer to the gods burnt-offer- 
ings of the cheese, but partook themselves also : Tvpwv cuvvpevoi, cf. v. 225. 
Rather free use they made of the provisions of the Cyclops ! — Y. 233-. 
€ios, Att. &os, until. — 6£?pip.ov ktI., lit. a mighty load of dry wood : 
#j3pifiov, used metaphorically ; a mighty load, i. e. a load which required 
great strength to bear it. — Y. 234L TroTiSopmov : Lex. •n-pocrSopmov : 
an aid to the evening meal. Yoss renders, dass bei Licht er dsze zu Abend: 
that he might eat by a light at evening. This is rather an explanation than 
a translation. — Y. 235. paXtov, sc. dx0os -uXt]s. He first within the 
cave cast down the load of wood, and then proceeded to drive in the flocks. 
Y. 2335. dTr€a-crt>p.€0a : diroa-evco. — 238. pdXa, join with irdvTa, as in 
several other instances in Horn. ;. is intensive ; see Lex. p.dXa. — 6<ror s ; 

12 NOTES. 

Lex. 6cros: the o- doubled for the metre. — $t\xekye : a]iiky(a : cf. the comp. 
€vdp.€XY€v, v. 223. — 0* P t]<|hv : H. 206 D ; S. Gr. 639 ; G. § 61, Note 3 : 
dat. of place, at the door : farther explained by (3a0eto|s ^ktoOcv a^X^s, on 
the outside, within the deep yard: avkr^j gen. of place. See Lex. cktoOcv. 
The reading HvroQev (= €vtqo-0€v) is preferred by Am. and F. Thus crfXfjs 
depends on evroOev, within the deep yard. This certainly seems far simpler 
and more natural. — V. 240. circ0r t ic€ (iiririQv^i), he placed upon (the 
doorway). — Qvpeov : pronounced, in scanning, in two syllables ; synizesis. 
H. 37 ; S. Gr. 617 ; G. § 10 : is the obj. both of €V € '0t]K€ and of delpas. — 
V. 241. 6ppip.ov : cf. note, v. 233 : emphatic position. — cuk &v . . . . 
6\Xicr(reiciv : not two-and-twenty wagons, strong, four-wheeled, could move this 
from the ground. The expression presents the picture of a large number of 
strong teams ; but how they could all be used at once to move the huge 
door, unless they were detached from the wagons and hitched together, is 
not very apparent. We may perhaps render it, not the power of twenty -two 
wagons .... could move, etc. So Faesi : T€Tpdia>KXoi, first three syllables 
long. — V. 243. Qvprprw (depends on eV- ; on the doorway) : plur. ; per- 
haps to denote the great size of the entrance. — V. 245. trdvra Kara 
fjioipav : all things in order ; or, wholly in order : irdvTa may be talfeh as adv. 
ace. — vtt .... tjK€v<: tmesis : e^do-TYi, governed by vir : under each he 
placed a suckling. — V. 246. ©pi^J/as : rpe«(>o). — V. 24^. dp/qcrd^evos : 
dfJidw. — V. 248. 6<f>pa .... aivv\i.iv(a : lit. that it might be to him tak- 
ing (it) to drink: i. e. that it might serve him, in taking [of it), for drink. 
Const, of iriveiv ? H. 765 ; S. Gr. 529 ; G. § 265. — TroriSop-rriov : cf. v. 
234. — Y. 250. cnreSo-g 7rovr]<rd}JL€vos : hastily performed (H. 801 ; S. Gr. 
546, e ; G. § 277, 2) : lit. hastened having performed — t& d gp*ya, these his 
labors. Perhaps an American would say, these his chores. — V. 251. -n-vp 
&v£kcu€ (dvaicafco) indicates that the fire mentioned v. 231 had burned 
down. — efrriScv : augment omitted; hence, recessive accent : TjjJteas (Att. 
Tjfxds), the obj. -equally of elViSev and of €l'p€To : els denotes properly the 
act of glancing within, and Tjjiias is obj. of I'Sev : glancing within (the cave), 
he saw (us) and questioned us. 

Vv. 252-286. The Cyclops inquires of the strangers who they are. 
Odysseus replies, and seeks to move the compassion of the monster, who 
answers with blasphemy, and questions Odysseus about his ship. 
• V. 252. irXsiO' = irX € iT€, fr. irXew.— V. 2.53. fj : interrog. H. 828, 
b; 829; S. Gr. 566, b ; G. § 282, 2. — tI, adv. ace. — tca/rd irpf)|iv, on 
business. — V. 254. old t€ (Epic use of Te), like. — toit' (= toi, relat., 
and Te), who. — dXdovTai (dXaojiat) : H. 370 D, a ; S. Gr. 713 ; G. § 124, 
1. — V. 255. irapCe^evoi, Trapa.Ti0Tjju. — V. 256. e^a©' ( = ee|>aTo = 
Att. €icf>i]). — : dat. of interest in looser relations. — KaTexXdo-0?] : 
KaTcucXda). — «( > ^ ov •" httle more than a possessive pronoun in force. Lex. 
<|>(,Xos, 3 : and as for us, on the other hand, our heart was broken down, while we 
feared, etc. SeicrdvTwv, gen. abs. sc. f(jj.<5v, implied in tjjj.iv expressed just 
before. — V. 258 dXXd kg,! <»s, but even thus (i. e. although smitten 


with terror). — V. 2*19. 'H^ets, subj. of ^X0o(X€V ? v. 262. — Tpofo]0ev : 
" belongs with ol'KaSg UpEvoi," Diintz. ; "belongs with T]X0op.€Vj" Ameis, 
Faesi. Does it not belong with both words ? — dxo7rXa*yx0£VTes (diroirXa^w, 
cf. 1:2): driven away from (our course). — V. 261. dXXrjv 6Sbv, dXXa 
KlXevGa : aclv. ace. : a usage of dXXos hard to render ; lit. by another way, 
by other journey ings. Perhaps we may render freely, by various ways, by 
various journeyings. The Greek expresses briefly and emphatically the 
wanderings of Odysseus. — V. 262. oO'tco ttov (Lex. ttov, 2), thus, no 
doubt ; or, thus, I suppose. — fj.TjTtcrao-0ai, to carry out his plan. Am. — V. 
263. Xaoi : predicate with etveu. H. 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b ; G. § 136, Note 
2 : we boast that we are people of, etc. — 'ATpetSeto (-Seco in one syllable in scan- 
ning ; synizesis) : H. 136 D • S. Gr. 638 ; G. § 39. —V. 264. rov limits 
kXc'os. Notice here the force of 8tj. H. 851 ; S. Gr. 580, d. — jjie'-yicrTov 
is predicate ; kXcqs, subj. — V. 265. SieVcpo-g (Siaire'pGw), sacked. — V. 
266. rj^ets 8* aSre : but we, on the other hand (i. e. we, in distinction from 
Agamemnon). — t& era yoiiva (-— -yoyo/rci, fr. yovv) belongs in thought both 
with the preceding and with the following word : arriving at, have approached 
these thy knees. — V. 267. d, (to ascertain) if—Y. 26§. -fJT€ (Epic 
use of ri) ... , etrTtv : which is the right of strangers. —V. 269. alSao 
(alSlojJiai) = alSseo = alSlov = Att. alSoi). — eljxe'v : H. 406 D, 1 ; S. Gr. 
734, s ; G. § 129, I. Note ; tol (enclit.) dat. sing. = croi. H. 233 D ; S. 
Gr. 678 ; G. § 79, I. Note 2. — V. 27©. Zzi% sc. eVrt. — Y. 271. gei'- 
vios, Lex. gevios. — Y. 272. 4<j>d[Ar s v : cf. €'4>a0', and note, v. 256. — Y. 
273. vrjiuds els = Att. d. H. 406 D, 1 ; S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, I. 
Note. Observe that ets is enclitic, although et is orthotone. G. § 27, 3 ; H. 
406, Rem. b; S. Gr. 277, b: you are foolish. — elX^Xou0as : ^px ^ 0,1 ' ~ 
Y. 274. KeXeai : H. 355. Mid. : 363 D ; S. Gr. 240 ; 711 ; G. § 122, 
2, Indie. 8es.8ip.gv : 8e(,8co, SeCSia, SaSoiKa, Se'Sia, Sc'Soiko, (the last two are 
Attic) : G. Appendix ; H. 409, 5 ; 409 D, 5 ; S. Gr. 280, e ; 737, g ; 8ei- 
8^ev, infin. H. 359 D ; S. Gr. 708 ; G. § 122, 2, Infill. — dXeW0ai (1 aor. 
iniin.) : dXeop-ai and dXeiJop,ai : you who bid me either to fear or to avoid (the 
wrath of ) the gods. — Y. 276. erreiTJ : penult short in scanning. H. 86 
D (3) ; S. Gr. 631. Some editors write here lire! -fj. — Y. 277. dv, with 
•n-e^nSotfj/qv (4>, which takes the gen. (cr€S = Att. (rov, accented, 
hence emphatic; and eTapcav). — Y. 279. €l'<j>* = dire (imper. fr. etirov). 
But tell me to what point in coming you held, etc. i. e. to what point in coming 
you steered, etc. — Y. 28®. 4] . . . . % whether .... or. — Saeico (aor. 
pass, subjunc.) : Lex. AAI2. II. that I may learn. — Y. 2§1. <j»aTO : aug- 
ment omitted : = s^clto, cf. v. 256. — ep.e .... Xd0ev : but he did not elude 
me, i. e. he did not deceive m,e. — clSoTa (o!8a) agrees with i\U, and takes 
iroXXd as obj. — Y. 2 §2. dU|/oppov, back, i. e. in reply, qualifies upoare- 
cjjrjv. — Y. 283. ~N£a (~ Att. vaiiv, fr. vcuis) : = one long syllable, by 
synizesis : obj. of KaT€a|e (Karayvv\ki) : \ioi, dat. of interest. — Y. 2§4. 
PaXcov (sc. via), having cast (it). — ujatjs (viags, d, or i\, dv = i'jxeTepos), 
qualifies "yaiTjs, of your land. — Y. 2 §5. dtcpr) irpocnreXdcras (irpocnreXd^Gi)) : 
H. 605 ; S. Gr. 439 ; G. § 187. — dvep.os €K ttovtov are closely joined in 

14 NOTES. 

thought : -itovtos (as distinguished fr. BaXatrcra, the generic word for sea, 
or the sea in distinction from the land) means the deep sea, or as we say, the 
high sea. So here, we may say, a wind from the high sea : gveiKev (4>€pco) = Att. 
*]V€yK€V, bore (the ship) away. • — V. 2 §6. vireK^vyov = Att. vircj-ifyvyov. 

Yv. 287 - 352. Three meals of the Cyclops, in which he devours six men 
(two at a meal) : plan of Odysseus for revenge and escape. 

V. 288. Iirl .... i'aXXcv (tmesis), takes the ace. x^po-s and the dat. 
Irdpois. — V. 2 §9. <rvv .... fi.dp\|/as : 0-vfj.jj.dpirrG). — w<tt€ (Epic use 
ofTe), as, like. — V. 29®. €tc . . . . p«€ : €Kp€w. — V. 291* toijs, obj. 
of Sid .... rafjicov (8iaT€(ivo)). — a>TrXi<rcraTO (6itXi£<d) : mark the force 
of the mid. ; he got ready for himself. — V. 292, direXenrcv (diroXeiiro)), 
nor did he leave anything remaining. — V. 293. ^Kara kt4, obj. of fj<r8ie. 

— Y. 294. dv€<rx€0ojj.€v : dve'xfc>. G. Appendix ; H. 411 D ; S. Gr. 739. 
Outstretched hands, with the palms upward, was a common attitude in 
supplication. — Y. 295. dji^xavtif] : derivation? See Lex. Perhaps 
despair comes nearest to the meaning. Perplexity, trouble, distress, are words 
rather too weak for the connection. — Y. 296. Ip/n-XTjo-aTo : IfiirtirXitfu : 
cf. IjAirX^o-as, v. 212, note. — V. 29f. eir* .... mvcav : Lex. €irarlva>. 

— Y. 298. k€it* = £k€ito : KeTjxat. — Tavwcrdjievos Std ji^Xwv, stretched 
alonq among his flocks. — Y. 299. tov, obj. of ovrajj-evai (Lex. ovraca), 2 
aor/ infin. act. G. Appendix ; H. 408 D, 21 ; S. Gr. 740, jr. — Y. 301. 
#0i . . . . ^x o<ucrLV > where the midriff (<j:p€V€s) holds the liver, — a point most 
vulnerable and vital. — Y. 302. x^P* ( = X €l P0 €irtjj,ao-ordfj,€vos (eTnjxaio- 
jxai), having grasped (it, the dagger) with my hand. So most editors ; yet 
Ameis, with some probability, renders, seeking with the hand; because he 
could not, in the darkness, see the precise point where he would plunge the 
dagger. Diud. retains the reading x^P* (= X € ^P a )> which I could not fol- 
low. — 8« : correl. of \l4v after tov : but another mind, etc. — Y. 3®3. 
avToti, adv. k4(v) = Att. &v, qualifies diro)Xop,€0a. Force of this const. ? 
H. 746 ; S. Gr. 514 ; G. § 222. For we (&\l^s = r^eis. G. § 79, Note 2 ; 
H. 233 D ; S. Gr. 678) also should have perished there with terrible destruction. 
3X€0pov, cogn. ace. G. § 159 ; H. 547 ; S. Gr. 393. — Y. 304. 8wd- 
p.€(r0a, Att. €8vvd|JL€0a. — 0updo>v depends on air- in dir<6cracr0ai (dircoGeoj), 
to force with our hands from the lofty doorway, etc. Cf. v. 243, note. — Y. 
•306.' «s, in this situation. — Y. 3©8. dv€Kai€, v. 251. — Y. 31®. Cf. 
v. 250. — Y. 311. <rvv .... p,dp*|/as : tmesis : cf. v. 289. — 8tj afrrs : 
two syllables in scanning ; synizesis. — wttXio-o-cito : v. 291 : Seiirvov, his 
meal: here spoken of the morning meal. It means properly the principal 
meal of the day. See Lex. : Sdpirov, v. 291, the evening meal, supper. — Y. 
314. oia-d T€ . . . . liuOefa] : subj. indefinite : as if one would place, etc. 

— Y. 316. Observe the position of KtJKXa)\[f, at the end of the sentence, 
thus bringing it into more marked antithesis with ryw, — Xiir6fJ!.T]v, 2 aor. 
mid. I remained behind. — Y. 3 1 7 • €l' ircos tig-ciijaijv (rivm), if in any way 
I might avenge myself (upon him). — Y. 318. fj8€ .... po-uX^j, and the 
following plan, etc. : apC(nr\ 3 predicate. — Y. 319. -yap : epexegetic ; see 


Lex. : in this use, not comm. translated into English. So here, we should 
begin the sentence abruptly, there lay, etc. — V. 32®. &cra|A€v (== egera- 
|X€V, 2 aor., Ik, tc^vco), he cut out. — aiavBiv (cdjaivw) agrees with the obj. 
of 4>opoiT], that he might carry {it) when dried. — V. 321, to, obj. of ao-Ko- 
jjiev, also of €lo-opd«VT€s (eis, opdco). — V. 322. Ba-arov s itrrov : a con- 
densed form of expression (brachylogy. H. 881 ; S. Gr. 595, b). "With 
logical^ completeness, tocto-ov, 8o-«tos tI ea-nv icttos. So Ameis, Cr., 
Krtiger. We may imitate in English the brevity of the expression : look- 
ing upon (it), we considered it {to be) as large as the mast of, etc. '9* = tc, 
Epic use. — €€iKO<ropoio : Lex. €iKo<ropos. — Y. 323. cvpeujs (evpv$), 
Att. evpeias : licrrepda. H. 370 D, a ; S. Gr. 713 ; G. § 124, 1. — V. 324. 
jxfjKOs, irdxcs : ace. of specification : lit. so much it (sc. powaXov) was in length, 
so much in thickness: or, more freely, such it was in, etc. — elo-op&ao-Oai (of. 
CKirepda, note) : const. ? H. 767, a ; S. Gr. 530 : such to look upon, i. e. esti- 
mating it by the eye, or in appearance. — V. 325. 6crov r op-ymav : similar 
to the const, tfcrcrov 0' Etrrov, v. 322 : standing near I cut off as much as six 
feet of this. — V. 32©. irapeOrjx^ Trap€0T]Ka (TrapaT^jja), / delivered (it) 
to, etc. — V. 327. ol 8' ojxaXbv iroi^crav, and they (in obedience to my 
order) made (it) smooth. — kQomcra (0odto) .... ctKpov, sharpened the point. — 
V. 32®. eirvpdKTeov, irvpaKreo. — ktjX&o (KTjXeos) : two syllables in scan- 
ning : synizesis. — V. 32@. - ical KaT€0i]Ka, and this (i. e. the stick 

of timber thus prepared) I placed carefully (eS) down. — V. 330. i\ relates 
to Koirptp, fern. — p.€*yd\a, adv. with k€'xvto (\4m) : i]Xi0a, adv. with iroXX^j, 
which qualifies 4\ f which, throughout the cave, tuas spread in very great abun- 
dance (lit. was spread greatly , sufficiently abundant). — V. 331. -nwaXd- 
o-0ai (Lex. iraXdcra-G), II.) : the reading of Aristarchus, adopted by Dind., 
Ameis, and others : Cr., Diintz., and others read here ireiraXdxOai : I ex- 
horted the others to determine (for themselves) by lot. — Y. 332. ijxol o-tv, 
mecum. — p.o)(Xcv, the bar, i. e. that piece of the pdoraXov (v. 319), which 
he had chopped off (v. 325). — V. 333. TpuJ/cu depends on toX(j^<t€1€v, 
should dare to turn (it) round (lit. to rub it) in his eye : Am. reads lir* 6<f>0riX- 
p.a>, and renders, to press it on his eye. So also Diintz. — Y. 334. oi S£ 
.... €X4(r0cu, and those (men) drew the lots (Lex. Xct-yxdvco) whom I myself 
should have even wished Jo choose: notice &v kc (H. 873, b) both with one 
verb. — Y. 335. IXe-yji/qv : Lex. \4yo>, II. : "I counted myself" Am. — 
Y. 336. icnrepics (H. 488, K. c ; S. Gr. 340, c) 8* f]X0€v, and he (the 
Cyclops) came at evening. — KaXXiTptxot : KaXXL0pi£. ■ — vop.eia)v, driving 
from the pasture. — Y. 338. P<x0eu}s j <-ktc0€V auXfjs : cf. v. 239, note. — 
Y. 33®. 6i<rdjJL€Vos (oUopaO : either having suspected something, or even some 
god (who was favorable to Odysseus) impelled him (to do) thus. From the 
subsequent narrative, it appears, that the presence of the flocks within the 
cave was a very important means of escape to Odysseus and his compan- 
ions. — Y. 340 = 240. — Yv. 341, 342 = 244, 245. — Y. 343 = 
250. — Y. 344 = 311, except the last word. — Y. 345. Trpoo-TjiiSwv 
(imperf., 1st pers., sing.) irpccravSdco. — Y. 340. kig-<tv§iov : note care- 
fully the meaning in Lex., especially the passage referred to in Euripides, 

16 f NOTES. 

Cycl. We may suppose Odysseus found this Ki<r<rv$iov in the cave. We 
may perhaps render the verse, holding in my hands a milk-pail filled with 
dark wine. — t\ imparts indefmiteness to olov : the whole expression is 
condensed ; lit. what sort of drink this, etc. ; i. e. expressed more freely, 
what sort of drink this (is which) our ship concealed (kcuOco). The pluperf. 
, €K€K€ii0a is usually taken here as imperf. in meaning. Yet why not under- 
stand it as strictly pluperf. had concealed; Odysseus thus implying again 
that the ship had been wrecked, and that it no longer contained such wine ? 

— V. 349. col (emphatic position and accented) .... <J5epov, and fur- 
ther, I brought (it) as a drink-offering for you. — el, if i. e. (to see) if. — V, 
-351. rl$ (followed by an enclit. ; hence, has the acute accent), join with 
dXXos. — ore, with frcoiro : kcii, intens. with vVrepov, afterwards also. — 
Y. 352. iroXeW, fr. iroXvs. The accent distinguishes it from the gen. 
plur. of irdXis (irdXecov). How could any other one of many men afterwards 
also (as we have done) approach you? — Kara p-oipav (Lex. |xoipa, III. 5: 
not to be confounded with the proper noun Motpa), properly. — epefas, pe£». 

Yv. 353 - 412. The Cyclops drinks of the wine till he becomes drunken ; 
is deprived of his eye, and calls for help. 

Y. 353. 8e'KTO : H. 408 D, 36 ; S. Gr. 736, j ; G. Appendix, Sexojiai. 

— eKiuev (eKirivto) : notice the force of the prep., drank it off, or, as we often 
sajr, drank it up. — -fjo-aTO : -qSofxai. — alvws, although strongly intens., 
does not, I think, lose its primary force : was mightily pleased (and the ex- 
pression of pleasure was terrible to behold). One is reminded here of 
Milton's expression, Paradise Lost, Book II., "Death grinned horrible a 
ghastly smile." — Y. 354. XjVee : oxriia. — Y. 356. tol, dat. = <roi. 

— Y. 358. Kcd o-<|>iv .... de'let (Lex. dcjft), pres.) : and the shower from 
Zeus increases (it, i. e. the wine, or the fruit of the vine) for them. — Y. 
360. &T&p ot (dat. ) . . . . irdpov (Lex. irdpco), but I gave to him again, 
etc. &T&p seems to have here a very slight adversative force, if any at all, 
and may, perhaps, be rendered, and, as we often render Se. Yoss omits it 
altogether in his translation of this verse. — Y. 3^1. With gSioKa and 
with e'lcmev, sc. otvov. — &<|>pci8h]onv : cf. aTaor0aXCrjo-iv, 1:7: lit. with 
inconsiderate actions, i. e. inconsiderately. — Y. 3® 2. irepl .... ^X-uGev : 
tmesis : Lex. Tr€pie'p)(op,ai. — <|>p€vas, partit. appos. with KvKXwircu H. 500, 
b ; S. Gr. 353, b ; lit. when the wine came about the Cyclops, his mind, i. e. 
when the wine encompassed the mind of the Cyclops. — Y. 303. Trpoo-ipSttv : 
irpoo-auSdoo : i" addressed him. — Y. 3@5. vnecrrrjs: Lex. {kJho-ttjijii, B, 
2. — V. 366. Ofrris, sc. Io-tIv, Noman is my name. — Y. 367. eTcupoi, 
appos. with dXXoi : H. 538, e ; S. Gr. 383, f : and others, all my companions. 

— Y. 369. eSojuu (ecrBio)) : notice the tense. — p.€T& with dat. seems 
here to mean, added to, after. — Y. 37<0>. rovs S 1 &XXoi>s, sc. e'Sojxai, and 
these others (I will eat), etc. Note the difference, in force, of rovs dXXo-us 
here, and in Attic Greek. In Att. the others, the 7-est. H. 538, e ; S. Gr. 
3S3, f ; G. § 142, Note 3 ; but here, «roiis is demonst. — Y. 371. "H : 
H. 404, 1 ; S. Gr. 274, a; G. Appendix %.i : he spoke. — V. 872. Ketr* 


= &c€ito, fr. K€i}iai. — kcL8 = kclto,. H. 73 D ; S. Gr. 628 ; G. § 12, Note 
3; join with fjpei '/ Lex. KaOaipew. — 3^3. <|>dpu*yos (fr. <j>dpiry£) 8' 

€^€cto~uto (4k<t€v«i)), and from his throat burst forth, etc. — V. 3f 4. 6 8'.... 
otvojSapetaov, awe? Ae, Aeary zwYA wrme, spewed (them) out. — V. 37 &• rbv 
jjloxXov, that bar, the one described above : cf. v. 332, note : obj. of fjXcura, 
/ thrust underneath abundant ashes. "We must suppose the fire in the ashes 
not yet extinct. — Y. 3f6. dois Oepp-alvon-o, until it (the bar) might be- 
come glowing hot. — Y. 277 m daptrvvov : aug. omitted: Lex. Gapo-vvw. — 
dvaStJ-rj : Lex. dvaSvojiai, dep. mid. with aor. act. : notice here the subjunc, 
where the general rule requires the optat. H. 739, 740 ; S. Gr. 507, 508 ; 
G. § 216, 2 : that no one, through fear, might fail me (or, more literally, might 
shrink back). — V. 3^9. &t|/€O-0ai (Lex. frirno, II.) to blaze up. — x^P^S 
Tr€p I'iv (ire'p, in tens. ; lav, concessive), though it ivas very green; or, perhaps 
we may say, green as it zoas. — 8L€<f>atv€To 8' alvoos, and it glowed exceedingly 
(with the collateral notion of terror). — V. 38®. iced totc, correl. of dXX' 
oVe above, even then — Y. 38©. fyipov (sc. p,oxXdv) bore (it). — Y. 381. 
€veirv€v<rev, IpnrWw. — Yv. 382, 383, ol p.ev .... €y<a Se, the others 
.... but I. — 4v€p€to-av, IvepetSca. — d€p0e£s, detpco. — Y. 384. SLveov, 
Lex. Bivevm and Sivew. — tws ot€ kt!., as wAen sewze man would bore with an 
auger a ship-timber. Tpinrw (fr. Tpwr&G>), optat. H. 730, 760, d ; S. Gr. 
523 ; G. § 213, 3. — Y. 385. ol 8e r\ and the others (in distinction from 
the ship-carpenter, i. e. his workmen) below shake (the auger) with a strap, 
having taken hold (of the strap) at each end, and this (the auger) runs unceas- 
ingly always. The comparison extends to this point. — Y. 383'. «s (ac- 
cented = Att. ovtcos). — tot) €v 6(|>9a\p,<3, in the eye of this one (the Cyclops) : 
connect closely with Siveofjiev : jj.oxX.ov, obj. both of IXovtcs and of Sive'o- 
(lev. — Y. 388. rdv (i. e. p.oxXdv) depends on mpt in corap. — rapippee 
(Lex. irepippea)), aug. omitted, and uncontracted : = Att. irepieppei : subj. 
cup,a. — Y. 3§9. pXe'cjjapa seems to mean, not the eyelids, but eye- 
lashes: 6<$>pva$, eyebrows: ap.$C, adv. all his eyelashes round about, obj. of 
€vo-cv (Lex. ev<a). — Y. 3*9®. arfyapay&vvro (o-^apa-yeofxai) : for the con- 
traction €v fr. €0, see H. 370 D, b ; S. Gr. 714; G. § 124, 2. — ol (enclit.) 
in this, and in the preceding verse, I regard as "dat. of interest in looser 
relations." In this use it is often difficult to render. — Y. 391. x^XKevs, 
originally a worker in copper or bronze ; but as criSripoi) is used v. 393, it must 
be taken here in a wider sense, a smith, a blacksmith. — ttcXckw, the general 
word for axe : c-Keirapvcv, a broadaxe, used by carpenters for hewing. — Y. 
39^. I&xovto. agrees in form with ttcXckw, in sense with o-Keirapvov 
also : p,e7&Xa, adv. loudly. — Y. 393. <j>>v takes the same objects 
as pd-n-TTj. — to yap afire, for this again (this dipping it in cold water) is the 
strength of iron. The comparison ends at this point. — Y. 394. rov .... 
6cf>9aXjj.ds, the eye of this one (the Cyclops). — o-^€. The iota must be re- 
garded as long simply by position, not in itself ; hence, the acute accent. 
The local English word siss, though questionable in its use, comes nearer 
to the Greek, and represents the onomatopoeia better, than the usual Eng. 
word hiss-. — V. 395. crpepSaXcov and p.(ya both adv., very terribly. — 

18 NOTES. 

ir€TpT|, the rock,.i. e. the rocky cavern. — V. *S9^. direcrcrvjji.e©^, dirc©-€tso>. 
— V. 39f. I^epvcre, k^epvm : *rre<jn>pp,€vov (<frvp(o), smeared. — Y. 308, 
Ho = 06. H. 233 D; S. Gr. 678; G. § 79, Note 2. — xep.<riv: Diintz. 
takes this with £ppu|/ev (fAew he cast this from him with his hands, being fran- 
tic) : Ameis takes it with dXucov (making frantic motions with his hands). 
The arrangement of the Greek favors the latter. The penult of akvot is 
found long only here. Ameis. — V. 399. p.e*ydXa, cf. v. 392. — juv 
djjwjns (prep, here : does not suffer anastrophe. H. 102 D, b ; S. Gr. 634), 
round about him. — V. 400. Bid with the ace, nsu. denotes cause ; some- 
times, time or place. H. 630 ; S. Gr. 447, i : through, scattered through. — 
V. 401. «|>oItcov, <|>oiTd&>. — dXXoGev dXXos. H. 500, b ; S. Gr. 353, a : 
appos. with ol : and they .... one from one place, another from another, or, 
and they, from all points, etc. — V. 402, el'pcvTO, Lex. — otti I 
KtffSoi : optat. H. 734, 736 ; S. Gr. 502, 504 ; G. § 244 : asked, what 
troubled him. — Y. 403. Tforre ; = tI ttot€ ; why, in the world ? — tc- 
c-ov .... dpT|p.fevos (see Lex. under this word : is not considered as 
particip. fr. dpdop-ai), 50 much distressed. — 008 ' IpoTjo-as (jBodco), did you cry 
thus, etc. — Y. 404. 8td, through: cf. v. 400. — &p.p,€ : G. 79, Note 2; 
H. 233 D ; S. Gr. 678. — Tifo]ofa : aug. omitted : the ending <r8a for s ; 
G. § 128, 1 ; H. 356, a; S. Gr. 267, i. — Y. 405. fj p.Vj. Force in a 
question ? G. § 282, 2 ; H. 829 ; S. Gr. 566, b : tI$, indef., followed by 
an enclit. : hence, written ris : <rev deKcvros, gen. abs., particip. omitted. 
H. 791, b ; S. Gr. 542. Does any one of mortals, etc. ? Or perhaps more 
forcibly in this form (which in the connection would be understood as a 
question, and would anticipate a negative answer), Surely no one of mortals, 
without your consent, drives away your flocks ! — Y. 406. ktcCvt) : subjunc. : 
is taken here nearly in the sense of the fut. indie. H. 720, e ; S. Gr. 488, 
d ; G. § 255 : yet the subjunc. in this sense regularly takes the negative 
ov. H. 833, b; S. Gr. 570, a ; G. § 255, examples. Some of the best 
editors (Ameis, and others) read here Krdva, which is found in good MSS., 
and corresponds in construction with IXcuivei. Diintzer suggests that both 
verbs should be understood here of "attempted action." H. 702 ; S. Gr. 
476, c ; G. § 200, Note 2. (Hadley mentions this use of the pres. tense 
only in» the smaller gram.) We may render, Surely no one attempts to slay 
you yourself etc. p^tjuv : G. § 61, Note 3 ; H. 206 D ; S. Gr. 639.' — V. 
408. There is ambiguity not only in OStis, but also in ovSi. Polyphe- 
mus means, 'Noman " is trying to slay me, through guile, and not by violence. 
He is understood to say, no one is trying to slay me through guile or violence. 
OStis, as here used, is said to be the first pun on record. In Greek, the 
neg. is regularly repeated in the conjunc. H. 858 ; S. Gr. 583, d, — 
Y. 409. irTepdevT' (irrcpaeis) agrees with girea. — Y. 410. [xrj, instead 
of o*, in a condition. G. § 283, 2 ; H. 835 ; S. Gr. 570. The use of this 
word clearly reveals the misunderstanding. — Y. 411. vo€<rov, obj. of 
dXexcr&u. — &tti : notice the accent and meaning with this accent. H. 406, 
Rem. b, 1 ; S. Gr. 277, c ; G. § 28, Note 1 (3). It is not in any way pos- 
sible, etc. — Y. 412. o-vy =075; etfxeo (= e$x. ov ) '- €ifx°H» au 


Yv. 413-479. The manner in which Odysseus with his companions 
escapes from the cave, and afterwards taunts the Cyclops. 

Y. 413. • &J5av, imperf. Att. &|>curav. H. 355 D, c ; S. Gr. 703 ; G. 
§ 129, IV. — Ijjlov <(>iXov Kfjp, subj. of kyiXaa-are. — V. 414. oi^ppa Ijiov, 
subj. of €|airdTT]<r€V (which is understood in the next clause with p.fjTis) : 
deceived (them, i. e. the Cyclops). — V. 415. 68wT|<riv (dat. plur. fr. 
oSvvr]) : an emphatic pleonasm (H. 884 ; S. Gr. 595, e) with wSmov. We 
may render it somewhat freely, tormented with pain. — V. 416. \|rr]Xa- 
<j>da>v, *|/Tj\cuj>dco. — &irb .... eIXe : a^aipico. — Xi0ov. In v. 243, 'n'erp'qv 
is spoken of the same object. — Qvpdatv : spoken here, as in v. 243, of the 
huge doorway. — V. 41 7, dvi = hi = ev. — ireTaoro-as : <r doubled metri 
gratia." — V. 41 8. el ... . Xdpoi : an ellipsis before d is not unfre- 
quent : (to see) if he migM take, etc. — [isr 3 oeo-cn (ois), among the sheep: 
Hm. uses also olecro-iv and ofecriv, metri gratia. Cr. — crreixovra agrees 
with Tivct, obj. of Xdj3oi. — Qvpa%e : H. 204 ; S. Gr. 114 ; G. § 61. — 
V. 419. €vl <j>p€<rt, joined with fjXireTO ; similar forms of pleonasm are 
frequent in Hm. Lex. gXrao : he flattered himself in mind that I was, etc. 
(We can hardly say, he hoped that I was) . — ovto v^ttiov, so foolish (as to 
go towards the doorway among the sheep). — V. 42®. ottods .... yi- 
voito, how it might turn out in the very best manner (6\ &pio-Ta ? adv.). — 
V. 491. el . . . . €vpo(}jiir]v : connect closely with jSovXeuov (notice this 
verb in the act.) : whether I might devise, etc. — riva .... Qavdrov Xva-iv 
(takes the gen. on the same principle as a verb of separation), some release 
from death. — V. 423. oScttc (Epic use of tc) irepl +v)(f]S, as for my life. 
— Y. 424. Cf. v. 318. — V. 425. Notice the asyndeton. H. 854; 
S. Gr. 582. — oties. Notice this form of the nom. plur. Comm. 6'ies, 
Att. otes : lit. there were male sheep, well-fed, thick-fleeced, etc. • — Y. 428. 
rfjs (= toils, relative) 'dirt (anastrophe), upon which, etc. — V. 429. crvv- 
rptis alvtf|J.€vos : connect closely in thought with vvvispyov : talcing (them, 
i. e. the rams) three together. — 6 \x.kv iv jjicVo), the one in the middle. — «J>epe- 
o-Kcv (<f>€pw) ; iterative ending, denoting that they passed along, by threes, 
one after another. — Y. 43®. cncovTes (c6o) and o-<6^w) €Tci£povSj saving 
(my) companions. Notice in this v. the subj. and verb in the dual, the 
particip. in the plur. H. 517; S. Gr. 368. — Y. 431. &aurrov can 
hardly be rendered each. We may translate it thus, three sheep bore con- 
tinually one man. Ameis renders ^ao-rov, immer einen. — 'iyaye, subj. of 
K€ifJt6V, v. 434. — Y. 432. &jv, in v. 423, we have $ev (Att. $\v) ; for there 
was, etc. — Y. 433. Kara .... XaPciSv (tmesis), having caught hold of 
the back of this one. — IXwGets, Lex. i\va). — Vv. 434, 435. kci^v 
(kcijmh), aug. omitted: / lay still. — x e P <J "' lv • •'• • <TTp€<J>0€ts (o-Tp€<f>a>) : 
lit. twisted continually with my hands, etc. i. e. with my hands continually 
twisted in the choice wool: clwtov (see Lex. for the full use of this word), 
joined with vrpefydeis, and understood with exo^v, as partit. gen., I clung 
to (it). — tctX^oti : H. 409 D, 10 ; S. Gr. 740 ; G. Appendix t\6lo>. Stem 
rXa : with patient heart. — Y. 43 §. vofAo'vSe (local ending -Se), to the pas- 
ture. — i%£<r<rvTo (ckc-svco) : subj. jJifjXa. — Y. 439* ipip^Kov : pjKdofjicu. 

20 NOTES. 

— V. 44®. otfOo/ra (oiidap), their udders. — <r<f>apa/y€WTO (cf. v. 390, 
note) : plur. verb, with neut. plur. subj. : were pressed to bursting. — ava£, 
their owner. — V. 441. otwv limits vwra, which is obj. of eirepaleTo 
(eVipaiopai) : felt the backs of, etc. — V. 442. to, obj. of evd^crev ; ex- 
plained by a>$ ... . SeSevro (Sew) : this, that they had been bound, etc. — 
V. 44 3, ol (enclit.) : dat. of interest in looser relations, or ethical dat. 
with SfcSevro : not easily rendered here. — vird with o-Tepvoio-i. — V. 444. 
vo-Taros .... p/^Xtcv : asyndeton, imparting liveliness to the narration ; 
last of the sheep, the ram, etc. — Qvpa^e : cf. v. 418. — Y. 445. tpot : 
same const, with Xd)(va> : oppressed with his wool and with me : irvsavd cj>po- 
veovn, thinking prudent thoughts. This is not to be doubted ! — V. 446. 
eVipac-o-dpevos : — V. 447. rC . . . . <»8e : why thus- (as I 
now discover), etc. ? — p.ol : ethical dat. G. § 184, 3, Note 5 ; H. 596, c ; 
599 ; S. Gr. 432, d ; 436' : not easily rendered. — 8id cnre'os : notice here . 
again (cf. v. 400) Sid with ace. (instead of 8id with gen.) denoting motion 
through. — eWi>o (o-evw) : pluperf., 2d per., sing. : notice the peculiar aug- 
ment. H. 319 J) ; S. Gr. 692. — p/f|X<ov limits lio-Tai-os. — V. 44§. 
irdpos with ^px^cw, pres. where we should more naturally employ the perf. : 
not at all, formerly at least, have you been wont to go, etc. : XeXeip^evos .... 
ol<ov, left away from, i. e. left behind. H. 580, 581 ; S. Gr. 422, a and b ; 
G. § 174. — V. 449. ve'peai : Lex. ve'pco. B: with ace. av0ea, you feed 
on, you crop, etc. — V. 456. paicpd (adv.) pipds : H. 435, 1 ; 435 D, 1 ; 
S. Gr. 740, bx : stepping far, or with long strides. — V. 452. €a-7repios : 
cf. 336, note. — iravv<rraros, sc. eVo-i, or epxeai. — $\ o-vy\ surely, you at 
least (you if no one else). — V. 453. tov .... efaXdtGo-ev, which a wicked 
man deprived (me) of — V. 454. Xirypots : our word miserable is used in 
the same way, in its secondary sense, to denote contempt. — fypivas, (my) 
mind. — V. 455. Qfrris : appos. with dv^p. In translating, follow as 
nearly as possible the order of the clauses in the Greek. — oiliro) : join with 
TrctjnJYpivov etvai. Neg. ov with the iniin. in oratio obliqua. H. 837, b ; 
S. Gr. 571, a; G. § 283, 3 : who, I affirm, has not yet escaped, etc. — V. 
456. el ... . ^fc'voio: a wish. H. 721, 1, a ; S. Gr. 489, a, b ; G. 
§ 251. O that you were of like mind, and that you might become endowed with 
speech to tell, etc. — V. 45 8. tw ktI., then would his brain, etc. : aXXvSts 
aXXtj, hither and thither. — Y. 459. 6ei.vop.evov : gen. abs. sc. avTov. 
The dat. agreeing with ol might have been expected here ; but as the 
particip. is so far from, the pron., the ordinary construction of the case; 
absolute is preferred : while he ivas dashed on the ground: paioiTo,-subj. e^Ke- 
<|>aXos. — KdS (= Kara. G. § 12, Note 3-; H. 73 D ; S. Gr. 628) : join with 
the verb : Lex. KaraAcocpcUo. — Y. 460. ovnSavbs OStis, good-for-nothing 
Noman. The play on words, expressing more fully the rage of the Cyclops, 
will not escape notice. This address to the pet ram has its comic as well 
as its pathetic side. — Y. 462. IXOovtcs is used as though the plur. 
IXvdpeOa (st. the sing. Xuc'p.'qv) followed : an anacoluthon. H. 886 ; S. Gr. 
595, g, when we had gone a little (distance) .... I first loosed myself, etc. 
— Y. 463. Notice the difference, in this verse, between the act. and 


mid. of \v<t> ; also, the force of inr : I loosed .... from under^(the rams). 

— V. 464.. jxfjXa : obj. of eXawopev. — $t]|a<3, St^jaos (distinguish care- 
fully from 8-f]|xos), plump with fat. — V. 465. iroXXd -irepiTpo-rreovTes : 
turning often (-sroXXd = iroXXdicis) about : i. e. looking often around, feaiing 
that Polyphemus might pursue them. So Am. and F. — 6<j>p' .... ikc- 
fji€0a, until we came, efo. — Y. 467. to -us 8e, but the others (whom Poly- 
phemus had devoured), obj. of crrevaxovTO. — Y. 468. ci'cov : idea. 

— dvd .... vtvov : Lex. dvaveuco : it signiiies denial or refusal, hence, 
has a negative sense : / beckoned to each one with my eyebrows not, etc. ; 
or thus, with my eyebrows, I forbade each one, etc. Be did not speak, 
lest Polyphemus might hear. — Y. 4?'®. (3aXdvTas, sc. avi-oiis, obj. of 
€K€X€vcra and subj. of tirnrXeiv. — Y. 4fe$. dirfjv : 1st pers. — yiyotve : 
Lex. y(y<ova (not to be confounded with yiyova) : when I ivas distant as far 
as (one) calls with a shout (lit. having shouted). — Y. 4T4. KcpTCfJiioioriv 
(here as subst. : often as adj. with i-ireo-a-i), with heart-cutting (words) : cf. 
in const. &ir€<rcri n.€iXix>oi<n,v. — Y. 4f 5. cute kt^ not, as it appears 
(c£pa), a contemptible man's companions were you intending to eat, etc. ^Sjxcvcu 
= $>€iv, cf. €o-0e'fj.€vai, v. 479, note. Connect closely in thought ovk and 
dvdXiaSos : cf. ovk .... epareivos, v. 230, for a similar arrangement. — 
Y. 4?©. KpaT€p-i]<j>i p^<j>LV (H. 206 D ; S. Gr. 639) : here as dat. in 
your mighty strength. — Y. 4 l t"?'. Kal \ir\v : cf. 1, 46, note. — criy* (= <r£ 
ye), obj. of Kix^^o-Gai : KaKa 2p"ya, subj. of ^p-sXXe : evil fortunes were des- 
tined to come on you at last: or, perhaps, in this way, your evil deeds were 
destined to find you out. One is reminded of Numbers xxxii. 23 : "Be sure 
your sin will find you out." — Y. 478. oyjirkf, voc. = (rxeVXie. — 
€7T€l .... ■&£€(> (imperf. 2d pers. sing. fr. &£oficu) .... e<r0ejjievcu (= Att. 
itrOUiv. H. 359 D. ; S. Gr. 708 ; G. § 122, 2, Infin., since you did not scruple 
to eat, etc. — to>, by reason of this, wherefore. 

Yv. 480-542. Polyphemus casts a fragment of a rock towards Odys- 
seus. Further conversation. Prayer of Polyphemus to Poseidon. He 
again hurls a rock, one still greater than the first. 

Y. 481. -qice: fr[ju. — Y. 482. — k<x8 .... gpaXe : Ka/rapaXXa). 

— irpoirdpoiGe, in front of: i. e. he cast the rock entirely over the ship, 
so that it fell in front. — V. 48 H is rejected here by all the best edi- 
tors, and should not be translated. — V. 484. 6kXvo-0t|, kXv£w. — Y. 
485. «nrjv, this, i. e. the ship ; obj. of <j>epe. — Y. 486. irX-qjjivpLs : 
appos. with Kvjxa : the wa,ve, a surge from the deep sea, rushing back (traXip- 
p60iov) bore this, etc. — x*P°" ov > ^ e dry land, in distinction from ^ireipovSe, 
towards the land. — Y. 488. wcra (a>0eco), subj. 4y<a : shoved (it, i. e. the 
ship) along off. — Y. 489. IjjLpaXeeiv (a or.) kc&tttjs (dat. plur.) : cf. Yerg. 
Aen. 5, 15, incumbere remis • to cast themselves on the oars. — £?r€K .... 
cjnryoifAsv : tmesis: KaKOTT|Ta, obj. of the verb : that we might escape from 
under the calamity. — Y. 49®. Kpa-rl (not to be confounded with any case 
of KpaTOs) : Lex. Kpds : Ka/ravevtov, agrees with the subj. of exeXcvtra : 
nodding with my head. — irpoTrecrovTes, having fallen forward (on the oars). — 

22 NOTES. 

Y. 49 "fi. Sis To<r<rov, twice as far (as before : cf. v. 473) : ctXa irp , /jcr<rov- 
T€s (updo-trw), traversing the sea: &*7rf)jji€v (aTretfu), we were distant. — V. 
493. epfyruov : imperf. of attempted action : sought to restrain (me). — 
V. 49@. <|>d;x€V (imperf. : the pres. is enclit. or written <j>ap.ev), anc/ wcwt; we 
thought ive should perish on the spot. — V. 49 7* c^Oe-yf-ape'vov, having called: 
av&r\<ravTos, having spoken, the latter denotes more particularly articulate 
speaking : tcv (== Att. <rov) depends on &kouo-€v. — V. 49§. <rvv Kev 
&pa|s (tmesis, (ruvapdcro-G)), Ae would have crushed (i. e. when we were 
driven back to the shore). Condition and conclusion denoting a contrary- 
reality. H. 746; S. Gr. 514; G. § 222. — Y. 501. Cf. v. 282. —V. 
503. dXatoTw : obj. of €'ipT]Tai (£po(xai, and etpojxcu) : if any one shall ask 
you about the unseemly blinding of, etc. — 504. ^>dtrQai : infin. in form, 
used as imperat. H. 784; S. Gr. 534; G. §269: say that Odysseus, etc. 

— V. 505. Aa€pT€co : gen. H. 136 D, b, 2 ; S. Gr. 638, b ; G. § 39. — 
2vi : anastrophe. — 'ixovra agrees with y O$vo-<ri\a, takes oUta (2d declens. 
neut. plur.) as obj. Odysseus cannot depart without the gratification of 
letting Polyphemus know his real name and lineage. — V. 507. d> -nwoi : 
cf. note 1, 32 : denotes here chiefly grief, woe is me I Voss renders it, 
Wehel — p.! .... iKcivei, overtake me. — V. 50 §. 4'o-tce : iterative, H. 
406 D, 1, €<ncov : S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, 1, Note. — V. 509. UUa- 
<tto : KoiivvfjicH. — Y. 5 10. KaTeyfjpa (KaTayrjpdci>), imperf. 3d pers. sing. 

— Y. 511. TclSe irdvTa, subj. of TeXeuTTJo-ecrGai (rokevraxo), that all these 
things -would be fulfilled, etc. — Y. 512. ap,apTTja-€a"9au (dfiaprdvco), with 
gen. H. 580 ; S. Gr. 422, a ; G. § 174 : that I should lose my sight : i£, after 
the gen. to which it belongs : is not accented (as some might expect from 
the rule, G. § 29, Note ; H. 104, a) in any of the best editions ;* because it 
does not stand after the entire clause x €l P" v 'OSwfjos. Cf. S. Gr. 64, e. 

— Y. 513. fyaTOL, subj. of €X€vo"€tr0ai. — eSi-ypjv (Se'xofMH) : G. Appen- 
dix; H. 408 D, 36; S. Gr. 736, j. — Y. 514. emeipivov : cf. v. 214, 
note. — Y. 515. p,€ . . . . c<|>0aXp.ov aXdwcrev : cf. 1, 69. — €<J>v oXtyos: 
indefinite, one who is small, etc. — Y. 516. lird \l 48a[Jid<ro-aTO otva> : cf. 
v. 454. — Y. 517. frys, interj ec. — irdp .... Qd<a : TrapcmOrjfJii : that I 
may extend, etc. — Y. 518. ttojji/tWjv, obj. of Sdp.€vcu (= Att. 8ovvai) : 
oTpiivcD, same const, with 0€lg> : and incite the illustrious earth-shaker to give, 
etc. — Y. ^ 19. TraT^p €[ios, pred. with etvai. H. 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b ; 
G. § 136, Note 2 : and he boasts that he is, etc. — Y. 520. at K€ (= Att. 
edv) eGe'Xrjo-i, subjunc. G. § 122, 2, Subj. ; H. 361 D ; S. Gr. 710 : l^cre- 
rat, — Y. 523, ai yap : a wish. H. 721, a ; S. Gr. 489, b ; G. 
§ 251. — tj/vx'ns, alcovos, with eSviv: would that I might be able, having de- 
prived you of (lit. having made you destitute of), etc. i|r6fM|sai, sc. o-e. — 8o- 
jxov .... eicro), within the abode of Ais (or Hades : in Horn., the god of the 
un der- world ; not the under- world). — Y. 525. ivotrCxQaiv is thrown to 
the end of the sentence for emphasis ; the negative is repeated and strength- 
ened. H. 843 ; S. Gr. 577 ; as (certainly as) not even the earth-shaker will 
heal, etc. — Y. 527. X € V> dual, = X^P 6 - — V. 529. d ktL, if I am 
really, etc., a fact of which he does not entertain any doubt : Tra/nrjp, pred. 


as in v. 519. — V. 531. Omit. — V. 532. €i (accented, showing that 
ot is enclit. and dat.) ol p-otp* ecrri : el with the indie, simple supposition 
(with undecided reality) : if it is appointed to him (lit. if it is a fate to him). 

— V. 533. Notice the two constructions with iKeVOai, otscov ace. alone, 
4s . . . . yalav ace. with a prep. — Y. 534. 2X0oi and eiipoi : optat. with- 
out civ, a wish, that may, or may not, be realized. H. 721 ; S. Gr. 489, a ; 
G. § 251, 1. — oXeVas duo (anastrophe, G. § 23, 2 ; H. 102 D, b ; S. Gr. 
634) = diroXetras, having lost. — Y. 535. iv with oI'kw. — Y. 53§. tJk* 
€7u8ivTjcras, having whirled (it) around, cast it. — eVepeicre : eircpcCSco. — lv 
= tva, fr. i's (with the digamma Fis = vis). — Y. 54®. eSevrfcrev : Sevw, 
SeWjcrG) (to be carefully distinguished fr. Seuco, Sevcro)) : he failed to 'reach the 
extreme part of the helm. — Y. 541. Cf. v. 483. — V. 542. t^v, this, i. e. 
the ship. — 0€}JLiocr€ ktc. : cf. 486. — \4p<rov iK&r0<u, to come to land, i. e. 
the land lying before them, the goat-island : not the land to which they 
were before (v. 486) driven back. 

Yv. 543-566. Return to the goat-island; and continuance of the 

Y. 543. dXX' 6t€ 8^j (subordinate clause) .... v. 546. vv\a (i&f. 
'4v®' (principal clause) : but when now .... then indeed. — £v0a irep (v. 543), 
relat., where, 'referring to ri\v vtjo-ov : to be supplied with d[ju|>l .... tXaro 
(= Att. t,vto, fr. ^pai), and (where) my companions sat round about. — Y. 
545. iroTiS6*yp.tvoi (irpoo-Sexojxcw), awaiting. — Y. 546. vfja, obj. of 
iKeXcrajiev (kcXXco), then indeed, having come, we propelled the ship : kv ^/a[xd- 
0OLcnv, H. 618, a ; S. Gr. 448, b. — Y. 547. Ik . . . . pfjjiev : tmesis. 

— V. 548. [i/rjXa, obj. of IXovtgs : also of 8acrcrdfi.e0a (Sctiw to divide). — 
Y. 549. |xoi, ethical dat. — I'cr^s, with dT€|x(3o|i,€vos (drefJipca), cheated of 
an equitable (portion). — Y. 550. dpveidv, the ram (that had borne him 
out of the cave), obj. of Socretv. — Y. 551. \iA\K<av, gen. abs. with 8cu- : 
'Qoyjx, first of all, beforehand: Faesi understands t<3v iraipcov, to me alone, 
distinguished above (my companions) ; thus expressing nearly the same idea. 

— rov, obj. of ptfets (v. 553), having sacrificed this (the ram) . . . . I 
burned the thighs. — Y. 553. 6 hi, but he, i. e. Zeus. — ovk l[Jurd£eTo, did 
not heed, etc. This Odysseus learned by his subsequent misfortunes. — Y. 
^^^. Ijioi .... ercupoi, cf. v. 172. — Yv. 556, ^57. Cf. vv. 161, 
162. —Yv. 55§ - 560 = 168-170. —Yv. 562-564 = 178-180.— 
Y. 565. &<r|ievoi 4k ©avdroio : a condensed expression: glad (to have 
escaped) from death. — oXe'cravTes, after having lost. 

BOOK X. — Adventures witli Aeolus, the iLaestrlgoiiiaiis, and Circe. 

BOOK XI. — Visit of Odysseus to tlie Under- world. 

Yv. 1 - 50. Departure from the island of Circe and arrival at the land 
of the Cimmerians. Sacrifice, according to the directions of Circe, at the 
entrance of the under-world. 

Y. !• KarrjX0o[, came down, i. e. from the interior of the island of 

24 NOTES. 

Circe. — V. So iv . . . . Ti0€[i€<r9a : tmesis. — lo-tov .... Kal Ic-rCa : 

mast and sails. — vn\t depends on Iv in compos., we placed in the black ship. 
V. 4L» ev . . . . ipVjcrafJifiv (causative in fut. and 1st a or. act.), sc. vrjt. — 
to. (j.f]|Xa, those sheep, or simply the sheep, a ram and ewe, mentioned at the 
close of Book X., given by Circe. — &v (= dva), with paivopv. — Y. 5* 
KaTct, with \eovT6s, pouring down, shedding. — V. f. I'ei : fr]|u. — eTatpov, 
appos. with oSpov, a favoring breeze, filling the sail, a good companion. — V. §• 
KipKT|, subj. of I'ei. — V. O. oirXa .... vfja, having with labor arranged 
the several tacklings in the ship. — V. 11* tjjs limits la-Tia : irav^p.ept'qs 
agrees with ttjs, is translated adverbially.' Cf. Icrrre'pios, IX. 336, note. — 
Tc'TaO* (= eriraro, fr. rdvoi), subj. Lo-Tia, and the sails of this all day long 
were spread, as it traversed the sea. — V. IS* Mctqto (8va>) : H. 349 D ; 
S. Gr. 699. — o-kiogdvtq : Lex. g-kicuo. — V. IS* 'H 8e : sc. va/Os. — 4s 
(notice here a prep, with foave) .... 'Oiceavoio, to the limits of the deep- 
flowing Oceanus, i. e. "where the Ocean borders on the under- world. " 
Faesi : "the limits of the earth formed by the Ocean." Ameis. It is 
perhaps not very wise to try to make definite that which was indefinite and 
vague in the mind of Homer. The Ocean, according to the Homeric con- 
ception, was a deep stream ever flowing around the vast plain of earth and 
seas. — V. 14* Tjepi : Lex. dfjp. — KCKaX-ufJipivoi (kclXvittco), agrees with 
8fjjxos and iroXis : H. 511, a ; S. Gr. 361, a : enveloped in darkness and cloud 
(dat. of means). — V. 17. oW .... o-Telxti " 1 (siibjnnc. H. 361 D; 

S. Gr. 710), neither when he mounts, etc. — V. 1§. dir 0ev : H. 

203 D ; S. Gr. 667 ; G. § 61, Note 1. — irpoTp dm] tch, irpoTpeTrco. — Y. 1 9* 
eirl .... rirarai : liriTeiva). — Y. SO* vfja, obj. of €K€X<rap,€v (kcXXw). 

— €K . . . . €iXdp.£0a (4|atp€C!)), and took out (from the ship), etc. — Y. 
SI. irapd poov, along by the current. — Y. SS. f|'op.€V : etju. H. 405 D, 
1 ; S. Gr. 734, j. — 6«|>pa, with indie, aor. until. — 6v <|>pda-€ (<J>pd*«) K(pKT|, 
which Circe had pointed out. — Y. S3. icp4\ia .... %<r\ov, held the victims. 

— Y. S5. op-uja : opvo-crca. — 'ivQa kci\ £v0a, this way and that: i. e. in 
length and breadth. — Y. S6. apty* aisr<a y around it, i. e. on the brink of 
the trench. — Y. Sf. \j.ekiKpi\r(a (Lex. jAeXiKpo/ros) .... ol'vco .... vSari: 
dat. of instrument with \e6\Lt\v (X € V) '• nia y ^ e rendered freely, I poured 

out to, etc a libation, first of honey and milk, etc. — Y. S§. Iirl, sc. 

X°^v, an d upon the libation, I scattered (irdXwov : iraXvvw), etc. — Y. S9. 
iroXXd, adv. — yovvov\i.~!\v : ■ = *yowd£o| — vcicvcov .... jcdpTjva, 
lit. heads of, etc., a form of expression which we do not imitate : we may 
render the sentence, I earnestly supplicated the nerveless shades, (and prom- 
ised) that, having arrived at Ithaca, I would sacrifice in my palace a farrow 
cow, etc. The act of supplication implies the accompanying vow ; and 
hence we may express the thought, and promised, in translating. — Y. 30* 
cX0<£v agrees with the subj. of pe'feiv (p€£o>) : H. 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b ; G. 
§ 136, Note 2. The subj. of pej-eiv is the s same as that of the governing 
verb -yowovfJiTjv : hence, not expressed ; and the adjunct of the suppressed 
subj. (4X0wv) is in the nom. — Y. 31. irup-?|V .... 4<r0X<wv, and would 
fill (€{JiTrXi]0"ep.€v, <f jA7r£'irXr t |u) an altar (strictly, a place for fire) with good 


things (G. § 1/2 ; H. 575 ; S. Gr. 418). —V. 32. d-rdvev0€V, ajoart (from 
the other offerings). — Uptv<r£\Ltv : same const, with pe'geiv and e'lnrX-qcre'- 
ji£V : that I would sacrifice. — oi'w : emphatic position : qualifies Teip«r(,Tj. 

— V. 33. 1ra|X{I6Xav , qualifies ot'v : 6s relates to otv, which excels among, 
etc. — V. 34. tovs, obj. of eXXicrd|i.i]v (Lex. Xicrc-ojjiai). — e^x^Mi " 1 
Xlttjcti T€ : dat. plur. , with vows, etc. — e^vea, appos. with toils : these, the 
nations, etc. — V. 35. Se' introduces the principal sentence (after the 
relative sentence eirel .... eXXicrdji/fjv) . H. 862, b ; S. Gr. 585, ab ; 
G. 227, 2. — to, Se p]\a . . . . es p60pov, and taking the sheep, I opened the 
veins of the neck (direSgipOTdjjLTjcra, dTroSeipoTOfxeca) into the trench (i. e. so 
that the blood might flow into the trench). Cf. Xen. Anab. 2, 2, 9. <r«j>d- 
JavTes .... els dtririSa. Ameis suggests that air-, in the verb, denotes 
the turning away his head, as he cut the veins : others understand it to 
mean simply, I cut open, etc. If Is po0pov were joined with pee, Se would 
properly be before pee. — V. 3f. ^fv\ai : appos. with at Se. H. 500, d. 
"In Hm.," etc. S. Gr. 353, c ; G. § 140, Note 2 : and they, the soids of 
the departed dead, etc. — vire'f, Lex. vtt4k. — 'Epepevs, gen. Lex. "Epefas. 

— Vv. 3§-43 are bracketed in all the most critical editions, and may be 
omitted. If rendered, the nominatives in vv. 38 ff. are in appos. with 
tyvyjxL — V. 45. [rfjXa, obj. of SetpavTes and Karaxfjai : I ordered (them 

— my companions), having flayed the sheep, which, etc , to barn (them). 

— eV^a-yjisva (o-<j>d|a>). It will be recollected that the victims had already 
been slain (vv. 35, 36). — V. 47. 'AIStj, Ilepcre^ovetTj : appos. with 0eoi- 
o-iv. — Vv. 4§, 49. afo-bs .... fjp]V (^|iai), but I myself having, etc., 
remained seated. — elW, edco. — V. 5®. al'^aros acrcrov l^v (Att. le'vai), 
to approach nearer the blood — irplv .... irv0e'cr0ai : H. 768, 769 ; S. Gr. 
531; G. §274: before I perceived, etc. ' 

Vv. 51-89. First, the shade of Elpenor, one of his companions, lost in 
the palace of Circe, appears to him ; and entreats him, on his return to the 
upper air, not to neglect the rites of sepulture, which had not yet been 
paid to Elpenor. Then the shade of Odysseus' s mother appears to him. 

Vv. 90-149. Interview between Teiresias — formerly a blind prophet 
of Thebes — and Odysseus. Teiresias is allowed to drink of the blood, and 
then predicts to Odysseus his future fortunes. 

Vv. 150 - 224. Odysseus's mother, Anticleia, is next allowed to drink of 
the blood, and then speaks. She inquires of Odysseus why he had come 
thither, to which he replies, and then gives some account of his fortunes. 
Anticleia informs him what had transpired in Ithaca since his departure ; 
speaks particularly of Penelope, Telemachus, and Laertes. 

Vv. 225 - 332. Odysseus beholds many noble women, of whose race and 
family various things are related. 

Vv. 333-384. The narrative of Odj^sseus is here interrupted by some 
remarks of the queen Arete, of the aged hero Echeneiis, and of the king 

26 NOTES. 

Alcinoiis, who promises to send him homeward, laden with gifts, on the 
morrow. Meanwhile he begs Odysseus to continue his narrative. 

Yv. 385 - 466. Interview between the shade of Agamemnon and Odys- 
seus described. Agamemnon tells of the baseness of his wife Clytemnestra 
and her paramour Aegisthus : assures Odysseus of the fidelity of Penelope. 

Yv. 467 - 540. Interview between Achilles and Odysseus. 

Y. 467 • -f|X0€ 8 s cirl (tmesis) >|n>x^| kt!., and the shade of etc., ap- 
proached. rii|X*rjid8€to : patronymic, H. 466; S. Gr. 318 ; 1st deelens. 
H. 136 D, 2 ; S. Gr. 638, b ; G. § 39. — 'Ax^Xtjos : H. 189 D ; S. Gr. 661 ; 
G. § 59, 3. — ■ V. 468. IXaTpoKXijos : nom. IldTpoKXos, Patrdclus: in the 
oblique cases, 3d deelens. H. 180, 180 D ; S. Gr. 658 ; G. § 60. — Y. 469, 
Ai'avros : nom. Aft&s, Aias, or oftener in Eng. Ajax. — oiSgs re Sipas re : 
ace. of specif., in looks and in stature. — Y. 47©. TtZv .... Aavcuov lim- 
its ftpurros, best . . . . of the other Danai, — a frequent form of solecism. — 
|j.£Td kt!. is also closely connected in thought with ftpurros, best . ... af- 
ter, or next to, etc. HrjXeiova : nom. IX^Xeitov. H. 466, a ; S. Gr. 318, b. 

— Y. 471. AlaicCSao (limits *|>vxtj) : patronymic: deelens. H. 136 D, 
b, 1 ; S. Gr. 638, a ; G. § 39. Aeacides, or descendant of Aeacus (grand- 
father of Achilles). We find here four forms to denote the same person. 
Achilles, Peleides, Peleion, and Aeacides. For an account of the heroes al- 
luded to in this connection, see Class. Die. — V.. 472* irpotnpSa (irpo- 
oravSdco) : subj. tjn>x^. — V. 474. tittt* (= tl ttotc) .... [x^creai (jj/fj- 
Sofiai) ep^ov ; ivhat in the world, a still greater deed, will you plot in mind? i. e. 
what deed still greater than those before Troy ? Cr. : what deed in the 
future still greater than this? Am., F., Diintz. The latter seems to be 
the true idea. — Y. 475. Kcs/reXGeN^v, in fin. = Ka/rsXGeiv. — Y. 476. 
€l'8o)Xa : appos. with veKpot. — V. 478. fie^a, adv. with <j>€pTaT€, far the- 
bravest. — Notice vie with short penult in the foot, -cs vii (dactyl). H. 86 
D ; 87 D ; S. Gr. 631. — Y. 479. Teipecriao ica/rd XP € '°S is usu. under- 
stood to mean, lit. on account of a need of Teiresias, or more simply, on ac- 
count of Teiresias, i. e. to consult him. — Yv. 479, 48©. el ... . c'itch, 
tftrcos, if he (Teiresias) might mention amj plan, by ivhich, etc. — Y. 481. 
<rx.€8ov, prep, with gen. 'Ax<u'E8os, near to the Grecian land. — djif]s (fr. 
&ji,os = Tj(X€T6pos) 7t]S, depends on err-, nor have I yet set foot on our soil. — 
Y. 482. o-€to (Att. oroO), emphat. position ; but, in comparison ivith you, 
Achilles, no man formerly (while you lived) was most happy, nor afterwards 
(now that you are dead) sc. is any one most happy. Ameis joins creio with 
otf tis, no man other than you is most happy, etc. : F. explains the whole ex- 
pression as a brachylogy for <r€to oiins [AciKapTcpos, #T€ (laKapTarov ovtos. 

— V. 484. to-a eeoicriv : G. § 186 ; H. 603 ; S. Gr. 438, b, equally with 
the gods. — Y. 485. 'Ap-yeioi : appos. with subj. of irio\iev. — \Liya Kpd- 
T€£is (KpaTeco) with dat. of place, you are very powerful among, etc. G. § 
190; H. 612; S. Gr. 446, a. — Y. 486. tw, therefore: dicax^eaj, dtca- 
\it<a. — Y. 4§8. Notice the force of S^j, throwing the chief emphasis on 
the neg. p//j. H. 851; S. Gr. 580, d. — irapcwSa, imperat., irapcwSdaj : 


do not speak to me consolingly of death at least — V. 490. Notice here jx^ 
with the optat. H. 835 ; S. Gr. 570 ; G. § 231 : to whom there might not be 
an abundant income = though there might not be to him, etc. |3iqtos, income : 
itXtjpos, an inheritance: &KXi]pos, without inheritance. — V. 491. ij : con- 
nect with Pov\otjJiT|v K6 : the ellipsis of jmXXov before 4j is not unfrequent : 
I should wish .... (rather) than, etc. — KaTa<f>©i.|i.evoicriv (KaTa<j>0£co) : em- 
phasizes v6KV€<rori : than to be king of all the dead (who have) perished. — 
Y. 492. tov .... p.v9ov : a word respecting that brave son : ttcuSos, ob- 
jective gen. with jju)8ov. Ameis. — evunres : H. 450 D, 8 ; S. Gr. 740 ; G. 
Appendix : Iveiro. — V. 493. § . . . . ovkI (= Att. ov^O, whether he 
followed to the war to be foremost, or even not. — V. 494. ir£m><r<rai. (irvv- 
Savojxai) :, double c metii gratia: if you have heard anything from, etc. — 
iroXeo-iv : trokvs. Not to be confounded with irdXeo-iv (fr. irdXis). — av' 
'EXXctSa, throughout Hellas : not to be understood of Greece at large, as in 
the historic period ; but only of a city, and limited territory around it, in 
Thessaly. — V. 49 7,, obj. ; and 7ifp<xs, subj. of Kara •. . .' . 'tya. — 
X€ipa$, irdSas : partit. appos. with jxiv. H. 500, b; S. Gr. 353, b. — V. 
498. eytov, sc. elp-i. — V. 499. toios Iwv otos .... irecjjvov : lit. be- 
ing such, as I slew, etc. ; that is, being such, as (I was when) / slew, etc. — 
V. 500. djxitvojv (dpvw), while defending. Blunderers often confound 
this with the adj. d]Jiv|i.a)v. — V. 501. el toiqo-8' gXGoifii, if, (being) such 
a person, I might go, etc. — irep, intens. — Is .... 8w (subst.), to the house 
of, etc. — V. 502. tw (cf. v. 486) K€ tcco (= tivi) o-Tii£;aifU (a-ruyc'co) 
ktI., then would I make my force and invincible hands terrible to any who, etc. 
— V. 503. oi, though plur., refers to tcw as collective in force. Cf. 
Xen. Anab. 1, 4, 8. It is not necessary to suppose the ellipsis of to>v after 
rica. — pidcovTCit (ptcuo), kipyovcriv (Lex. ti'pyw, and '4py<»), treat him with vio- 
lence and keep him away, etc. — Y. 5® 5. IItjXtjos .... oUtl, not anything 
respecting, etc. : 7rai8ds 76 ... . dA^jGeiav, all the truth respecting, etc. Cf. 
tov iraiSbs .... p.€0ov, v. 492, note. — Y. 506. NeoirroXcjAoio (fr. 
ve'ds, 'rrTdXqxos = TrdXepios). What is here said of Neoptolemus — new 
warrior — occurred after the death of Achilles. — Y. 508. civtos .... 
^•ya/yov .... jjl6t' . . . . / myself led him .... among, etc. Notice this 
use of [J.6T&, with ace. H. 645, a ; S. Gr. 447, 0. — eurijs : Lex. euros. — 
Y. 510. 8t€ . . . . cf>pa£o(p:9a : H. 757, 758; S. Gr. 523; G. 2C3 : 
whenever we devised plans, etc. — Y. 511. ajxapTcLvco with the gen., in the 
sense to miss, to err from, is frequent ; but the use here is somewhat pecu- 
liar : he did not err in his words, or from the (right) ivords. — Y. 512. vlkuo-- 
KOfJLev : viKdw, with iterative ending. H. 410 D ; S. G. 738; G. § 122, 2, 
Indie. : imperf., aug. omitted: (viKaecricoVj vik&o-kov). — oi'o, dual: alone 
surpassed (him). — Y. 513. 8t€ .... fAapvcujxeOa : cf. ore .... <j»pctf., 
note, v. 510. — Y. 515. irpoBeeo-Ke (TrpoBe'co, with iterative ending), he 
used to run forward. — to ov p.evos, in that his strength, or in that strength of 
his. — Y. 51 7, ovk &v p/u0TJo-o[ (aor. subj. with short mode -sign. G. 
§ 122, 2, Subj. ; H. 347 D; S. Gr. 697) ov8' 6vop.rtvo (Lex. 6v©|x<si"G>). 
Force of this const. ? H. 720, e ; S. Gr. 488, d ; G. § 2J0 : but I shall not 

28 .NOTES. 

(or I cannot) mention, nor name, all, as many people as he, etc. — Y. 519. 
but (will mention) how he slew, or, ivhat-sort-ofperson that Telephides (was, 
whom) he, etc. KaTsvY'jparo, KaTcvaipcpai.. — V. 52®. d[i<J5* cuItov, i. e. 
E-upvjruXoy. — V. 521. JL^raoi : Cetei, a people of Mysia, followers of 
Eurypylus. — "ywauay .... 8^p<»v :• orc account of presents to a woman. 
Astyoclie, it is said, a sister of Priam, wife of the Mysian king Telephus, 
and mother of Eurypylus, was induced by a present of a golden vine from 
—her brother Priam to send her son to the Trojan war. — V. 522. Ketvov, 
him, i. e. Eurypylus, obj. of ft>ov (= Att. etSov). Eorce of 8rj ? H. 851 ; 
S. Gr. 580, d. — k&XXicttov .... jist&, (being) most beautiful after (or next 
to). — V. 5*23. els IVttov . . . . ov Kafi/ (Lex. Kap.v<«>) 'Eircics, into the 
horse, which Epeus hid made with toil, — the famous Trojan horse. — V. 524.* 
ol clpio-TOL, appos. with the subj. of Ka/rsPatvopv. — ktrl .... tctciXto : 
liriTcXXcj. — V. 525 is bracketed in all critical editions. If translated, it 
is epexegetical of irdvra, — all things were committed to me, [both to open and 
to shut the close place-of -ambush. \ This entire sentence is parenthetical. 
Y. 526* eV0a : correl. of 6t€, v. 523. But when .... then the other , 
etc. — V. 527. wfiopyvvvTO (opopywixi), wiped away. — rpepov .... 
faro : Lex. woTpspw : yvla. is understood as subj. — V. 528. Ketvov, 
him (i. e. the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus), obj. of i'Sov. — irdp/rrav 
with a neg., not at all. — Y. 529. a)Xpr\aravTa (a>xpct») agrees with 
ksivov. — XP^ a (XP^s) KaXXipov, ace. of specif. : neither having become pale 
in his beautiful complexion, etc. — irap€n3v : gen. of separation : from his 
cheeks.— V. 53©. fxdXa iroXV (= iroXXd : G. § 24, 3 ; H. 100 ; S. Gr. 
61), adverbial, very earnestly. — Y. 531. 4|ip,£vai (= el-ievcu, fr. 21-sifw), 
that he might go forth. — eVeixcugTO : Cf. 9 : 302. — Y. 532. 
p.svoiva : pevoLvdw : he purposed (or he plotted) calamities against, etc. — 
Y. 534. p.otpav . ... . ^X 40 ^ w ^ n a *> s portion (of the spoil) and with 
the prize of valor (i. e. Andromache, wife of Hector), he embarked, etc. 

— Y. 536. a-uTocrxeStarjv, adv. = a.i)TQ<r\S6v, in close combat. — ovra- 
<rp.€vos, wounded (by thrusting) : psf&X^pivos, hit (by something cast). — 
old T€ iroXXtt (adv.) "yi-yverai, as often happens. — Y. 53 1 ?. €7ripA| Si re 
(Epic use) ktI. A co-ordinate sentence : and Ares rages in the midst of the 
tumult, where a subordinate would seem to us more natural, while Ares, etc. 

— Y. 539. <|>oiTa (= it^oira), $oira<*>. — paicpd fkj3dcra (Gr. (3aiva> D), 
with long strides, lit. stepping long. — Y. 540. yy\Qo<rvvr\ (7^0do-vvos), adj. 
agreeing with <j>vx^i, joyful: '6, causal conj. = 8tl — -uidv, subj. of etvat, 
that his son was, etc. 

Yv. 541-567. Odysseus and Ajax. 

Y. 541. At 8' dXXai *|">X a t ktI. is thought by Ameis and Faesi to 
refer to those mentioned in v. 468, i. e. Patroclus and Antilochus. — Y. 
542. Jscdcrrt] : appos. with the subj. of cl'povro : and they each asked about 
those things which concerned them : tc^Sea, direct obj. of et'povro : G. § 158, 
Note 2 ; H. 544, a ; S. Gr. 390, a. — Y. 545. t^v, cogn. ace. ; ptv, di- 
rect obj. H. 555 ; S. Gr. 399 ; G. § 159, Note 4 : in which I conquered him ; 


or, in ore freely, which I gained over him. — 8ikci£o[ji€Vos irapa vr\v<riv, while 
contending near the ships, i. e. the ships of the Greeks, which were drawn up 
on the coast near Troy, before the taking of that city. — V. 546. revyje- 
crtv djx^' (= djicJH, which never suffers anastrophe. H. 102 D, b ; S. Gr. 
634) 'Ax^os : for the arms of Achilles (after the death of this hero). — 
'cStjkc .... [ATjTrfp : and his revered mother offered {them). After the death 
of Achilles, and the conclusion of the funeral games, instituted in his 
honor, Thetis, his mother, offered his armor — so runs the story — to that 
hero who had done most to rescue the body of her son. Ajax and Odysseus 
both contended for the honor. The case was referred to the Trojan cap- 
tives, as most likely to be impartial ; and they, influenced, it is said, by 
Athena, decided in favor of Odysseus. — V. 548. ws . . . . vik&v : 
that I had not been a victor, etc Force of this form of wish ? H. 721, b ; 
S. Gr. 490 ; G. § 251, 2. The opposite of the thing wished is implied, 
namely, but I was a victor. — eirl with dat. here denotes the aim : in aim- 
ing at, or simply, for such a prize. — V. 549. evesc' avrwv (refers to tcv- 
yeo-iv, v. 546) : on account of them, or on their account. The whole expres- 
sion, the earth held, etc., denotes the death of Ajax. — V. 550. AfavO', 
appos. with K€4>aA.TJv. — irept : join with t€t-ukto (t€vx w ) : wn0 was superior 
in, etc. ; lit. who had been made superior. Cf. 1, 6Q. — V. 551. Cf. v. 
470. — V. 552. tov, this one, him, i. e. Ajax. — V. 553* ovk in a ques- 
tion. Force? H. 829; S. Gr. 566, b ; G. § 282, 2. — Y. 554. ovU : 
negation repeated and strengthened : H. 843 ; S. Gr. 577 ; G. 283, 8 : 
were you not then, even after death, about to forget, etc. — €{ioi : ethical dat. — 
€ivsKa .... ov\op.6vwv : closely connected in thought with \oXov : anger 
on account of the destructive armor ; called destructive because it led to the 
death of Ajax ; who was disappointed and chagrined in not obtaining it 
as a prize, and consequently lost his reason, and put an end to his own 
life. — Y. 555» to, 8e : sc. reject. — irijfjia : appos. with to, Se : and these 
(arms), as a sorrow, the gods appointed, etc. — Y. 550. toios .... dirtS- 
Xeo (ctaroWuiii) : for you perished, being such a tower to them. Elsewhere, in- 
stead of irvp-yos, Horn, often uses epKos, a defence, or more literally still, a 
ftnce. — o-eto : gen. of cause, with a\vv\i.eQa. — Y. 55*7 • Ttrov .... 
K€<J>aXfj : lit. equally with the head of, etc. In an Eng. idiom, as much as for 
Achilles son of Peleus. IlT]\^td8ao : H. 136 D, b, 1 ; S. Gr. 638, a ; G. 
§39. In v. 467 we have IlTjXTjidSgta. — Y. 55&, <f>0ijx€voio (<J>0iv*d) : 
agrees with o-eto, for you when dead, etc. — ovSe tis dXXos, sc. fjv. — Y. 
560. -ijx^pe : exOatpw. — tciv : G. § 79, Note 2 ; H. 233 D, under <rv : 
S. Gr. 678. — €irt with ZQ^Kev : tmesis. — p.otpav,'obj. of the corap. verb : 
appointed death to thee. — V. 501. eVos, (J.-O0OV : nearly synonymous : our 
word and story. — Y. 503. (3f) = '4§r\ : fr. ftalva). — Y. 564. Ka/ra- 
.t€0vtjc6tcdv (KaTaOv^cTKoi)) adds little to the meaning of v€kvq)v, save as a 
descriptive epithet : into Erebus, among the shades of the departed dead. — Y. 
505. ev0a : temporal: then. — X = K€ (enclit.). — 6fuos, nevertheless: the 
reading of Ameis, Faesi, Duntzer, and others. Dind., Cr., and others 
read 6|acos, in like manner. — irpco-e'cjsT], sc. p.s. — €y£, sc. irpocre^v : or I 

30 NOTES. 

(should have addressed) him. ■ — V. 566. fiot : ethical dat. with ijOeXe 


Yv. 568-626. Odysseus speaks of Minos, Orion, Tityus, Tantalus, Si- 
syphus, and Hercules, whom he saw in the under-world. 

V. 57®. 01 8e' jjliv d|X(f>l .... avaKra : and they, around him, the king. 
Kecollect that djitjn does not suffer anastrophe. H. 102 D, h ; S. Gr. 634. 
• — 8 teas (ohj. of el'povro, fr. £po|&ai) : an abstract noun in the plur. : ques- 
tions of right. — V. 572. Tdv, with jxerd, which loses its accent with the 
elision : after this one. — V. 573. elXeCvTa : el'Xw, etXXw, elXe'w. For the 
contraction, see H. 32 D, f ; S. Gr. 615 ; G. § 124, 2 : driving in a crowd 
(ofJtov) the wild animals. — V. 574. rovs (as relat.) .... KCTe'ire^vev, 
which he himself slew ; i. e. when he was still alive, and a famous hunter on 
the earth. — Y. 577. eir' ivvia .... ire'XeOpa, extending over nine hun- 
dred feet. — Y. 578. yvire (*yvi|/) .... irap-qjievo) : and two vultures sit- 
ting, one on either side. — ^irap : partit. appos. with jwv. Ii. 500, b ; S. Gr. 
353, b ; lit. devoured him, his liver: more freely rendered, devoured his liver. 
— Y. 570. SepTpov &ro> Swovres, entering within the caul, — the membrane 
enveloping the bowels. — o-uk dTrajjiweTo (dira^va)), did not keep {them) off 
from himself — V. 589. Ar\r<a : ace. obj. of fjXicr|<r€ (IXk€<o), for he had 
(H. 706; S. Gr. 481 ; G. Moods and Tenses, § 19, Note 4) insulted Leto, 
the honored wife of Zeus, as she went to Pytho, through, etc. Aijtw, Tn>0co8e : 
accent irreg. H. 194, a; S. Gr. 105, a ; G. § 55. — Y. 582. \akiv = 
yaXeird : accent of the elided syllable thrown back. H. 100 ; S. Gr. 61 ; 
G. § 24, 3. — £x oVTa agrees with TdvTaXov, Tantalus, having grievous woes. 
Y. 583. y €V€ "P : dat. with the conrp. verb irpoo-eVXa£e ; and this (i. e. 
the lake) came near his chin. — Y. 584. <tt€€to : H. 405 D, c. a-revrai : 
S. Gr. 734, o. — me'eiv (m'vw) depends on IXeVGcu, and is understood with 
a-revro : and, thirsting, he undertook (continually) to drink, but was not able to 
take (of the water) to drink. "What is the objection to placing the comma 
after meeiv and connecting this infin. solely with cttcvto ? — Y. 585. 
6o-o-dKi Ki3\|f€i€ : a -relat. sent, with the optat. Force of this const. ? H. 
729, b ; S. Gr. 498 ; G. 225. — V. 586. dvaPpoxe'v (stem ppo X ) : 2 aor. 
pass, particip. :\ a defective verb, found only in one other form dva- (or 
Kara-) ppo|ei€ : so often did the water, sivallowed up, recede (diroXeo-Kcro : 
airoXX-uju, with iterative ending). — Y. 587. 4>dv€o-Ke (<|>aiv«) : 2 aor. 
pass, with iterative ending. — KaTa^vao-K6 (KaTa£aivto) : aor. act. with 
iterat. ending : and some god made it (the ground) quite dry. — Y. 588. 
Se'vSpea, sub], of Ka/rd .... \ € ' € (Ka/rax«s>) : poured down from, etc. — 
Yv. 589, 59® : appos. with SevSpea. — Y. 591. t<5v : with 4Vi .... 
p.d<raa-Qcu ( : to grasp (any) of these with his hands. — oiroV I0v- 
o-eie (I9v<a) : relat. sent, with optat. Cf. v. 585. — Y. 592. Notice 8e 
again, to introduce a subordinate, instead of a co-ordinate, clause : may be 
rendered, then. — Tds, obj. of piirrcurKe (piirTto, with iterat. end. and with 
a, as connecting vowel, in the imperf. H. 410 D; S. Gr. 738, b ; G. § 122, 
2, Indie), then the wind cast these (the trees, or, more properly, perhaps, the 


branches of the trees, mentioned above). — ■ V. 593. Cf. v. 582. — Kpa- 
Tep* (Lex. Kparepds) : cf. note on yaXiir, v. 582. — V. 594L. Xdav .... 
-arsXipiov : obj. of j3a<rrdl;ovTa, which agrees with 'Zitrvfyov. — dp4 OT€ PTI cn ' v 
(dat. plur. fr. dp.<|>oTepos), sc. ^epa-lv, with both hands. — V. 5^5. 6 p.4v, 
i. e. Elctv4>os. — V. 590. a>0€a-K€ : Mm, with iterat. ending. — Sre p,e'X- 
Xoi : relat. sent, with optat., as often as he was about to,. etc. Of. v. 585, v. 
591. — y. 59^. < uTT€ppaX.€€tv, sc. Xdav : to cast {the stone) over the summit. 

— tot* d/irao-Tp^iJ/ao-jce (dirocrrp&fw with iterat. end.) Kparaiis, then an over- 
powering force turned it (each tune) away from (the summit). — Y. 598. No- 
tice the succession of dactyls. in this verse, giving it a rapidity of move- 
ment well adapted to the thought. — Xdas dvaiS^s, the shameless stone, 
spoken as though it were a thing of life and feeling. — V. 599. 6yi, i. e. 
Sisyphus. — «<rcto-K€ (1 aor. with iterat. ending of &6£o>) : sc. Xdav : but he 
with toil (TiTaLvojxevos, lit. stretching himself) pushed (it) back. — V. 600. 
fjisAittv : p&os. — Kparos, Lex. Kpds : not to be confounded with icpc.?os. 

— cpipsi : Lex. 6pvvpi : and dust rose above his head (or more exactly, out 
of his head. As he leaned forward towards the steep hill, his head came 
near the ground, and the dust rose above it, or seemed to arise out of 'it, as 
the poet represents). For a fuller account of Sisyphus, and of the other 
mythological personages mentioned in this connection, the student should 
consult his classical dictionary. It will be noticed that the crime of Tan- 
talus, and that of Sisyphus, for which they are thus punished, is not here 
mentioned. — Y. 601. rbv §1 per : cf. v. 572. — pti]v 'HpaKXi^Tjv, the 
might of Hercules = the mighty Hercules. — Y. 60S. ci'SwXov : appos. with 
($i<)v 'lipase-, and explanatory : his phantom. — avr&s 8s, but he himself. 
This representation is very extraordinary, and worthy of note. — V. 603. 
U\&. : he has (as wife). — Y. ©05. dpsf>l 8e piv, and around him., i. e. his 
ci'SwXov. — cos, accented because it stands after the word with which it is 
connected in sense. H. 1&4, a ; S. Gr. 64, e. — Y. 607« ve-upf]«j>iv : 
vevpa, dat. sing, with the ending -$w. — Y. ©08. fJaXeovri : fut. fr. 
pttXXco : resembling one about to cast (i. e. the arrow). — Y. ©09. .. o-pep8a~ 
Xeos : pred. adj. — dopT/jp : appos. with reXapwv : and terrible round about 
his breast, as sword-belt, was the golden strap: ol, "dat. of interest in looser 
relations." — I'va (v. 610), where. — tctukto (retya!), had been wrought (prob- 
ably in embroidery). — Yv. 611, 61 2 l appos. with %-ya : wonderful ob- 
jects, bears, etc. — va-pivai and [Loyai are nearly synonymous: also ^ov? 1 . 
and dvopoxTouriai : conflicts and battles, and carnage and slaughter of men. — 
Y. 618. (i/fj, p^Se : neg. repeated for emphasis : with the optat. to denote 
a wish. H. 721 ; S. Gr. 489, a ; G. § 251, 1. — €YKaT9€To : 4-yicaTaT£eT|pi. 

— tfj . . . . T&xyr\ depends on cv in compos., the man who placed that belt 
' in his art (i. e. among his works), may he not (or let him not), after having 

devised (it), may he not devise even anything else. That is, he could never 
produce anything else to equal it, and would consequently only damage 
his reputation by any other work. — Y. 615. Uyva and i'Sev, sc. epi : 
Kgtvos, that one, he, i. e. Hercules. — V. 616. p.4 depends on irpo<r- in 
compos. After the declaration above (v. 602), that this was only the el'Sto- 

32 NOTES. 

Xov of Hercules, one is surprised at what is here said. — Y. 618. nvd, 
with (xopov {fortune, life). — V. 619. ox&o-kov : 6\4<a with icerat. end- 
ing. — V. 620. {ja. H. 406 D, 1 ; S. Gr. 734, s ; G. § 129, Note. — 
V. 621. xdpovi 4><arl : Eurystheus. See Class. Die. Heracles or Her- 
cules. — V. 622. SeSjArjjj/qv : Lex. 8ap.dct>. — V. 623. kw cL|ovt' : to 
bring {bade) the dog: i. e. Cerberus, as he was afterwards called. The name 
does not occur in Horn, and is first mentioned in Hesiod. — &\Xov with 
&€0Xov, that there was no longer another labor, etc. — V. 625. tov, i. e. 
kwo,, obj. of dvev€iK€ (dva<|»€poi>). — V. 626. #tt€|ju|/€v, sent, in the sense, 
conducted, escorted. Hermes was the conductor of souls to the under-world ; 
and Athena, the constant helper of Hercules. 

Yv. 627-640. Return to the ship, and prosecution of the royage. 

Y. 627* 6, i. e. Hercules. — Y. 62§. pivov : imperf. with omitted 
augment. — V. 629. to irpoVGev. Note the use of to here. Cf. in Att. 
to irpoo-Ocv, Xen. Anab. 1, 10, 11 : to dpxatov, 1, 1, 6. — Y. 63©. k£ 
with i'Sov, should have seen: 'iQekov, sc. I8eiv. — Y. 682. dXXd irpiv, but 
previously: i. e. before I saw them. — em, with d-yelpeTO, were collected to- 
gether, were assembled. — ■ Y. 634. p/fj, after the notion of fear (Seos), that, 
lest. — p.o£, not to be taken as expressing motion to, but rather as dot. of 
interest. — ireXt&pov : appos. with rop-y€w]v, adj. = the gen. Fop-yovs. Cf. 
note on avrwv, 1, 7. The head of Gorgo, terrible monster. — Yv. 637, 
638. Cf. 9, 178, 179; also 9, 562, 563. - V. 639. t^v, i. e. vfja. — 
kcit' '{2k- -n-OT-, along the ocean river, or along the river Ocednus. For the 
Homeric conception of Oceanus, see Class. Die. — K$p,a pooio, the wave of 
the current, i. e. the flowing wave, subj. of <j?€p€. — Y. 640. irpcyra .... 
clpeo-trj, at first with rowing. So Am., F., Diintz. ; but Cr. and Dind. read 
elpeo-irj, nom. sc. cj>epe. 

BOOK XII.— The Sirens, Scylla, an* Charybdis. 

BOOK XTII. —Arrival of Odysseus in Ithaca. 

BOOK XIV. — Conversation with the old Servant Eumaeus. 

BOOK XV. — - Keturn of Telemachus. He repairs to the Cottage of 


BOOK XVI. — Odysseus makes himself known to his Son. 

BOOK XVII. — Telemachus visits the Palace, and rehearses h*s 
Adventures to his Mother. Odysseus repairs to the Palace in 

BOOK XVIII. — Odysseus insulted by the Beggar Irus. Punishes 
the Beggar. 

BOOK XTX. — Odysseus, still in Disguise, converses with Penelope. 
He is recognized by the old House-servant Eurycleia. 


BOOK XX. — Disorders In the Palace. 

BOOK XXI. — Bending of Odysseus's Bow. 

BOOK XXII. — Slaughter of the Suitors. 

BOOK XXIII. —Recognition of Odysseus toy Penelope. 

Vv. 1-31. Eurycleia, an old and faithful servant, wakes Penelope, an- 
nouncing the arrival of Odysseus, and the death of the suitors. Penelope 
is incredulous, fearing some deception. 

V. 1. rp-rjijs : the aged woman, i. e. Eurycleia, mentioned just at the 
end of Book XXII., where she is charged by Odysseus to go and wake 
Penelope. — inrepw' : plur. ; a is elided. — avej3irj<r€To : for the connecting 
vowel €, see H. 349 D ; S. Gr. 699 ; G. Appendix paivw. — V. 3. Ippco- 
o-avro : p<& — piv : fern, depends on the cornp. verb TrpocreeiTrev : ad- 
dressed a word to her. — V. 5. "EYpeo (kydp<a) : 2 aor. mid. iniperat. with 
lecessive accent. — V. ©• rar' (to, used as relat. : ri } Epic use), the things 
which. — V. ¥. Ik&v€tcii : perf. in sense. — V. 9. idjSeo-Kov : Kffito with 
iterative ending. — (Siocovto : pidw. — V. 12. d«j > P 0VCL : predicate. — 
4ttuj>- .... eovTa : obj. : to render one, who is even very intelligent, foolish. 
Or we may translate thus, to render [any one) foolish, even though he is very 
intelligent. — V. 13. errejS^o-av (erripalvw) i gnomic aor. H. 707 ; S. Gr. 
474, c ; G. § 205, 2. Recollect that p^o-w and gp^o-a are causative. *Lit. 
they cause one who is light-minded to advance on soundness of mind (i. e. to be- 
come of sound mind). — V. 14. <|>plvas aLo-lp/rj (crfo-ipos, elsewhere of 
things, here of a person), right in mind. -— Y. 16. Tcun-a irape£ Ipfovtra, 
to say these things aside from {the truth). — Y. 17. ifilcs, with virvov. — 
£ir&T|<r€ : TreSdo. — V. 1§. tolovSc, sc. iiirvov. — KaT€'8pa8ov : Ka/ra- 
8ap0dva>. — 4| ov : of time, since. — Y. 19. KaxotXicv kt4., evil Ilium, 
not to be named, — an expression exhibiting the strong emotion of Penelope. 
— V. 20. '4 PX ev, Att. «fpx°v: fr. gpxcjMH.— V. 21 -S3, d . . . . ^y- 
7€i\€ .... tw tee ... . airlireplfo. : supposition with contrary reality : 
for if any other one ... . had announced .... then .... I should have 
sent 'her, etc. : $A (v. 21) obj. of dve'yapev. It might seem more natural to 
say, had waked . ... and announced, etc. ; but the announcement was the 
chief thing, and hence, mentioned first.*— V. 24. tovto, in this respect, 
i. e. so as not to be driven back within the palace in dishonor and scorn 
(owycpw^ like a thing abhorred). — V. 28. 6 getvos, that stranger, appos. 
with 'OSuo-evs : tov, relat. whom, obj. of aTijxwv (drifidco). — V. 29. fjocev 
olSa. — V. 30. o-ao<()poo-i»vrjcri (o-o^poo-vvri) : abstract in the plur. Cf. 
note on d,Tacr0aXu|<n.v, 1:7. — vot^o/to., the plans, obj. of 'ixevQev. 

Yv. 32-110. Penelope follows Eurycleia into the palace, but still fears 
some deception. 

Y. 32. fj 8e, but she, Penelope. — eopovo-a : 0p©<nc6>. — Y. 33. ircpi- 
irX^xfrj : irepwrX&Mo. — pXec^dptov depends on d-rro in compos, with %ev 

34 NOTES. 

(fr. d^tirfxi), she let fall .... from, etc. If diro were regarded as a prep, 
distinct from the verb, it would be diro, by anastrophe. (tjkcv may in form 
be from -fJKco, and so Faesi renders the clause, tears started from her eyes. 
The first rendering is generally preferred.) — V. 35. evio-ires : 2 aor. 
imperat. of Ivlcttto), collateral form of ivlirco. — V. 3*7* frrrraos ktI. de- 
pends on €Vur7res : tell truly, if, etc., how, etc. : x^po-S €<H K€V (^^IF 11 )? laid 
hands on, etc. — Y. 4:0. Notice the asyndeton. — V. 411* icmvofjievcov : 
observe the force of the present particip. , of those who were being slain. — 
Y. 42. ,^xov. Ameis supplies 0aA.dfj.ous, held the chambers closed. Ci\, 
¥., and others supply t|p.ds, held us. The latter seems to me more natural. 

— €« dpapvtai (Lex. "APft. A.), well fitted. — Y. 43. irplv 7' 8t€ 8tj, be- 
fore the time when at length, or until at length. — Y. 45. pera. KTap,evo«ri 
(ktcCvco, 2 aor. mid. as pass.) v€icucr<riv, among the slaughtered dead. — Y. 46. 
€<rrao0' (= ItTTadra) : Att. lo-Twra (fr. 1'o-tt]|xi). Ameis has 4<rT€a>0', which 
must be read as a spondee by synizesis. — ot 8c, and they, i. e. the suitors 
that had been slain. — \tXv dp^i, round about him. Observe that dficju does 
not suffer anastrophe. H. 102, D, b ; S. Gr. 634 ; G-. § 23, 2. — 2x°vt€S, 
having, i. e. occupying, covering. — Y. 47. ISovcra: condition. H. 789, e; 
S. Gr. 540, e ; G. § 277, 4. — K€, with lav0r;s (laivw) : if you had seen (them), 
you would have been, etc. The next verse is rejected in all critical editions, 
and should not be translated. — Y. 49. ot jxe'v, they, the suitors : 8Vj, 
resumptive ; and now they all, I say (lie), etc. — V. 50. 0€€ioi)tcu : 0e€i6a> 
= 0€ioa>. — Y. 55. ere: emphat. posit.: obj. of KaXeVcrai. — Y. 52. 
£irev : Att. &irov (&irop,ai). — crc|)<»iv : dat. of interest : or, ethical dat., with 
the following clause : £infir\Tov (em, paCvw), dual : that you two may both (of 
you, i. e. Penelope and Odysseus) in your heart, enter on your joy. — Y. 53. 
ireiro<r06 : irdo-xw. — Y. 55. -?j\0€ .... €<J>€(ttios (pred. adj. H. 488, 
Bern, c ; S. Gr. 340, c ; G. § 138, Note 7) : he himself, living, has come home. 

— Y. 5 60 Kaxciis, with €pe£ov : note the force of the imperf., have continued 
(up to the present day) to do him harm. — Y. 57 • [xvTjcrrqpes : with ol'irep: 
antecedent incorporated, in the relative clause. See Gr. Incorporation.— 
toiis irdvras, these, all: or, as we more naturally say, all these : obj. of krl- 
craTO. — Y. 59. p.ey' = p.£ya, adv. — Y. 60. <»s k do-iracrrbs ktI., how 
welcome, etc. — Y. 61. tov, relat. T€KO{J.€<r0a (tIktw), spoken of both 
parents ; and hence awkward to render into Eng., as we have no usual 
word including both ideas to btget and to bear. Perhaps we may say, (vii'i 
kt!.) and to the son, of whom we both are parents. — Yv. ©2, 63. The sense 
is, it is not true that Odysseus has slain the suitors, but some one of the 
Immortal gods has done it. — Y. 64. &Ya<r<rd|X€vos (&, agrees with 
rls : used in the bad sense, being astonished (and offended) at, with ace. as 
direct obj. H. 544, a; S. Gr. 390, a ; G. § 158, Note 2 : 0vp.a\\€a, adj. 
with iipptv. — Y. 65. ti€(tkov : tCco, with iterative ending. — Y. 66. 
6tis (Att. oo-tis) .... €lcra<|>lK<HTo (optat. denoting indefinite frequency 
of past action), whoever (of men dwelling on the earth) came to them, i. e. to 
expostulate with them. — Y. 6T. tw : illative, by reason of this, therefore. 

— Y. 68. caXec-e .... vco-tov, lost his way back. — ttjXov, with *Ax<«t- 


80s, far from, etc. — V. 70. Cf. 1, 64. — V. 71. -fj, relates to>4, relat. 
pron. with causal force : in that you, or since you denied that your husband, 
who is within by the family hearth, would ever come home. — V. 72. roi 
(= Att. <roi) : dat. of possessor, sc. ka-riv, there is to you, you have. — V. 73. 
el'irco : subjunc. : let me mention, or I will mention. H. 720, a ; S. Gr. 488, 
a ; G. § 253. — V. 74. ovXtjv : appos. with <rf|jxa : something else, a very 
clear sign, a scar from a wound, which a boar inflicted on, etc. — V. 75. 
ttjv .... <f>paa-<£p]v (c|>p&£G>) : this I discovered while washing (him), — re- 
lated in Book XIX. — V. 76. &XXd (xe . . .". \cptrlv, but he (Odysseus) 
having stopped my mouth with his hands (lit. having taken me upon the mouth 
with, etc.). — V. 77. iroXiuSpCTjcri : dat. of cause : in his prudence of mind. 

— V. 79. c|aird<)>co : !|a/jra<j>i<rKa). — Ki-tfvai is variously explained. Cr., 
Voss, and some others make it depend on irepiScio-ofjiai : I will wager my 
own head (lit. myself), if I deceive you, (so as) to die a most miserable death (lit. 
(so that you) slay me with most miserable destruction). Ameis and Diintzer 
understand it as imperat., and place a colon after avTTjs, v. 78 : if I deceive 
you, slay me, etc. The former is more generally preferred, although more 
difficult to render into English. — V. §1, 82. xakeirov (re .... el'pv- 
o-0ai (Lex. kpv<o, IV.), it is hard for you to pry into, etc. — iroXvi'Spiv eoSorav 
(concess. though you are, etc. ) : agree with <r€. Penelope is still of the opin- 
ion that some god had appeared in the form of Odysseus, and had purposely 
taken on himself the scar which Eurycleia had seen. — V. 83. i'ojwv : 
subjunc. with short mode-sign : used imperatively. — V. 84. fjS* 8s 
girc^vcv, and (him) who slew (them). — V. 85. Kari^aiv' frnrp&ia : H. 544, 
a ; S. Gr. 390, a ; G. § 158, Note 2, she descended from the upper chambers. 

— iroXXd : adverbial with wpp-cuvs (6pp.alvw) : her heart was much agitated; 
^ . . . . % (being in doubt) whether . ... or, etc.- — V. §7. irapo-T&cra 
(= irapaa-T&ora : irap£orTTjfji,i) : opposed to airavtcvQe above : whether (being) . 
remote (from him), she should inquire after her dear husband, or, standing near 
(him), should kiss his head and hands, having grasped (them). — V. 88. 
€lo-»]X0€V Kal i)Trep{^t\ ktI. : not mere tautology, as the latter clause, which 
is moi^e specific, imparts vivacity to the description. — V. 89. *08- €vav- • 
t£tj: H. 587, f; S. Gr. 426, f; G. § 181, Note. — V. 90„ toC X ov tov 
gTgpov, by the other (or the opposite) wall. Const. H. 590, a ; S. Gr. 428, a ; 
G. § 179, 2. — V. 91. el tI [uv dhroi ktI., a rare const. : \j*Cv, obj. of 
eforoi, tI ace. of specif. : if his noble wife would address him at all. — V. 93. 
dveco : adv., in silence. — Vv. 94, 95. And by his appearance, at one time, 
looking into his face, she would see him; but at another, she would fail to recognize 
him, having on his body vile garments: ka-CSea-Kev, is and i'Sov (Att. etSov) with 
iterat. ending : d-yvwo-ao-Ke, d^voew, aor. with iterat. ending : \pdi (XP^s) : 
dat. of place (poetic). I have endeavored to express the iterative idea by, 
would see, would fail to recognize — V. 96. kveviirev (Ivitttco), reduplicated 
aor. ; reproached (her). — '4k t' ovd^o^ev : Lex. €£ovop.d£co. — V. 97. 
8vo-p.Tf|T€p : Voss renders it, du bose Mutter ; it may perhaps be rendered 
into English, unfeeling mother! — V. 98. rl$Q', before an aspirated vowel 
for tlttt€ = ri irore, why in the world? why I pray ? irarpos, from (my) fa- 

36 NOTES. 

iher. — V. 99. jxeraXXas : jieTaXXdco : is comm. rendered as nearly, if 
not altogether, synonymous with dveipopm. Ameis, however, translates 
it (Od. 3, 243), "sich kummern, besorgt sein," to concern one's self. — V. 
10©,* t€tXt]6ti 0u[ia> : in a bad sense: with unfeeling heart. — Y. 101 • 
dvSpds, from {her) husband: ol, fern, for her. — V. 103* orot, emphat. 
posit. : dat. possessor with kcrl. — V. 10<5. Te'0i]*irev : Lex. rcOqira. — 
V. 100. irpo<r«|>d(r0ai : irpdcr<]>r|u. — V. 10 1 ?. o£8* .... ivavrtov, 
nor to look directly {ivavriov, lit. opposite to him) into his face. — Y. 108. 
vwi : dual subj. with plur. verb. H. 517 ; S. Gr. 368 ; G. § 135, Note 3 : 
-yvtoo-o^eG' (yiyv&vKOi) here with gen. : oftener with ace. — Kat Xwtoy, even 
better, i. e. better than we now know one another (Ameis) : or, as Cr. and 
F. understand it, better than any one else, as Eurycleia, for example. — 
V. 110. Note the force of 8^j after the relat. H. 851 ; S. Gr. 580, d ; 
Lex. 8-fj, III. 4. — Kat with v<£i, intens., even we, or only we: which, indeed, 
being concealed from others, only we two know : tSjwv, ot8a. 

Yv. 111-151. Odysseus replies to Telemachus ; orders the servants to 
prepare sports and dancing. 

Y. 114. Kdl apeiov : even better, i. e. better than now. Cf. Kal Xcotov, 
v. 109. — Y. 115. #tti .... TOtJveKa, because .... therefore. — pinroa) : 
Lex. pvirdo).— xpot : cf. v. 95. — etaaTa : cognate ace. with etjjwti (gvvujuii). 
Odysseus had not yet laid aside the garments of a beggar, in which he had 
hitherto appeared in the palace. — V. 110. tov, pred. with etvcu : does 
not yet believe (Lex. <f>r||xl, I.) that I am he. — Y. 11§. Kat, intens. with 
<iva (Cr., F., Am.) : even a single man. — 4v! Stjjxco, among the common people. 
— Y. 119. f fj/fj . • . . &ocnv : hypothet. relat. sentence: unless there 
may be to him, unless he has. — 07rtcr<rt»), afterwards, i. e. after he has com- 
mitted the murder. — Y. 120. cjjexJ^eL, flees, i. e. is a fugitive. — -rrpoXiircov, 
going forth (irpo-) and leaving. — Y. 121. <-pp.a -irdXir}os : opposed to 2va 
<j?wTa evl 8-qfjt.cp : the prop of the city, more fully explained by ot kt4. — 
Y. 122. Ta, obj. ; o-e, subj., of <j>pd£eo-0at. — Y. 123. ire'irvvp.evos : 
•tr^irvv|xai. — Y. 124. Xevvo-G, see to, with direct obj., Tavra. — dp£- 
<rrrjv : pred., that your wisdom is best. — Y. 125. tir* dvOpcoirovs, among 
men : added to strengthen the statement ; eirt with the ace. denoting 
extent over and among. — t^der' = ifyacrC, they say. — Y. 126. epCcreie 
(epi|co), vie with. — Yv. 127, 128 are bracketed in all the best German 
editions. My practice in the class-room is to omit those passages which 
are bracketed in the most critical editions. — Y. 131. Xovcra<r0€ (Xovco) : 
direct mid., wash yourselves. — dp,«|)ie<rao-0€ (dpjuevvvui) x iT <»vas, V ut on 
(dean) tunics. This was in preparation for the dance. They had already 
washed their hands and feet since the slaughter of the suitors : mentioned 
in Book 22 : 478. — Y. 132. eX«r0ai : note the force of the mid., to 
take for themselves, choose, select. These festivities were intended to conceal, 
from those without, what had occurred within the palace, — the slaughter 
of the suitors. — Y. 133. <j>dpp.«.yya. For a description of the phor- 
minx, see Die. Antiq., p. 720. — Xfyeiav : X17VS. — Y. 134* <|hX- 6p\- : 


depends on Tj-yeia-So), let ... . lead for us the sportive dance. The minstrel 
who sang and played the phorminx is spoken of as leading the dance. — 
V. 135. Note here kcv with the optat. in a final sentence, — a rare con- 
struction, denoting a possibility under certain conditions. H. 740, b ; 741 ; 
S. Gr. 507, b ; G. § 216, Note 2. — Jktos clkoiW, i] .... ^ .... , hear- 
ing without (the palace, the sound of revelry), either (any one) ascending the 
road, or (any one of those) who dwell around. The palace was on a hill (cf. 
1. 426) ; hence dv* 68bv o-t€lx<ov. The condition, implied in ice'v, is ex- 
pressed in cikovcov, hearing, or, if he hear. — V. 13 Km pfj, lest a wide-spread 
report of the slaughter of the suitors extend, etc. ; or, some may prefer to 
render it as a prohibition with yivr^rai, let not, etc. — rrpoa-Qe .... irplv 
.... 4X0€}X€V (4X0€iv), before we go, etc. For arpiv with infin. see H. 769 ; 
S. Gr. 531 ; G. § 274. — V. 14®. aypbv .... TroXuSe vpeov, to our country- 
seat abounding in trees. Here Laertes, the father of Odysseus, was yet liv- 
ing. — Y. 141. p,a,Xa with kXvov, listened to him attentively. — V. 143. 
87r\i<r0€V (oir\ll<o) = Att. co7rX(o-0rcrav. For the ending, see H. 355 D, c ; 
S. Gr. 703 ; G. § 122, page 92 (bottom). — V. 145. [i-oXirf^ : here spo- 
ken of the song, in distinction from the dance (opx^H- "*)- — V. 146. 
Totcriv : may be viewed as'dat. of interest, or as ethical dat. ; is not con- 
veniently rendered into English. — iroco-iv : dat. of instrument ; and the 
great mansion resounded round about with the feet of etc. — V. 148. tIs, 
indef. here and there one, many a one: ciVetrtce, stirov with iterat. ending. — 
8d[i.<ov : plur. because _the palace contained many apartments : cf. (3our(X€ia. 
■ — clkov(ov agrees with t!§. — Y. 140. tis, in the ordinary sense, some 
one : &yr]p,€ (-yapicd), has wedded. — pao-iXeiav, i. e. Penelope. — Yv. 15®, 
151. ov§' '£t\t) .... e!'puo-0ai (Lex. ipvca, IV.) .... Siajj/Trepes, nor 
did she dare, etc., or, nor could she defend perseveringly the great house of etc. : 
iroa-i.cs, gen. with 8c3p.a : ov t possess, pron. her. — etos ftc-, until he, etc. 

Yv. 152-204. Odysseus at last convinces Penelope who he really is by 
disclosing a secret in the palace, which, was known only to him, and to his 
wife, and her maid Actoris. 

Y. 152. t!s €l'7T€oric€, as in v. 148. — tci, by prolepsis, obj. of i'o-av 
(oiSa : H. 409- D, 6 ; S. Gr. 737, i), and understood as subj. of €T€tukto 
(r€v\(o) : lit. they did not know these things, how they were, i. e. they did not 
know how these things were. — Y. 153. 'OSuo-crfja : obj. of Xoxicrsv and 
Xptorev. Mark the order of the sentence. The object of the verb is the 
leading thought ; and hence stands first : the subject is an unimportant 
person, and is thrown into the middle of the sentence. — Y. 155. <j>apos, 
Xyroova. See Die. of Antiq., pp. 850, 1171 (Pallium, Tunica). The tunic 
was the under garment, and hence put on first ; but the <f»dpcs (pallium, or 
cloak) Was more conspicuous to the eye, and hence was mentioned first, as 
the thing first thought of by the poet. — Y. 156. Kate (= kcito.. H. 73 
D; S. Gr. 628; G. § 12, Note 3) Ke4>aXJ)s : lit. down from his head; or, 
in our idiom, from his head downward, Athena diffused, etc.: X € ^ €V > X €a> * — 
I omit the passage in brackets. — Y. 163. ck .... (3fj ... . ojjuhos, 

68 NOTES. 

sc. *08v<rcr€vs, he went forth from the bath-tub similar inform, etc. — V. 1€I4. 
KttT* .... '^€to : KaBe^ojxai. — £v0ei/ : relat. whence. — V. 165* jaiv : 

fern, referring to uXoxou. — V. 10®. Aatp.ovu] : the ordinary courteous 
form o& address 'to a lady, corresponding to our Madam, when used with 
respectful tone and manner. — irepl, with yvvaiiouv, j n the sense above or 
beyond = more than. — c-otye : note the force of -ye, restrictive and confirma- 
tive : cannot easily be rendered into English ; oar restrictive, at least, or 
"confirmative, certainly, is unwieldy, and rather over-tran slates "ye in most 
connections. — <-di\Kav : subj. 'OX- 8wjx- £x ovT€ S •' to you, more than to delicate 
women, those who occupy Olympian mansions have given (lit. put), etc. — Vv. 
B6§ - 170. Of. 100-102. — V. 171, addressed to Eurycleia. — o-rope- 
crov : crropfcvvv|XL — ko.1 avros, even alone (without Penelope). — V. ] 79« 
T.'-ye, dat. of possessor : 0vp,ds, sc. ecrriv : for surely, she has, etc. — V. 174. 
8aijj.dvi€. The courteous form of address to a gentleman ; our Sir, when 
used respectfulty. Of. Acup.oviTj, v. 166. Such, at least, seems to me to 
be the force of these words, so frequent in Homer. For other modes of 
rendering, see Lex. — o{5t' .... fryajxcu, I am neither haughty at all, nor 
contemptuous, nor greatly astonished. This is hardly in keeping with what 
she had said to Telemachus, vv. 105 ff. ; but the circumstances had now 
changed, and she had regained partially her self-possession. — V. 1T5. 
otos &r)<r8a, what you were, i. e. what your appearance was: this use of the 
second person is a half-recognition and acknowledgment ; but, with great 
prudence and shrewdness, she wishes to subject him to a final test. — Y. 
If 6. l<»v, with the subj. of 'iv^Qa, as you ivent, etc. — V. Iff. ttvkivov 
Xe'xos, the firm bed; spoken particularly here of the bedstead; so also in 
v. 179. — V. If 8. Iktos .... 0a\ct[jun). The reason why she ordered 
the bed to be brought out of the chamber appears presently. — Y. IffK 
€K6etircu (cktiO^jxi), aor. act. particip., agrees with the subj. of ejxpdXere : 
addressed to Eurycleia and the maid-servants who aided her : after hav- 
ing placed for him without (the chamber), etc. — evv^jv, the bed,-'m distinction 
from the bedstead. — V. ISO* Kaea (icwas) kt|. : partit. appos. with 
elv-qv. — V. 182. ISvfav (Att. elSvfav : o!Sa), agrees with dXoxov. — 
Y. 18S. *£l -yuvcu : in Greek usage, a respectful form of address. — - 
tcOto, obj. : &ros 8i>jJiaX"y6s, app. this, a heart-grieving word; freely ren- 
dered, surely! this, which you uttered, is a heart-grieving word. — V. 184. 
XaXeirov . . . €'&], sc. dXXccre Geivcu Xe'xcs : it would be difficult (to put 
my bed in another place) even for one very intelligent (eiricrTapivo), often 
used adjectively). — Y. 185. 'ore p.^ (observe here prj with the optat. 
denoting condition. R. 835 ; S. Gr. 570 ; G. § 283, 1), unless, etc. — V. 
186* pifiSusis €0eX«v Qe(r\: lit. viishing, should easily put (it), etc., i. e. 

should easily, at wilt, put (it), etc. — Y. 187. dvS ppoTcs : a very 

strong expression, but not any living mortal among men, etc. — tj|3c5v : particip. 
denoting condition: not even if he were very vigorous. — Y. 188. pG*ya, 
crfjp.a : Jit. a great sign, — a secret, intended as a sign for both husband 
and wife. What this secret sign in the curiously wrought bedstead was, is 
explained afterwards. — • t€tvktch (rtvx<a), there has been made, i. e. there is, 


there lies. — V. 189. to, this, i. e. Xeyos. — Yv. 190-201 contain a 
description of the manner in which the bedstead was made. " Its peculiar 
structure," says Collins (Ancient Classics for English Readers, Odyssey), 
"as detailed in Homer's verse, is by no means easy to unravel. But it is 
formed in some cunning fashion out of the stem of an olive-tree, rooted 
and growing, round which the hero himself had built a bridal chamber." 
This description is here omitted. — Y. 202. iruJ5cuJ< : trans, make 
plain, make known: rdSe 0-ijp.a, this sign, this token of recognition. — Y. 203. 
gjxireSov (iv, ire'Sov the ground) , firm in the ground, agrees with Xe'xos (subj. - 
of €<rr£). — Y. 204. 0i]K€, obj. Xe\os. — viro, with tcijacCv (Ttjwo), hence 
the anastrophe, having cut underneath the stock ofi, etc. 

Yv. 205-299. Penelope is convinced, and, overcome with emotion, 
embraces her husband. Odysseus relates to her a prophecy of Teiresias 
(the seer whom he had consulted in the under- world). The repose of the 

Y. 205. t^s, with ^ovvaTa and fjrop : clvtov, adv. on the spot, imme- 
diately ; and immediately her knees and heart trembled (Xijto, augment and 
connecting vowel omitted, = Att. eXveTO, were loosed, trembled). — Y. 20®. 
avcryvoxJo-Tjs (dva-yfyvwo-Kw, aor. act. paHicip.), agrees with ttjs, as she 
clearly perceived. — t&, relat. : 'n^paS* (c(jpd|<o, with reduplicated aor.): 
which Odysseus accurately (<-p.U€8a, sure) rehearsed to her. — Yv. 208, 200. 
d|i<j>l, with pdXX*: 'OSihto-Sji, dat. of interest, or of relation : threw her arms 
round the neck of Odysseus. — 'ittva-' : Kvveto. — Y. 200. ckv^cv = u-kvIov ; 
cnrffofMu. — eirel .... ireiTvvcro (pluperf. augment omitted: irveco) since 
you of all) men were especially shrewd on all other occasions (to, ircp &XX01). — 
V. 211. d"ydcravTO (Lex. d-yajJiai, II. ), envied us two. — jwvovtc refers to 
vioiv : note the change from dat. to ace. Cf. XapcvTct, Xen. Anab. 1, 2, 1. 
Lit. grudged to us, that we remaining .... enjoy (TapTrfjvcu, ripirta), etc. — 
Y. 213. x^ £0 : X^ ^ 1, — v€jAe$r<ra; v€p,6<rd<o. — Y. 214. ore, obj. of 
a7d*jrr|o-a (dYa/rrdw) : <&8€, thus, as now. — Y. 2 £6. Ippiya (pi*y€co) p.TJ tis 
kt€., shuddered lest, etc. — dird^otro : diraf Ccrfcca = diraTaa). — Y. 225. 
KareXef-as : Lex. ica/raXe-yco, III. — V. 226. oir^Trci : cpdw. — Y. 22 8. 
Kiovo-tj, with p,ol, while I was yet on my way hither. — Y. 220. ^ . . . . 
€l r pvro (Lex. epvo), IY. ), who guarded for us, etc. — Y. 230. ir€i0€is ktI. : 
connect closely in thought with vvv Sc, v. 225. — airr)vea : cf. v. 97. — 
Iovto, : concessive, though it is certainly very (ire'p) hard. Her present emo- 
tion and self-reproach are not inconsistent with the rare dignity of charac- 
ter which she preserves throughout. — Y. 231. t», to him, in him, with 
v<j> > .... wpcre (Lex. virdpvvjxi). — Y. 232. Ovjxapea : Gvjxaprjs or Qv- 
[xdpi]s. — ISvtav : cf. v. 182. — Y. 233. oes 8* 6t€, and as when, a com- 
mon mode of introducing an illustration in Homer. — dcnrdo-ios : pred. 
the land appears welcome to men swimming. — Y. 234:. o>vt€, with vtja (obj. 
of pato-Tj). — Y. 236. e^ecjnryov : gnomic aor. H. 707 ; S. Gr. 474, c; 
G. § 205, 2. Translate by the present. — Y. 23?. rirpofov (Tpe+o) : 
2 perf. intrans. has congealed. — Y. 23§. ucrird0~ioi, with the s:ibj. of 

40 NOTES. 

lire'Pav (= l7rep7]o*av gnomic aor.), gladly they disembark on, etc. — V. £239* 
eSs ktI., thus, etc., introduces the application of the illustration. — ttj . . . . 
€t(ropo«crr], to her (Penelope) looking upon (him). — Y. 240. Seipfjs with. 
d$-, and not yet from his neck did she wholly loose, etc. — V. 241. kg ... . 
4>dvT], would have appeared, etc. — Y. 242. d \j.i\ dp' dXX' 4vor\(re (vo4<o), 
unless .... had purposed other things. — Y. 243. vvktci, obj.. of <r\4Qev 
(= gcr)(G0ev = ^o"xev, fr. ^x w )» s ^ e ^ e ^ ^ e night long in the extreme (western 
horizon), i. e. detained the night, and did not allow it to depart : 8oXi\f}v 
is strictly a predicate adj. denoting result, so that it (the night) was long. — - 
J Hw, obj. of pvo-aTO (pvofxat), kept back, etc. — Y. 244. ov§' '4a (imperf. 
with omitted augment, fr. edw), nor allowed (her) to yoke, etc. For a wood- 
cut of the chariot of Aurora, see Die. of Antiq., p. 379. — Y. 246. 
AdjATrov (fr. Xdp,Trtt, to give light), ^ae'Govra (the beaming, radiant one) : 
appos. with tieirovs : mentioned only here as the steeds of Eos. — iraXoi, 
appos. with otV, which, as young steeds, conduct, etc. — Y. 248. yap in- 
troduces the explanation of the affectionate address, 9 I2 yvvai : My wife ! 
(1 address thee), since not yet have we come, etc. Ameis compares with this, 
Yerg. Aen. 1, 65, Aeole — namque tibi, etc. — Y. 250* tov: relat. — 
Y. 251. Cf. XI. 90 ff. — Yv. 254, 255. 1'op.ev : subjunc. with short 
mode-sign. — vtto : anastrophe. — Tapirw|X€0a : rep-irco, 2 aor. mid. subjunc: 
but come, wife, let us repair to our couch, that even now, reposing in sweet sleep, 
we may be refreshed. — Y. 2 5 7. tot€ .... oirirdre, then when, or, as soon 
as. — Yv. 258, 259. Note iK€o-0ai with ace. and with 4s and ace; 
both constructions in the same sentence : to reach your well-built home and 
to arrive at your, etc. — Y. 260. €<j>pdjr0T]s (<j>pd£co) ktI. : note this use of 
the aor. pass. : since you thought of it, or since you suggested it, and some god 
put it in your mind. — Y. 201. efcir' (= elire) d'ye, come! relate to me, etc. 

— tov &€0\ov, that conflict, the one alluded to vv. 249, 250. — Y. 262. 
ir€i;<ro{«u (, / shall ascertain (about it). — avriica: opposed to 
6irio"0fcv: immediately, on the spot. — Sarjfxevai (Lex. AA12. II.), subj. of 
Ictti : o-uti \4peiov, pred. : it is not worse to learn, etc. — Y. 265. Ittikcvo-w : 
6iriK€v0<o. — Y. 266. roi ( = trot) : ethical dat. or dat. of interest. — 
K€xap^o-eTai : xaipw. — Y. 267. lire! .... dvco-yev (dvwya, as pres. ), 
since he (Teiresias) commands (me), etc. — jxdXa iroXXd, with do-rea, to very 
many cities. — Y. 268. ^ovto., with subj. of cXGetv, having in my hands, 
etc. — Y. 270. dvepes : appos. with ol'. — dXecrcri (&Xs) : in plur. grains 
of salt. — Y. 271. <j>otviKOirapijovs : Lex. <j>oivitcoirdp€ios. — Y. 272. 
TaT€ (= to re), and these, or simply, which: subj. of ireXovrai : neut. plur. 
with plur. verb. — Y. 273. &iirev, he (Teiresias) mentioned, etc. — K€vo-« 
(sc. toSc), with two aces. — Y. 274. £up,f3XTJp.ev<H : Lex. <rvp.pdXXa>, 
II. 4. — Y. 275. <j>^jt| (pres. subjunc. of <J>T]p.i, with vowel sound dupli- 
cated) ktI., shall affirm that I have a winnowing fan, etc. — Y. 276. iced 
Tore : correl. with 6tttt6t6 kcv (v. 274) Srj : when at length .... even then. 

— p.e', subj. of dmroarreLyjciv, having stuck my oar in the ground, having offered 
(2p£avTa : 2p8co) . . - . he bade (IxeXevev) me return, etc. — Y. 278. crvcov 
.... Kdrrpov, a swine-breeding boar. The sacrifice of the three animals here 


mentioned was called by the Romans su-ove-taurilia. — V. 2§I. !£ dXos, 
apart from, away from the sea. — aww with jxoi. — dj3- .... toios : with 
©dvaTos, death so very mild. — V. 283. "y^pa* (= y/jpai, dat.) Wo (with 
7^pa' : note the anastrophe) .... dpt]|X€Vov (agrees with p.i), sinking down 
under, etc. — V. 2 §4. to, ... . ircLvTa : subj. of rekeZo-Qai. — 4>aTo 
(= &|>aTo = Att. %tyr\) ; subj. t^X^ Teipecrtao. — V. 2§6. reXeovo-iv, 
bring about, bring to pass. — dpeiov (comparat. of dyaOos), better, happier (than 
the previous time). — V. 287. gircira marks the apodosis, after the prot- 
asis ei {iev .... dpeiov, if, etc., then is there hope to you that, etc. — 
V. 289. To<f>pa, meanwhile. — rpofyos, the nurse, i. e. Eurycleia. — 'ivrvov t 
evTijQ) = evrvvto. — V. 2®4>. SafSav (8ats) viro (anast.) Xafj.irop.evdcov 
(XdjJiirco), under bright (lit. shining) torches. — V. 291. o-Topwav : crropcv- 
wjai. — V. 292. oIkovSc, homeward, i. e. Jo her apartment. — V. 203. 
toio-lv 8e : but these (i. e. Odysseus and Penelope), with tjy€M.ov€U€v, con- 
ducted. — V. 2® <JU €px~ X.€Xoo"8€, as they went to their bed. — V. 296. 
Qzvpov is differently explained by different editors. I am inclined to fol- 
low Ameis, who understands it as denoting merely the idea of the place : 
thus, they then gladly reached the place of their old bed, or, more freely ren- 
dered, of their marriage-bed. For the other meaning of Geo-jxov, see Lex. — 
V. 2®§. irai)o-av, caused to cease, caused to rest. In the mid. to cease. — 
V. 299. fieyapa : plur. like PacrtXeia : the apartments of the palace. 

Vv. 300 - 372. Penelope and Odysseus briefly relate to each other their 
experiences during their long separation. On the following morning Odys- 
seus instructs his wife to remain in her apartment, while he goes to visit 
his father Laertes. 

Vv. 30O, 301. And these two, when now they had enjoyed (lTapinfJTT|v : 
ripiroi) loving friendship, were pleased with discourse, while rehearsing to one an- 
other, etc. — V. 302. fj jjl€v (sc. Iveirofo-a) 6o-a kt!., the one, divine of 
women, (rehearsing) whatever she had suffered, etc. — V. 303. ecropcskra 
(ecropdco) agrees with i\ \l4v. — V. 304. %9ev (= ov fern.) el'veKa, on her 
account — (Boas, [i/i]Xa, appos. with iroXXd (obj. of &r<|>a£ov). — V. 30®. 
irapos, like irpiv, with the infin. H. 769 ; S. Gr. 531 ; G. § 274 : nor did 
sleep fall on her eyelids before he had recounted all. — V. 31©. "Hp^aro 
.... 8dp.aa"' (ISdjxacrfc, Sajida), He began (to recount) how, etc. — Yv. 
310-313, the contents of Book IX. ; vv. 314-321, of B. X; vv. 322- 
325, of B. XL; vv. 326-332, of B. XII. ; vv. 333-341, of Books V.- 
VIII.; and the beginning of B. XIII. — V. 3 &2. epge : epSo>. — dire-rt- 
o-cito, subj. '08vo-ct€i>s. Note the force of the mid., and of dir- : how he 
obtained, in full (dir-), recompense for, etc.: ovs (Kvic\an|r) ijcrBiev ktI. — 
V. 315. '7^€(Jl^^ , = ^ireix-ire, sent {him on his icay). — ouSe iroo atca .". . . 
$\r[v (= fjv), but it was not yet his lot to, etc. — V. 31*?. p^aXa, adv. — 
o-T€vdxovT<x agrees with p,£v, the obj. of dvapTrd|ao-a (dvapird^w) and of 
<f>sp€v. — V. 31®. o r C relates to TTjXeirvXov as collective noun: and how 
he reached the Laestrygonian Telepylus, whose inhabitants destroyed, etc. — 
Omit the verse in brackets. —V. 322. 'AiSew : Lex. "AiStjs. H. 136 D, 

42 * NOTES. '"' 

2; S. Gr. 638, b ; G. § 39, Gen. Sing. — V. 323. xp^tro'jxevcs : Lex. 
ypdto (B), A. III. to consult. — V. 324. vijt : dat. of accompaniment 
with i]X\)0ov: and how he u)ent, with his many-benched ship, into, etc. — 
V. 326. dSivdwv (dSivcs) : Am. & Diintz. write dSivdwv : some say 
char and loud-toned; others, sweet-toned; Ameis, alluring and detaining by 
their song (anhaltend singenden). Perhaps all these ideas may belong to 
the word. — V. 32 1 ?. IIXcryKTds ireTpas : the rocks Plancktae, or, as often 
rendered, the wandering rocks : usu. derived from TrXd£co, to cause to wander, 
or the mid. TrXd£o|Acu, to wander: either because they themselves were 
supposed to move, like the Symphlegades, mentioned in the Argonautic 
exp, dition, or because, by the currents and whirlpools near them, they 
caused ships to wander from their course and to founder. — V. 32§. 
aKr\pioi (a priv. K^p, not K7]p) .... dXvfjav (dkva-K<o) } had escaped un- 
harmed. — Y. 33 S. diro . . . . HfyQiQw (Lex. dTro<j>0iva>) : ending ev = 
-rjo-av : 1 aor. pass. — V. 332. vtto .... dXvfjev (vTraXva-KOi). Note 
the force of viro, under, a little, barely ; while he himself barely escaped, etc. — 
V. 333. KaXoj\|/co : declined like irei0a). H. 193 ; S. Gr. 105 ; G. § 55. 
t\y&.— Vv. 333-335. Cf. 1 : 14, 15. — &|>ao-K€v ©rjcrav, affirmed that 
she would make (him), etc. — Y. 339. irept : Ameis regards this as adv.: 
Crusius writes irepi, adv. : Faesi & Diintz. take it as a prep, with K-qpi. In 
either case, the general sense is the same : ivho honored him very heartily : 
ois; why accented? H. 104, a; S. Gr. 64 ; G. § 29, Note. — Y. 343. 
eirdpoxxre : liropovw. — Y. 344. 'H 8' . . . . 'A0T|vtj : H. 500, d ; S. Gr. 
353, c. — dXX' = &XXa, or &XXo, obj. of evot]<re : cf. 242. — Y. 345. 
• '08v<rfja : subj. of Tapir^jxevai (ripiro)). — leXireTO (^Xirco, Att. IXirtfa)) 8v 
Kara 0vjj.6v, hoped (or, as often rendered, Relieved) in her heart. — Y. 346. 
ewfjs with Tapinfjjji,€v<u : &X6x<ho limits evvr\s : lit. the bed of his wife ; more 
freely rendered, was refreshed with rest near by his wife, and also with sleep. 
— Y. 348. IV .... <j>€poi : subj. Tipiyeveia. — Y. 349. iirl .... 
greXXev : eiri/reXXw. — Y. 350. iroXeW differs how in meaning from ird- 
Xecov ? — K€KOp^jji60' : K0p€vvv}i.i. — Y. 351. dfj.€J>OT€p(o with the subj. of 
K6Kop^fi.€0\ — arv |X€V : partit. appos. with subj. of K6Kop- : we both have had 
O'trf 11, you, etc. — .... kXcuouo-ci, in weping for my return attended 
with many a care. — Y. 352. avrdp cfife kt4. : a change of const. "We 
should expect here, correl. with cri> |xev, avrap I7C0, or e-yw ?e. — V. 353. 
ir&dcLO-Kov (ireSdw) : vowel sound duplicated : iterative ending : detained 
with woes, away from my fatherland, when I was hastening {towards it). — 
Y. 355. KT-rjjxaTa, obj. of Koju^e'fiev (= Kopl£€iv), inf. as imperat. second 
pers. H. 784 ; S. Gr. 534 ; G. § 269, do you take care of, etc. — tcl, rela- 
tive : [jloi dat. of possess, with &tti. — Y. 356. p/fjXa : obj. of XTjtcra-o- 
p.a.1 (\i)t£ / myself will restore (to myself) by plunder. — jxot : dat. of 
interest with Ka,T€Kapav (Ka/raKetpa)). — Y. 357. iroXXd with jxfjXa : 
emphat. posit. — V. 358. evwrXTjo-coo-iv : ijiiriirXTuxi. — Y. 360. 8 = 
8s. H. 243 D; S. Gr. 682. — di<dxT]T<u : L. & Sc. "AX& — V. 361. 
tcL8€, these things, namely, that which follows in vv. 364, 365. — Yv. 362, 
363. <|>dTis .... dv8- {lyTjcrTrjptov (object, gen.), a report . . . . re- 


specting the suitors. — &<r\,v : so in Eng. a similar metaphor, will go abroad, 
will go forth. — gieravov : kt€lvo. — Vv. 364, .365. els virepw' dva.pc.cra 
.... ^cr0ai (inlin. as imperat.), do you, going, into an upper apartment, 
sit still, remain. — irpoTico-creo : Lex. irpoTi6<r(ro[Aai (irpos, oa-crojJiat). — 
V. 306« €'8v<reTo (8t5o> : 1 aor. with connecting vowel e), put on. —*- 
V. 308« irdvTas : obj. of dvco-yev : %vr&t .... 'Apifjia obj. of IXio-Sau 
They armed themselves in anticipation of a possible conflict with the 
friends of the suitors. — V. 3^<>» ofrfjav : oityvvjn. — V. 371* eiri with 
ace. denoting extent over. 

BOOK XXIV. — Hermes conducts the Souls of the Suitors to the 
Under- world. Odysseus visits his Father Laertes and becomes 
known to him. The Friends of the Suitors, revolting, are sub- 
dued; and with the Aid of Athena a lasting Peace is made be- 
tween Odysseus and his Subjects. With this the Odyssey ends. 


For the life and writings of Herodotus, see Classical Dictionary. 
For the historical connections of the narrative, see Smith's History, 
Chapters XVI. and XVII., or, still better, G-rote's History, begin- 
ning with the Ionic Revolt 

The language of Herodotus is sometimes called the New Ionic, in 
distinction from that of Homer, which is called Old Ionic. Its prin- 
cipal peculiarities will be noted as they occur. 

BOOK VIIT. — Urania. 

Herodotus named the nine hooks of his history from the nine muses, in 
the order, Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polym- 
nia, Urania, Calliope. The name of this hook, Urania (fr. ovpavios adj., 
ovpavds subst.), signifies the celestial one. 

Chaps. 40-95. Invasion of Attica and battle of Salamis. (See plan 
of the battle at the end of the volume.) 

Chap. 40. The Greek fleet, which had been engaged in the battles of 
Artemisium, reach Salamis. — KarCuyey. tols veas (= Att. vavs. H. 189 D ; 
S. Gr. 666 ; G. § 54) : steers the ships : kcltcx, spoken regularly of direction 
towards the coast from either sea or land 4 . — vireJa-ycrycovTai. (inro denoting 
secrecy, 4k out of, &ya> to lead, convey) : subjunc. after a past tense. H. 740 ; 
S. Gr. 508 ; G. § 216, 1, 2. — irpbs 81 : adv., and besides. H. 615; S. Gr. 
449 ; G. § 191, Note 2. — to : note carefully this use of the article as a 
relat. proh. H. 243 D; S. Gr. 682; G. § 140, Note 4. — atfrouri : H. 

44 NOTES. 

140 D, b ; S. Gr. 646 ; G. § 44: dat. of the agent with the verbal in t<?gs: 
what shall be done on their part, what they shall do : an indirect question with the 
relat. to, st. 6 tu — girl .... irpV}*yp,ao-i (= irpcryfA-, H. 24 D, a ; S. Gr. 
605 ; G. § 30) : B. renders this, ob praesentem rerum statum ; more lit. on the 
circumstances that had arisen (or that had come in ; KO/nrjK-, Ka0T|Ko>, H. 72 
D ; S. Gr. 627 ; G. § 17, Note). — povXfjv .... iroi^o-eo-Gai, to form a 
plan, to deliberate. Note here the fut. infin. with jUXXa). — 8ok€ovt€S. 
Note the use of uncontracted forms in Herod, as in Horn. H. 32 D ; S. 
Gr. 614; G. § 124, 2. — i»iroKaTT](X€Vovs (inrd, KdQt]\iai), awaiting. — r<av 
|i€V .... ecv (= Att. 6V, particip.), of these things, they found nothing exist- 
ing. — ot 84, but they, the Athenians : same as the subj. of the preceding 
sentence. — cu>tovs, i. e. the Peloponnesians : T€ix€0VTa$, supplementary 
particip. H. 796 ff ; S. Gr. 545 ff ; G. § 279 : that they were fortifying, etc. 

— t-tjv IleX-, subj. of irepietvat (irepC, el|xt). — iroievjxevoDS = iroiovjxevovs. 
H. 32 D, f ; S. Gr. 615 ; G. § 124, 2. — e'xovTas, same const, w. iroisvp.- : 
both making it of the highest importance that .... and keeping this, etc. — to. 
&XXa ctarievai (= cufnevai : cf. KcmrJKOvo-i above" and note) : that they were 
abandoning everything else: depends on ciruvGctvovTo. "We should expect 
here, as the regular construction, the ace. and particip. (dmevTas), like 
avTO-us T€tx€OVTas, instead of ace. and infin. — ovtw 8tj : note the use of 
these words, giving emphasis to the following verb. — o-«j)€tov (enclit. here, 
but not in Att.) = a-fy&v : an indirect reflexive in Att. H. 668 ; S. G. 133, 
a ; G. § 144, 2. "What word would an Attic writer use here ? — cr\av (e'xw), 
same sense as Karloyjei above, to steer. 

Chap. 4:1. Athenians send away their families. — t^jv : H. 509, b ; S. 
Gr. 359, b ; G. § 141, Note 4. — coviw (<ov, a diphthong. H. 11, R. b ; 
S. Gr. 601 ; G. § 3) = icunw. — 'AO-qvatcov, sc. Tivd, subj. of o-^etv : rfj, 
cf. note on to, ch. 40, = tj, that (any one) of the Ath., as he is able, save, etc. 

— ivQavra, Att. €VTai)0a. H. 66 D ; S. Gr. 602, a. — drreo-TaXav (diro- 
CTeXXo), sc. to. T€Kva ktI. — t»7T€K0€o-0ai : cf. virefjcryd-ytoVTCu, ch. 40. — . 
T(x> xpT]orTT]pLa> .... •uinf]p€T€eiv, both wishing to comply with the oracle, and, 
etc. The -responses of the oracle are given in Book VII. ch. 140, and ch. 
141. They are translated in Grote's Hist., ch. xxxix. The latter oracle 
afforded some hope in the expression, "Zeus grants to Athene that the 
wooden wall alone shall remain unconquered, to defend you and your chil- 
dren, when everything else in the land of Kekrops shall be taken." They 
interpreted this "wooden wall" to mean their navy. — o^k (H. 72 D ; S. 
Gr. 602, a ; G. § 17, 1, Note) 'fJKto-Ta : litotes, i. e. a negative form of ex- 
pression used for emphasis : not least = chiefly, especially. — fyvkaKov = Att. 
cfniXaKCL : appos. with 6<jnv [xe'-yav. — ev tw ip<5 (= Att. Up<5) : in the temple; 
i. e. of Athena Polias, thought to have been the middle part of the Erech- 
theum, and to have contained the ancient olive-wood statue of the god- 
dess, the Palladium, which fell down from heaven. — ko,1 .... irpoTiGev- 
T€s, and in fact they even offer (sacrifices to it) placing before (it), as if existing, 
monthly offerings of food, ots Iovtl shows that Herod, withholds the expres- 
sion of any opinion as to the actual existence of the serpent. — cn>p/5]vdo-7]s 


(o*rj|Jiatva>) .... tepefojs : gen. abs. : and when the priestess, etc., i. e. the 
priestess of the Erechtheum. — piaXXov ti . . . . kci\ irpo6vp.oT€pov : adv. with 
cfjeXnrov : somewhat more, even more readily, i. e. as we might say, so much 
the more readily. — cos with particip. aTroXeXonrvwrs (diroXeiTrco), as if, on the 
ground that, etc. — <r<j>i (H. 233 D ; S. Gr. 678 ; G. § 79, Note 2) ; dat. of 
agent. H. 600 ; S. Gr. 435 ; G. § 188, 3. — {nreg6K€£To (Att. faregeiceiTo, fr. 
•uiro, eK, Keijicu.) : used as pluperf. pass, of inT€KT L0€<r 9ai : had been conveyed 
away: vir- suggests the idea, secretly, stealthily; but these English w T oids 
are too unwieldy, and hence over-translate the little word vir-. 

Chap. 42* Assembling of the Greek allied forces. — cruv€pp€e (Lex. <rup- 
peco) : contraction omitted, as usual in Horn, and IJerod. — c-uveXc'xO^o-av 
(trvXkiyoi) : observe here the 1st aor. pass., as in Horn. In Att. prose, 
usu. the 2d aor. o-vveXe7T|v. — irXevves, Att. irXeoves, irXeioves, or irXeicws : 
irXevvav, Att. irXeovcov or ttXciovcov. Notice also the Ionic declens. of iro- 
Xicov, Att. iroXecov. — eirfjv (£ir€i}u), there was over (them) as admiral, etc.: 
co-utos = 6 avros. 

Chaps. 43-48- An enumeration of the Grecian forces. Herod, gives 
378 as the whole number of ships, besides penteconters. 

Chap. 40. Council of war. — trpoQivros . . '. . pouXcp,evov, Earybiades 
having proposed that the one wishing, etc., or more freely, on a proposal from 
Eurybiades that any one who desired, etc. — okov, Att. #irou. — rdv : relat. 
depending on eYKpa/rees. — x a) P € ' oav (Att. xcopcov) : anteced. in relat. clause: 
in which of those places (lit. where of the places), of which they were themselves 
masters, it seemed, etc. — direlro : Att. dtjjeiro (cujhtjjai). — Xciire'cov : gen. 
plur. fern. sc. \(api(av : H. 26 D ; S. Gr. 641 ; G. §39. — ire'pi (anastrophe) 
governs the word preceding it. — irpOTiGee, sc. EvpvfkdSTjs : proposed (a de- 
liberation). — irXccp-avras agrees with the subj. of vaujiaxeeiv, concurred (in 
this) that they having sailed, etc. — iiri\£yovTes> We should expect here the 
gen. agreeing with tcSv Xe-yovTcov. The const, now stands as though the 
sentence had begun oi 8e keyovrss irXetcrroi e-yvcoo-av. Render, alleging the 
following reason, that, etc. — i'va : adv. of place, where, etc. — €|oictovtcu 
(eK<j>e'pa>) is viewed as pass, in meaning ; so also iroXiopK^aovTcu above. 
The force of cos, with the condition immediately after it, extends through 
the sentence. 

Chap. 5®. The news is brought that the Persians have reached Athens. 
■ — tcov .... 4ttiX€7-: gen. abs. denoting time, while, etc. — eXijXiiCee (£p- 
\o|xat) : pluperf. — -fjsceiv : pres. in form, always perf. in meaning. H. 698 ; 
S. Gr. 475, a ; G. § 200, Note 3. — irvpiroXieo-Qai : pres., continued action. 
cp/irpTJcras : Ip/iriirpTj jai. — cuitcov IkXcX-: when they themselves (i. e. the Thes- 
pians) had, etc. — licXeX- 4s ireX- : brachylogy : H. 881 ; had evacuated it 
(and gone), etc. — i]K6 : imperf. as pluperf. had come. — irdvTci €Keiva : lit. 
all those things = everything there. — ovk efx^jSi^ov." The Thespians had fought 
with Leonidas at Thermopylae ; the Plataeans, with Miltiades at Marathon, 
and with Eurybiades at Artemisium. 

Chaps. 51 - 53. Time of the march from the Hellespont. The acrop- 
olis besieged and taken. 

46 NOTES. 

Chap. 51. avrov : adv. — tw : relat. — iv Tpurl . . . . |ATjcrt, in three 
other months, i. e. other than the month spent at the Hellespont. It was 
now September, 480 b. c. — 'AQr^vaioiari : clat. depending on dpxovros as 
particip. Cf. Thucyd. 1 : 93. 'AOrjvaiois flp^v. Two other instances 
of this same const, with &px» occur in Thucyd. Usually we find ev 3 AQ4\- 
vcus or'A0TjVT|criv. We may render it freely, when Calliades was archon of the 
Athenians. For the constitution of the archons, see Die. Antiq., or Smith's 
Hist. ch. x. — to &o-tv : the city, apparently here in distinction from the 
acropolis. So used often. See Lex. iroXis. — ev t<o lp« : i. e. in the Erech- 
theum (or that part of it called 'AQi\vr\ IloXids) on the acropolis. — Qvpr\cri : 
Lex. 6vpa, III. — Notice here tijxa jxev . . . . irpbs 8e, as correlatives : at 
the same time . ... but besides ; or, more freely, partly . ... but besides. 

— avToi 8ok£ovt€S, thinking that they themselves, or that they alone, etc. — to 
|vX- .... eowOai: explanatory of uavTrjiov. — Kal avrb 8^ ktI. depends, 
on 8ok€ovt€s : and that this itself was, etc. 

Chap. 52«, The learner should refer to his classical atlas, Plan of Athens. . 

— tov, before 'AO^vatoi, relat. — ' ApV] tov -n^ov : may be rendered either 
Areopagus or Mars' Hill. — 6"kcos (Att. oVo)?) .... ai|/€iav (airr<») : in- 
definite frequency of past action. H. 729, b ; S. Gr. 498, fine print ; G. 
§ 233. — d/iri.*Yp.€voi : Att. ae^iy- fr. d<JHKV€oaai. — kclC connects here two 
participial clauses in different cases. — tov <j>pa7- irpoSeS- : concessive : 
though their wooden rampart had failed (them) :. lit. had betrayed [them). — 
dvTe^x av€OVTO : dvTijj.-nx av ^°l xau EL 370 D, a ; S. Gr. 713, b ; G. § 124, 
1. — Kal 8^ Kal : and indeed even. — d-rrUcrav : d<|>fo]|J.i.. — aTropttja-i (note 
the omission of the v movable in Herod. H. 78 D ; S: Gr. 629 ; G. § 30, 
3) ivix.eo-Qa.1, was kept in perplexity, lit. in perplexities. 

Chap. 53. XP° V< P> ^. in time, or, as we might say, at length. — diropwv : 
fr. dwopa (Ta), adj. as subst. = diropiai. — Notice- here tis before its subst. 

— '^o-oSos, i. e. to the acropolis. — pappdpouri with €<j>dvr]. — ^8€€, Att. 
'4$ei, fr. Set. — £p.Trpcc-0e .... irpo : pleonasm for emphasis ; we may ren- 
der it, right in front : <Sv, Att. o3v. By the front is meant the north side 
of the acropolis. The ascent and the gates (the Propylaea) were at the 
western end. — 6irio-0€, in the rear of, behind. — rg 8fj . . . . TavTTj : just 
where .... there. — dv i\\iria-e (<i\iri£a>) : H. 746*; 752 ; S. Gr. 514 ; 520, 
b ; G. § 222 ; 226, 2 : tjXitio-€ here implies so much of fear, that, like a 
verb of fearing, it is followed by jjltj, would have apprehended that. — KaTa 
Tavra : KaTa in a local sense. So also before rb Ipov : by these (places), or 
by this way .... near the sanctuary of Aglaurus, daughter of etc. — KaTa 
.... KaTO) : pleonasm for emphasis : lit. down the wall downward; or, as 
we should say, down the wall headlong. — to [A6*yapov, called also aSuTov, the 
inner sanctuary (of the temple of Athena Polias, where was the statue of the 
goddess). — Tas irvXas, the gates, i. e. of the temple. 

Chaps. 54, 55. Xerxes sends a despatch to Artabanus. The sacred 
olive, on the acropolis sends forth a shoot. 

Chap. 54. 'ApTafJdvw (dat. with dv7€X€0VTa). Artabanus, the uncle of 
Xerxes, left at home as regent. — scrurw S£ Irrcjxevcvs (agrees with <|>vyaSas): 


a necessary qualification, as there were very many Athenian exiles not fol- 
lowing him. — dvapdvras agrees with the obj. (understood) of etceXeve. — -^ 
cwirytov : perhaps partitive gen. with o\|/iv : a certain vision in a dream. 
— elre Kal e vGvjxiov ktI. : or even remorse came to him. — €p.7rp^<ravrt and 
tSxov may be viewed as causal : because he had seen .... because he had set 
Jire to. 

Chap. 55. Tov, interrog. — aKpoiroXi : H. 186 D ; S. Gr. 660 ; G. 
§ 59, 2. — 'Ep€X0eos (gen. ) . . . . vr\6s (Att. vaos) : a temple of Erechtheus 
called (lit. said to be) the earth-born. The name Erechtheum, or temple of 
Erechtheus, often denotes the entire structure, which contained three cellae 
(fj.€7apa) ; one — probably the western — called the Pandroseum, contain- 
ing the olive-tree (eXahj) and the sea (GdXacrora), often rendered, salt spring, 
or salt well: another— the middle cella — called the temple of Athena Po- 
lias, alluded to in chap. 53 ; and a third — probably the eastern — called 
specially the temple of Erechtheus, and containing the altars of Hephaestus, 
of Poseidon Erechtheus, and of Butes (brother of Erechtheus). For a de- 
scription and view of this temple (restored) see Sro-ith's Hist., ch. 34. — 
c v t<£ . . . . 2vi (= 2v€(tti) ? in which there is, etc. • — to. : relat. obj . Of 0€<r0cu.. 
■ — Xd-yos, sc. eorrt : lit. there is a report from, etc. :. more freely rendered, 
it is reported by, etc. — irepl .... X&pi\s,for the possession of the country ', 
i. e. Attica: jjiapTvpia, appos. with rd } as testimonies; or, as R. renders it, 
witnesses, i. e. of the contest. This contest of Poseidon and Athena for 
the possession of Attica formed the subject of the celebrated group of 
bas-reliefs, executed by Phidias, and placed in the western pediment of 
the Parthenon, but stolen by Lord Elgin, and set up in the British Mu- 
seum. — KCtreXape : impers., it happened, came to pass. — copeov (opdco) : 
Att. €wp(ov. — 6<rov re, as much us : ri here, as in the Epic use. H. 856 ; 
S. Gr. 583, b ; G. § 151, Note 4. — dvaSeSpap.'qKOTa (dvaTpeyco) : having 
sprung up 

Chap. 5®, The Greeks at Salamis prepare to withdraw. — go-ye :.«-intrans. 
had themselves, were. — '&ptzvov here with ace. and infin. : did not even wait for 
the business before {them) to be finished; lit. that the busi'hess, etc. — diro0€i>o-d- 

p-evoi : diro0e'o) toi<H re . . . . avTcav : dat. of agent with €Kvpw0T] : by, 

or on the part of those, etc., it was determined, etc. — e^vero: notice here 
71' usu. in Att. -yfyvo| — ical oi': H. 525, b; S. Gr. 375, b; G. 
§ 151, Note 3. 

Chaps. 57, 58. Themistocles persuades Eurybiades to call another 
council. — Mvr,cri<j>tXos : a man from the same Attic derae with Themis- 
tocles, somewhat older, said to have exerted much influence in forming the 
character of Them. — ovSk irepl puf^s is more emphatic than irepl ovSejutjs 
(the reading of most editors) ; not even for any country hereafter will you fight. 
Notice the emphatic repetition of the negative ov . . . . ovSg. — -ir-oXis: 
H. 186 D; S. Gr.^660 ; G. § 59, 2.—^ o* : H. 847; S. Gr. 573; G. 
§ 283, 7. — 8iacrKeScLo-87]vai : Siao-KeSdvvujxu — Siaye'cu (Siaxe'o)) : aor. act. 
infin. to annul. — dvcryvcScrai : Lex. dya/yi^y vwo-Kto, TI. — Chap. 58. (rvp- 
Higcu with ace. H. 544, a ; S. Gr. 390, a ; G. § 158, Note 2 : to confer 

48 NOTES. 

with him on some public business. — kavrov -iroievfJisvos : making (them, i. e. 
the statements of Mnesiphilus) his own. — 4s 8, until. — dv€7vwo-€ (cf. dva- 
■yv<oo-a,i above) XP T 1^I C0V > he prevailed on (him) by entreaty. 

Crap. 59. Address of Themistocles : opposed by Adimantus. — tov 
Xo-yov t»v €i'v€K€V : lit. the reason of (those things) on account of which; briefly, 
the reason why. — iroXXos • • • • iv rolo-i Xd-yoicri ; frequent in his arguments. 

— o!a with particip. H. 795, d ; S. Gr. 540, c ; G. § 277, 6, Note 2 : 
because he was very urgent. — 6 '12io5tov, the (son) of etc. — ot irpoe|avuo-Td- 
|A£voi (irpd, 4£, dvd, t<m\\u.) : those who start before (the dgnal is given). 
Them, had begun to talk before the business of the council was proposed 
by the commander-in-chief. — diroXvojxevos, excusing himself. — o-refya- 
vevvrai (<rT€$av6<o) . Notice the unusual form of contraction. H. 370 D, 
f ; S. Gr. 718; G.' § 124, 3. 

Chap. 6®. Address of Them, continued through chaps. 61 and 62. 

— Tot€ jxev : the antithesis occurs below in chap. 61, tot€ o^rj. — d|x€t\|/a/ro 
(dp.€ij3o|Aat) : note the frequent omission of the temporal augment in Herod. 

H. 309 D : S. Gr. 687 ; G. § 122. — w$ 8ia8pVjo-ovTcu (8ia8i8pdo-Kw) : 

explains the preceding clause, that when, etc. — ov8e va with Kdcr(j.ov (not 
with Ka/rrj-y-, which takes the gen. of a pers.) : lit. it did not bring to him 
any honor, etc., i. e. it was not becoming in him to make accusation. 6 8e . . . . 
cV^cto, but he adhered to, or, as we often say, adopted, etc. — 'Ev <rol (ortho- 
tone) : emphat. posit. On you it now depends, etc. Miltiades, before the 
battle of Marathon, is represented as addressing the same words to the 
Polemarch Callimachus. — dva£€ti|Tj$ .... to.$ veas. Lex. dval^vyvv[i.i, 

— dvTtGes (dvrt, Ges, fr. ti0t[(j.i) .... aKovcras : hearing, compare, etc., or, as 
we oftener say, hear and compare each (opinion), or each (plan). — o-vjipaX- 
Xtov : Lex. crvfApaXXco, II. — dvaireirTafAeva) : dva/n-€Tdvvvfu. — to: relat. 
which is least prof table to us, etc. If, as in most editions, we read es before 
to, then we must supply an infin. or particip. denoting motion ; perhaps 
dvdyova-i : going away to which is, etc. — tovto 8e : and this, or furthermore. 

— avrav .... <r<j>eas : the Persians. — Chap. 60, II. rd, relat. the things 
which, or simply, what. — iv o/utoio-i refers to rd : the following (points) in 
them, i. e. in what I propose. — to, oIkoto, (Lex. €u<ds), those things which are 
likely, the probabilities : &Kfiaivr\, go out from, result. — irpbs Tjnecav, in our fa- 
vor ; -rrpbs Ikcivcov, in their favor. — ircptyLveTai, is preserved: Is t^v, relat.: 
vJr€KK€€Tai (virof €K, K€, subj. T€Kva, -yvvaiK€S« H. 511, h.; S. Gr. 
361, h ; G. § 135, Note 1, have been conveyed, implies motion : hence with 
€s and ace. — ko.1 (xev = jjltjv, H. 852, 13 ; S. Gr. 580, m. — Kai tJSc .... 
€V6(ttl : lit. this also is in them (i. e. to. iyib Xeyo), in my statements). — tov 
ko.1 -n-epte'xeo-ee : H. 574, b ; S. Gr. 417, d ; G. §§ 170, 171 : to which you 
also cling especially ; or, more freely, which is also a- matter of so much impor- 
tance to you. — ojaoicos .... kciL Note the use of kcu after ojjlolos, t<ro$, 
6 a^Tos, like as, just as, same as. Here, in like manner as. — pivcov, cond. 
and if you remain here. — 7rpbs tu *I<r- : close by, etc. — or«j>fcas : the Per- 
sians. — III. Td: (the things) which, or simply what. — diriWi (dird, eTp.i) : 
fut. — Kdcr|j.a) : order ; dat. of manner. — Me"yapoio-i denotes the respect 


in wliich K€p8aveo[isv (KgpSaivto) is true : irepieovou, cf. ir€pi7tV€Tai above : 
lit. and we shall gain in Megara being preserved: Alyivxi, 2aXa[uvi, sc. 
Tr€pieovo"i\. — iv ijj, in which, where. — yevzvQai : subj. of cVtI : lit. the becom- 
ing superior to our enemies is even announced to us by an oracle. The oracle 
here referred to is given in Book VII., ch. 141.' — oIkoto. may be viewed 
as obj. of {3o-uX€dojj.-, or as subj. of IGcXei ; with whichever word it is taken, 
it must be understood with the other. Now things which are reasonable are, 
in general, wont to happeri to men who determine on {what is reasonable). — ovx 
.... ovS4 : neg. repeated and strengthened : for men who determine on what 
< may not be reasonable, not even the Deity is wont, etc. Note carefully the use 
of £G4\ei here. — 7rpo<r\o)p4ew irpos : Lex. irpoo-^wpea), II., 2. 

Chap. 61. 4ir€<|>lp€TO, sc. Is ©sjAurroKXca. KeX€i/a)v, sc. ovutov, bidding 
(him), a man to whom, etc. — €7rt^<j>i^€iv d-jrdXi dvSpi is rendered in two 
different ways, to put the vote (to the council) for, etc., to put the vote to a 
man without a city. The latter rendering is, I think, to be preferred. So 
Abicht and Stein. — outoj : explanatory of iro\iv .... 7rapex6p.£vov, show- 
ing a city, thus to declare (lit. to contribute), etc. A very taunting and cruel 
remark. — ot, against him. — *fj\wK€<rav : — tot€ 8Vj : cf. tot€ 
ji€v, ch. 60. — $Wy€ : often as here with ace. of a person and of a thing. 
H. 553 ; S. Gr. 398 ; G. § 165. — kavroiori : dat. of possessor with dv) : 
lit. that there was to themselves (to Them, and his fellow-citizens). — 4k€£- 
vowri : the Corinthians. • — &tt' (= 'da-re) &v . . . . &oo-i (Att. <S<ri), as long 
as, etc. — ovSajAovs subj., avrovs obj. of airoKpova-eo'dai, that none .... 
would repel them in making an attack. 

Chap. 62. 8i€pcuve 4s : lit. he went over to, or, as we say, he turned to. 
— £Tr€orTpajjL|X€va' (4iri, <rTp€<j»a>) : lit. turned, or drawn upon : in a metaphor- 
ical sense, earnest, emphatic. — 2v (emphat. posit.)- €l .... d*ya0os is a 
protasis, the apodosis being omitted : supply, it will be well. H. 753, a ; 
S. Gr. 520, c, d ; G. § 226, Note, -—to irav . . . . toS iroX- : lit, the whole 
of the war, i. e. as Grote renders, all our means of war : $>4pova-i, bear, carry 
(often rendered, contain). — ws '4\op.ev (intrans. ), as we have ourselves, as we 
are (implies, without delay). — toi>s oIk€tols, obj. both of dvaXapovres and 
of Kop.ieiGp.sea (koji.I|o)) ttjv 4v 'IraXtr). This description is added, be- 
cause there was another city Siris in Paeonia, mentioned by Herod., ch. 
115. — Kal .... a/uT^jv : we should expect here ical t^jv (= i\v), but the 
change from a relat. to a demonst. or pers. pron. is quite in accordance 
with the manner of Herod., and which, the prophecies say, must, etc. 

Chap. 63. Sosceav : H. 772 ; S. Gr. 532 ; G~. § 268. — toi>s 'Afoivodovs : 
by anticipation, obj. of dppcoS-, instead of subj. of diroXfrirao-i. H. 726 ; 
S. Gr. 495 ; lit. having especially feared the Athenians that they, etc. ; more " 
freely, fearing greatly that the Athenians, etc. — o-<f>e'as, them, the rest of the 
Greeks, apart from the Ath. — pivovTo-s agrees with the subj. of 8iavcu>p,-, 
sc. avTovs, that they (i. e. all the Grecian forces now present), etc. 

Chap. 64. An earthquake. — iirdre (4ire£ re : a remnant of the Epic 
use of re), not to be confounded with gireiTa. — o-up.p,dxovs : appos., to in- 
voke the Aeacidae as allies. See Class. Die. Aeacus. — Note here ws . . . . 

50 NOTES. 

Kal, correl. : and as ... . they also did (or as imperf. proceeded to do), etc. — 
avroGev, on the spot, forthwith: connect with what follows. 

Chap. 6«>. A supernatural appearance to Dieaeus. — rv%&v tot€ !<2>v 
tljia kt4. depends on '£§r\ : the infrn. has here the same subj. as the princi- 
pal verb, and hence the predicate word «wv is in the norm, affirming that 
he happened to be in company with, etc. — ev t<J 0pi- ireS-: in the Thriasian 
plain, the eastern part of the Eleusinian plain. — iSciv : hear in mind 'ify-q 
to the end of ch. 65 ; and that he saw, etc. — jJidXio-Ta ktj (Att. inj enclit., 
written also without iota subs, ktj, Att. iHj) : about, or as we often say, 
somewhere about. — o-«)>€as (Dicaeus and Demaratus) subj. of diroGoop,- : tov 
kov-, obj. — St€0)v (Att. (Svtivcov or otwv) .... dv0- : pred. gen. with 
dt] : lit. of what men ever it (the cloud) teas: i. e. by what men it was raised. 

— TrpoKaT€ (= irpoKa T€), suddenly. — ol, to him, Dicaeus. — t'aicxov : used 
here as comm. noun, denoting the shout or song in honor of Bacchus. — tov 
ATjfxdpTjTov, subj. of etvew. — avrbs 8e etircu : bear in mind &|>t| above. 
Of the two aorists efira and elirov, Herod, oftener uses the 1st (as here 
el-Trou, infin.) ; Attic writers, the 2d. — ovk &tti okcos ov . . . . Icttcu : two 
negatives with two different verbs, it is not possible that there will not be, etc. 

— kpr\\iov kt4.: gen. ahs., causal : since, etc. — lov (eljii) : particip. agree- 
ing with to <J>9€7y6[jl€Vov. — KaTao-KTjx|/Tj : as subj., one readily supplies 
from the foregoing, the combined idea of KoviopTos and to ^^yojacvov, 
the cloud of dust with the sound of voices proceeding from it. — tyj MrjTpl 
iced rfj Kovprj, to the Mother and the Daughter, i. e. to Demeter and Proser- 
pina (or Persephone). — avTwv re ... . Kal twv &X- 'EX- : both of them- 
selves (i. e. the Athenians) and of , etc. — • elireiv. At|(i,-: bear in mind '4^r\ 
above. — 2fya (imperat.) tg Kal jxYjSevl .... cfrrgs: H. 723, a; S. Gr. 
492, a; G. §254. — dv€V€tx®ti (dva^epw) : aor. pass, of <f*€po>, -fjvixOr^v, 
Herod. t^ve^OTjv, subjunc. eveix&S- — 4k . . . . <f>a>vi)s : Stein, G. et al. 
render Ik here, as denoting time, after, etc.; but Raw., Cary, Lange, et al. 
take it in the sense out of, or from : from the dust and voice there arose a cloud. 

— Notice here Ittl with gen. and with ace. in the sense' towards. — ovtco 
.... uaGeiv : and thus they learned. The force of '4$y\j above, extends to . 
this point. — Ka,Tainr6[Ji€vos : Lex. KaOdirrco, B, 2. 

Chaps. 66-69. The Persian fleet at Phalerum. Council of war. 
Speech of Artemisia. 

Chap. 66. lireiS^ .... 0TjT|o*d|Ji€voi (©Trjeop-tu, Att. Gedofiiai) .... 
SiepTjcrav :- after they had crossed over from .... having viewed, etc. — For 
the situation of the places here mentioned, and the route of the Persian 
fleet from Trachis, and Histiaea to Phalerum, see Map, and Class. Die. — 
to rptujict (Att. Tpavp<a) to Acik-: the slaughter of the Lacedaemonians: that 
at Thermopylae. Xerxes took pains to exhibit the battle-field to his fleet, 
endeavoring to deceive them by first removing a large number of his own 
dead. — a>s jxev ip.ol SoKeeiv : cf. note ch. 63 : p.ev here without any corre- 
sponding clause with 8e. — ovk 4Xdo-crov€s . . . . ^ kt!., not being less in 
number they, etc., than they, etc. This conjecture of Herod, is considered 
not improbable in respect to the land forces ; but improbable in respect to 


the fleet, after the losses by the storm. — Sepias was the name of the southeast 
promontory of Magnesia (in the eastern part of Thessaly). — ical p.dXa, and 
besides. — KapvoTlovs : in the southern part of Euboea. — tcov . . . . to, 
ovv6[i- : the names of which I mentioned formerly (ch. 46, which was omitted). 
Notice here 4ir€p.vif|o-0T]v with the ace. : oftener with gen., cf. ch. 55. 

Chap. 6 7. d-rriKaTo (&<JHKve' : pluperf. 3d pers. plur. H. 355 D, 
e ; S. Gr. 705 ; G. § 122, 2 ; subj. irdvTes ovtoi. — eKapaSdiceov : KapaSoiceco. 

— ktj, Att. irfj, in what way. — [WT&ir€jA7rT0i .... onrb toov V€<Sv, having been 
summoned from, etc. — Ikclo-to), appos. with <r<|>t : to them to each one: in our 
idiom, to each of them. — 6 SiSwvwos (3acr-. The reason why the precedence 
was given to him is implied in VII., 96, where it is said the Phoenicians 
furnished the best sailing ships ; and of the Phoenicians, the Sidonians. — 
|j.€T&, cut : adv. and after (him) the Tyrian (king), and then, etc. a>XXoi : H. 
68 and Rem. a ; S. Gr. 39, and a ; G. § 11. — Kocrp,a> lireffjs : in order, one 
after another. — elpwTa : IpcoTaoo. 

Chap. 6§. dp£dp.evos duo. Note this common Greek idiom, beginning 
from. We say, beginning with. — Ka/rd Tanrrd (= to txvro), in the same tenor, 
to the same effect. — EtiraL p.oi ktI. Infin. for imperat. Some editions 
have here elimv. Say to the king for one, that I, etc. — iv Tfjtri .... -irpos 
Evpotrj : usually called the battles of Artemisium (name of the north coast 
and promontory of Euboea), described in the first part of Book VIII. — 
KaKurrqv "yevojjivTjv .... d7ro8€fap.evT]V (d*iro8€tKwp.i) agree with pi: 
neither having been most cowardly .... nor having exhibited the meanest 
(achievements), etc. — cotio-av : attributive position : actual, reai, true. — rd 
ktI. is a fuller explanation of *yvwjj/r|v : what I happen to think best, etc. — 
oi dvSpes : i. e. the Greeks. — Kpeo-o-ov€S = Kpeio-o-ovis, KpeCrroves. — &v8p€s 
yvvaiKa>v, sc. Kp«ro-ov€$. It would do for Artemisia, who had proved her- 
self among the bravest, to say this. — TrdvTtos, at all.— <opp,^8*]s : 6p(xdo>. 

— 6)(€i$ Se : repeat ovk from the foregoing. — toi = o-oi. — 6K€lvo\js, sc. 
d-rraXXd^ai. — Tfj, in what way, how. — eimx^tis : aor - pass, of "iirdy<o. — 
Xo>p^o-€i = irpoxcopT|o-6i : easily will those things succeed, for which you have 
come, lit. uMch you have come intending (to do). — otot t« : otos with tc regu- 
larly in the sense, able. — 8iao-Ks8as : fut. of Siaa-KeSdvvupi. — ica/rd irdXis 
(ace. plur.), to their several cities. — oIkos (note the accent, distinguishing 
it fr. oikos, house) = Att. cikos, sc. co-tl, nor is it likely: drpefu&iv, fut. of 
dTpepi£«. — toiis .... 'fJKOVTas limits the more general wo-cL cwtoijs : 
that they, if you, etc., will remain quiet, (at least) those of them luho have come 
from there. — 8ei[icuvw seems to denote a more intense fear than SeSoiKa. 
Kaw. renders, I tremble lest, etc. — p^j with aor. subjune. : lest the naval 
force, being worsted, will bring ruin on, etc. — irpos 8e : adv. but further. — 
pdXev (note the accent ; yet B. writes PaXei)) = Att. (3aXo{» : fr. pdXXto. — 
<os, declarative, that. — fyikeovcri : like eOeXei in ch. 60 ; lit. bid servants 
are wont to come to the good of men; i. e. good men are apt to have bad ser- 
vants, and the bad, good. — €v . . . . X6y&>, in the reckoning, list, numb r of, 
etc. — 46vT€S we may render here, such are. — t«v .... o-uSlv, in whom 
there is, etc. Why Artemisia spoke thus of these nations, if she ever did 

52 NOTES. 

actually speak as Herod, represents, is a matter of speculation. The Egyp- 
tians are represented to liave fought bravely in the battle of Artemisium. 
It will be remembered that Herod, was a native of Halicarnassus, where 
Artemisia reigned. 

Chap. 69. <rvp.<|>opf^v : appos. with tovs X07- : regarded her words as a 
misfortune : m . . . . orcwrofJievTjs (ird<rx<o), supposing she would suffer, etc. — 
ct760{JL€vbL : (other forms, crydoixai, dycuoficu, aVya|j.a.i) : Lex. aVya- 
jiai, IT., hating and envying her. ■ — a>€ : note the difference between &t€ and 
<6S with particip. : &T€, objective, because: «s, subjunctive, as if, on the 
ground that, supposing that. — diroX€op.€VT|s : fut. mid. fr. dTroXXvp,i. — dvr|- 
veCxQr\<rav (dvd, fyipo), Att. dvTjv€X0Tlo"av. — <nrov8aiTjv elvai, obj. of vo- 
p.l£«v : to be a superior woman. — Ka.TaSq£as : Ka/raSoKea). — <r<peas l&X- : 
explains rdSe : suspecting these things^that they, etc. — w$ . . . . avrov, hav- 
ing in mind that, etc. — r- 8n]^<racr0ai : 0Tj€Ofxcu, Att. 0€ 

Chap. 7§» Persian fleet under way. — irap€Kpi0Tj<rav (wapaKplvco) 
Star- : being arranged, were drawn up in line of battle. — dppcoShj, Att. oppo- 
Sla. — Ka.Trjp.6Voi : — diroXctp.«|>0€VT€s : diroXafxpava), IV. — dircv- 
T€S (d<)>tTj|xi) tt^v, sc. 7TJV : having left, etc. 

Chaps. 7JL 9 72* The Peloponnesians (i. e. those who had remained 
behind, and were not in the fleet) fortify the Isthmus. 

Chap. 71. IfJLepTjxdvrjTO : — «s Math rdxurTa, as soon us, 
quum primum. — tovs ap$\ A. : that Leonidas and his men, etc. — <nryxa»- 
<ravT€s : Lex. <rvY&&vvv}i.i i II. — 2»ap- 680 v, the Scironian, or Skironian 
way, a difficult and dangerous road between Megara and Corinth, now 
called kclkt*! o-KdXa. — oIko8ojx€ov .... retyoS' This wall has often been 
repaired and strengthened since then. Extended portions of it still re- 
main. — &re 8r^ kovcrmv ( Att. . ovcnwv, fr. elp.1) kt!., because they were, etc. — 
I]V€to : &vt«>, dvvco, dvvTO), dvvTo. — k\ivvov : IXivw, aug. omitted. 

Chap. 7%» Notice here the usual difference between o$>e and ovtoi. — 
vir€pappca8govT€S with dat., fearing exceedingly for, etc. We should expect 
with inrcp the gen. — ^cXe, impers. peXei. — 'OXv|XTria .... trapoixtoK€€ 
. (pluperf. : mentioned as a reason why there was nothing to 
detain the rest of the Peloponnesians from rendering assistance. 

Chap. "73. An enumeration of the seven Peloponnesian races. Omit- 
ted here. 

Chaps. 74, 75 • Divisions among the Greeks at Salamis. Secret mes- 
sage of Themistocles to Xerxes. 

Chap. 7 4. &t€ .... Ccovtcs : a figure borrowed from their games : 
because they were running a race with everything now at stake. — T€a>s p-ev .... 
T€*Xos Si : for a while . . . . but at last. — avi\p dvSpt : indef., lit. one man 
of them standing by another: <ri*yfj, in an undertone. — 0cofj.a (Att. 0aiip.a) 
iroi€vp.£voi (plur. because dvrjp is indef. and implies the idea of many) : 
lit. making it a wonder, i. e. wondering at the imprudence of, etc. — €£€ppd"y:] 
(lKp'f)"YV'up.i) : impers. : lit. it broke out into the midst, i. e. their discontent 
broke out in public. — irepl tcov avrwv, on the same topics, i. e. the same as 
previously, whether they should stay and fight at Salamis or not. — 01 


piv, as though gXe-yov (instead of kXiyero) had preceded. — 'AOtjvclioi kt£. 

so. 2X.6YOV : but the Athenians, etc., said it was necessary that they remaining 
there, etc. 

Chap. 'J' 5. co-o-ovto : lo-<rd(«>, Att. tjo-ct&c*, TjTTaa). — IvT€iXap.evos 
(IvTe'XXojxai) .... XP €< * V > sc - &rl : instructing {him) what it is necessary to 
say. — 'jrpTjYjj.aTtov, with the comparat., later than, subsequent to, etc., i. e. 
after the close of the Persian war. — ©eo-rrUa (nom. Seo-irievs), a Thespian, a 
citizen of Thespiae. The Thespians lost so heavily in the battles of Thermop- 
ylae and of Plataea, that they added from other places the number of their 
citizens. Thus Sicinnus (or Sikinnus), through the influence of Them., 
obtained there the right of citizenship. — iced .... o'XJSiov : connected to 
©ea-jrtea T€ eirofycre. — cjjpovewv to. p<xcr- : Lex. <j>pov€oa, II. , 5, to be in the 
interest of, to favor. — KarvirepQe (Att. KaGvjrepGe) *yiv~ : to become superior, to - 
get the upper hand. — <[>pd<rovTa agrees with \U. — irapexci : indeterminate 
subj. sometimes explained by supplying 0€os, or 6 k capos : and now it is in 
your power, etc. — -irepiL8?)T€ : Trepiopdw. — SiaSpdvTas : 8ia8i8pdo-KG>. — 
tovs .... rovs : some .... others : appos. with crcf>eas. — - to. t»piT€pa 
^jpoveovTas : cf. <jjpove<ov to. (3ao--, above. 

Chap. 76. The Persians enclose the Greeks. — 6 piv, he, the messen- 
ger : toictl 8e, but to them, the Persians. — tovto p.£v .... tcuto 8e : adv. 
ace. like to p,£v . . . . to 8e : on the one hand . . . . on the other hand; or, 
in the first place . ... in the next place. — <£s, as, causal. — M/vTTaXeiav : 
Psyttaleia, a little island, a mile long and from 200 to 300 yards broad, 
midway between the harbor of Piraeus and the east end of Salamis. See 
map. — piom v^ktcs, midnight : often thus in the plur. and usu. without 
the article. Herod, uses also the sing. — to ... . Kepas : obj. both of 
dvfj*yov and of icuKXcvpevoi : they (the Persians) led up the western wing, draw- 
ing (it) around in a circle to Salamis. — The second a.vr\yov has no obj. ^ex- 
pressed : those who were stationed around, etc., brought up (their division). — 
dp.<J>l t^jv ktI., around Ceos (name of the district on the east coast of Sala- 
mis, near Cynosura, as the connection shows) and Cynosura (the point of 
land extending towards Psyttaleia : from kvvos, and ovpd, a tail). The 
Persian fleet had extended along the mainland, from Phalerum to a point 
farther west than the Greek fleet, perhaps to the bay of Eleusis. They also 
lay along the northeast part of Salamis. By the movement here described 
they enclosed the Greeks both at the west and at the east. I have given 
here the opinions usually adopted. Grote takes a different view of the 
situation of Ceos and Cynosura, and consequently of the entire movement. 

— *=£fl : ££€o-tl — Soiev ria-iv (tlq-i$) tg>v ktI., that they might give a recom- 
pense for, might suffer punishment for, etc. — twv ILeptriav : partit. gen.: 
some of the Persians. — m (with the following gen. abs. ) : with the expecta- 
tion that, etc.- — IvOaSTO. : the island of Psyttaleia. — efoio-op,€v&>v : fnt. 
mid. in pass, sense. — t'va ktI. is to be connected with ToivSe cIVckcv above. 

— tovs JJ.6V, the one party \ i. e. the Persians ; tovs Se, the other party, the 

Chap. 77 . Herodotus cites an oracle of Bacis. — X€*yovTas : indefinite : 

54 NOTES. 

obj. of KdTapdXXeiv, to reject (lit. to cast down) persons speaking clearly. — 
The verse is hexameter (-o-adpov in the 1st verse is a dactyl). — 'AXXd : 
oracles are often thus introduced, apparently, with reference to some one 
who has questioned the seer or the oracle. — xP t,<ra °P°' u : comm. rendered, 
with golden sword; but St. and Ab. understand it to mean, with golden ar- 
mor, referring especially to her implements of archery. This seems to me 
more natural. — -ye^'uptdorcacrL : subj. indeterminate: when they shall have 
bridged, etc. — elvaXirjv (ev, cLXs), sea-girt. — irepcravTes (ire'p8o>) agrees with 
the indeterminate subj. of y^vpfaa-axri. — crfkVo-ei : o-pevvvjAi. — Seivbv 
jxaijiwovra (p.aiji.d<o) : raging terribly. — dvd .... mCsa-Gai : the usual 
reading ; thought to be corrupt. B. reads dvd .... rLQeo-Qai : Ab. sug- 
gests dvd .... TpaireVGcu, although he retains in his text the usual 
reading. The connection requires with 8ok€vvto, the meaning, thinking to 
submit all things. — Is roiaih-a jxev : supply ca-pX€\|/as fr. the clause just 
before the oracle. So Ab. and St. — Bdia8i : dat. of interest in looser 
relations : avriXcyt-qs with irepi : regarding Bads speaking thus clearly, I 
neither myself dare to speak in contradiction of oracles, nor do I allow {it) from 
others. Such is the usual interpretation of this sentence. 

Chaps. 78 -82* Aristides joins the Greeks, and informs them that 
they are surrounded. 

Chap. T8» <TTpaTT}"y<»v, \6y<ov : two genitives with one subst. «0- : 
«0icr|xbs Xtfycov, a jostling or pushing of words, i. e. an altercation. — avTOvis, 
i. e. toi>s |3ap(3dpovs. — ISokcov (clvtovs) .... ctvax : they (the Greeks) 
supposed (they, i. e. the Persians) were in [the same) place. 

Chap. 79* o-w€q-tt]kotc0v : often spoken of standing together in oppo- 
sition to a common enemy ; but here, in opposition to one another : while 
the generals were in dispute. — €|<ao-TpaKurjji.€vos : c£oo-TpaKt£a>. . On the 
meaning of ostracism, see Smith's Hist. ch. XI. § 12. Aristides. had been 
ostracized two years previously ; but the sentence was now revoked on the 
motion of his rival Themistocles. — tov : relat., subj. of *y€VcV0ca. Plu- 
tarch relates that when the words, in "the Persians" of iEschylus, ov *ydp 
8ok€iv dpicrros dXX' etvat B4\a,for he does not wish to seem, but to be, best, 
were spoken in the theatre, all eyes were turned towards Aristides. — wv^jp : 
crasis for 6 avf\p. — crds 4iH : stepping before, presenting himself before: hin- 
tretend vor, Stein. — Itcetvwv, of those things, i. e. their former enmity. — 
<rujxp.i£;aL, to confer with. — irpoaK^Koee : pluperf. irpoaKovo). — ev T€ t{) 
dXXco Kcupcu : lit. both in the other fitting time, or both in the rest of time that is 
suitable, is rendered freely, both on every other suitable occasion : ko.1 8tj koA 
€v Tw8e, and especially on this occasion — irepl tov : to be closely connected 
with cTTacrxd f £€iv : that we strive, or that we vie with one another on this point, 
which of us two, etc. The notion of two is implied in oKcmpos, Att. oiro- 
Tgpos. — I'o-ov io-rl : it is all the same, i. e. equally useless and unnecessary. 
— neXoirovvTjo-Loicri, : does it belong with i'crov, with Xe-yeiv, or with diro- 
irXdo-u ? It is read in each of these ways. I am inclined to take it with 
Xeyeiv: to say to the Peloponnesians little or much about sailing away hence; or, 
next to this rendering, with i'crov, it is all the same for the Pel. to say, etc. 


Raw. and G. join it with d^oirXdov. — toioHSc, Att. TOttrSe, in the following 

Chap. 8®. xpTjora '■ things which are useful, or expedient, i. e. concern- 
ing their rivalry. — a^TOTrr^s, sc. tovtgdv, anteced. of to,, an eye-witness of 
{those things) which, etc. — e£ ifxdo to, ?roi€tf[A€va vtto Mrfioiv, the things which 
are {being) done by the Mecles {have been) at my instance. — It is usual to sup- 
ply here kovra, or some word of kindred import. — e-See : from the impers. 
8ci. — TrapcurWjcrcicrOai. : this 1st aor. mid. is often, as here, trans.: it was 
necessary to bring {them) over to my views against their will: ac'&covTas agrees 
with the obj. of irapacT^cracrG&i, sc. o-<tj>€as or aureus. — <os. Note care- 
fully the force of cos with the particip. I shall not persuade {them) thinking, 
etc., or because they will think that the barbarians are not, etc. — crf|fi/r}vcv 
(cr7]pLaLvc«)), sc. TonjTa : cos £x €t > as the facts are, as the case stands. — ravza 
Stfj, sc. garai, just these things {will be) the best. — ojxotov (note the accent in 
Ion. and older Att. : in later Att. 6jjloiov) : like i'o-ov, ch. 79 : it. will be all 
one to us. — SiaSp-Zjo-ovTcii : 8ia8i8p&cr kco. 

Chap. §1. TrcpeXGi&v : going, i. e. before the council. — rods lircpjieov- 
Tas (l<j>op}X£co), the blockading forces. — p.€T€«rH]K€s (p-sOumjiu) : pluperf., 
intrans. and imperf. in meaning : withdrew. — twv 8e : i. e. the Greeks in 
the council. — Xd-ycov ajKJHa-pao-ii] : cf. a> \6y(ov t ch. 78. — ovk 
€tt£i0ovto toL l|~. Note here ir€(, with the ace. did not believe, etc. 

Chap. 82. T^vuov : Tenos was one of the Cyclades. — kvey- .... 4s 
rbv TptiroSa : were enrolled on the tripod. A portion of the base of this great 
tripod is still preserved at Constantinople. It is of bronze, 16 feet in height ; 
and is in the form of a triple twist, representing the bodies of three im- 
mense serpents. Recently, by the application of chemical solvents, the 
inscription has again been made legible. The name Tenians stands be- 
tween that of Malians and Naxians. For a fuller account, see Rawlinson. 
— ev Toicn. .... KcnreXoScri (KaGcupeo)) : among those who overthrew, etc. 
This same tripod is alluded to in Thucyd. I. 1-32. — Kai rfj -n-pcTepov, sc. 
a-uTO|JLoX'qcraorTj J lir* 'Ap- : and with the one that formerly deserted and went to 
Artemisium: mentioned in ch. 11th of this book. — es t&s ktc., to the {full 
number of), etc. Note the force of the article with numerals. — Kcu-eSee : 
usu. taken as impers. here. See Lex. ico/raSe'©. Yet to vcujtikov is sup- 
plied by G. and some others. 

Chaps. §3-96, Battle of Salamis. (September 20th is the date 
usually given.) 

Chap. §3, t<5v T^vicov, with p^aTa : st. inrb tcov T. with XeYofieva. 
We may render it, the words spoken by, etc. — ko.1 ol' : H. 525, b ; S. Gr. 
375, b ; G. § 151, N. 3 : and they. — <rvk\oyov .... iroii](rd|J.€Voi, having 
made a gathering of etc., i. e. having gathered, having mustered. — The nomi- . 
native ot . . . . iroi-, through a change of construction, has no verb : may 
be rendered as gen. abs., and when they had mustered, etc. — irpoTj-ydpeve, 
uttered aloud in the assembly ; eS ^x 0VTa 5 things that were proper : etc iravTtov, 
out of all, or above all. Freely rendered, harangued (them) most eloquently of 
all. — 7rdvTa agrees with &rr€a : Kpia-a-co (Kpeitrcrova, Kp€urcra>) obj. of dvn- 

56 NOTES. 

TL0ep.sva : his words were all setting things better over against, etc., i. e. his 
words all contrasted what was noble with what was base : Sfa-crocn, : <£<rcr<av = 
r\<ro"<av 9 ^rratv. — KdTairXefjas : KaTairXeKco. — § Kara .... air-, which 
had gone for, etc. Cf. ch. 64, where hcC with ace. is used in the same sense. 

— dvfj*yov (av<rya>), got under way. 

Chap. 84, erreKeaTO (tirtKeijJiat) = €tt€K€ivto : aro for vto, H. 355 D, 
e; S. Gr. 705 ; G. § 122, 2. — irpv^v^v (or l-rrl Trpvp.vr]v) dvaKpafotv : to 
row sternwards, to back water. Thus, the prow remains turned towards the 
enemy. Note the force of the imperf., began to back water and propel the 
ships to the shore. — IJavaxGets, being borne out, advancing (from his own line) : 
VTjt (with 4p.^dXXci), a ship, i. e. of the enemy. — o-u^irXaKeicr^s (2d aor. 
pass. <rv(iirXeK«) .... veos : when his ship became entangled, i. e. with the 
ship which he attacked ; or, perhaps, as some understand, with several of 
the enemy's ships.- — t^v Ko-Ta ktI., that the (ship) which had gone for the 
Aeacidae, etc. — <J>av€urav, and that she (the woman) having appeared. — 
ctarav with to ... . oTpar-, subj. of d^ovo-at : dvetSta-acrav, sc. out^v, 
obj. of aKovcrat, heard (her), after she had first reproached (them) as follows. 

— H«€XP L Kocrou (Att. iroVov), lit. up to what time, i. e. how long, Lat. 

Chap. 85. Kara, over against. — krerdx^To : pluperf. 3d pers., plur. : 
fr. Tourcrcu. — irpbs 'EXewtvos kt!., in the direction of, towards. In this 
sense, often er with the ace, as in the next sentence, arw .... 6X1701, 
a few of them, i. e. of the Ionians. — Kara Tas 6. IvroXds. After the bat- 
tles of Artemisium, Themistocles cut inscriptions in rocks, which the 
Ionians would be likely to see, urging them, either to desert from the Per- 
sians, or to play the coward purposely in battle. These injunctions were 
now remembered by a few. — %x<*> • • • • KaTaXef at, / am able to mention, 
etc. — (xejxvnfxai (p.tjj,Wgo-Ka>), / mention. — KaTao-T^ardvTCDV t<3v II., the 
Persians having appointed (him), by the appointment of the Persians — cfepyi- 
tt]s .... €V€"ypd<fn], was enrolled as a benefactor of etc. For this custom 
among the Persian kings, see also the Book of Esther, ch. 6, v. 2. "And 
it was found written that Mordecai," etc. 

Chap. 86, tovtovs : the Persians above mentioned. — iw V€<Sv, of the 
(Persian) ships. — at p.h> . . . . at 8e : partit. appos. with to -n-X-qfios. — 
cruv Kocrjia) .... Kam Ta£iv, with order, in line. — arvv v6a>, with foresight, 
with plan. — e'aeXXe, was about to, was likely to: crwoCo-€o-8at (<rv^4p(a) r to 
turn out, to happen. — f^o-av Kal €"yevovTO, they were and proved themselves. — 
avTol lawrwv ^ irpbs Evpotrj : lit. themselves than themselves (in other en- 
gagements), than at Euboca : a single, condensed expression for two inde- 
pendent statements : they surpassed themselves, they behaved better than 
at Euboea. — irds Tts, every one, appos. with the subj. of ljo-av and e-yev-. — 
Icodtov obj., (BacrtXIa subj., of Or^o-co-Gat (fut. : Stein reads @T)^o-ac-0at aor.). 

Chap. 8 I 7» p.€Te£eT€pous (jA€Td, lj, &r€pot) : appos. with tovs dXXovs : 
in regard to the others, (as) individuals. — ' A.pTt\LiqriT\v : Artemisia was queen 
of Halicarnassus, the birthplace of Herod. ; and hence he would be likely 
to hear more respecting her. We can only wish she had gained credit 


more honorably. Herodotus was a mere boy, four years old, at the date 
of this battle, and would naturally hear much said about it. — "ydp : epexe- 
getic : Lex. II. : in this use, not comm. rendered into Eng. : introduces 
here the fuller statement of toSs. — kcu -fj, and she. No verb follows of 
which this is the subj.; but, after a long intervening clause, the statement 
is resumed in another form, g8o£e 01, it seemed to her expedient. — c}>CXica as 
pred. adj.: other ships, (those which were) friendly. — r\ 8e avrfjs, sc. vtjvs, 
but her own (ship). — irpbs (in local sense) .... [idXicrra, especially near 
to, or exposed to. — to, rel., subj. of crw^jveiKe (crvpfyipa)) : lit. which was 
also profitable to her, having done it: "which in fact proved her safety." B,. 
The rendering, " which succeeded in the attempt " (Cary), I am not able 
to adopt. — <J>epovcra ("cum impetu." Ab.) evePaXe : she bore violently 
down upon. — avSpoav T€ . . . . ical outoi) kt£. : an adnominal gen. con- 
nected by kox to a gen. abs. : may be rendered freely, manned by ... . 
and bearing D. ' himself, the Icing of, etc. — el KCtt : concessive, although : 
eVi with Iovtwv, while they were still, etc. — ov fievroi .... otire el ... . 
otfre el : yet I at least am not able to say, whether . ... or, etc. So 
Abicht. Others render el kcu .... pivroi, even if ... . still, etc. I 
think we comm. render d kchC, if even, although; kcu el, even if. H. 874, 1. 
S. Gr. 591. — oiire .... oi/Ve : emphat. repetition of the neg. ov. — 
crweKvpTjcre : cvyKvpio). — e'p"ydcraTO, with two aces, as often : procured 
herself a double advantage (lit. double advantages). — tf T€ .... Tpi^jpapxos, 
for the commander of, etc. No correlative of ri follows ; but the thought 
is resumed ch. 88 in Tovto [iiv, which is followed by tovto 8e, — ^ . . . . 
•^ kt6., to be either . ... or, etc. — cuVrotcri : tois^EXXtjo-i. 

Chap. §§. TotJto p.ev .... tovto 8e : cf. ch. 76 : adv. partly .... 
partly ; or, in the first place . . . . in the next place. — civtt] a-vv- 7€v-, hap- 
pened to become a help to her. — toijtoov : plur. in reference to kcikov ep-y- : 
H. 518, b ; S. Gr. 369 : having done an injury, in consequence of it, she, etc. 
So Gary, Raw., Ab., et al. — 0tj€ij|A€VOV, looking on ; jxcGav (jxavOdvw) t^v vea 
ejjip- : is commonly rendered, observed the ship that made the attack ; but 
L. and Sc. render it, inquired about, etc. See Lex. p.av0dva>, II. I prefer 
the first rendering. — kcu tov eireipecrOcu (Lex. eirepcjJLcu) .... ical tovs 
fydvai : bear in mind XeyeTat : and that he (the king) . . . . and that they 
affirmed (it). — to eVto-TjjAov : some say, the ensign, the banner} others, the 
figure-head. — fjirto-Te'ctTO (fr. eiricnrafJiai : H. 355 D, e, Hd. ; S. Gr. 705; 
G. § 122, 2 ; Att. -fjmo-TavTo) : thought they knew, believed. Note the change 
in meaning from eVicrrajxeVous, knowing. — to, t€ yap ctXXa .... ica! to 
kt4. : for not only the other (circumstances) .... but (especially) the fact that, 
etc. — carrfj .... *Y€VOfi.€va (Lex. a-vpfyepio, II. 2), turned out (becoming) 
for her advantage ; or, if we take a-v\i.fyipa> in its frequent sense, profited 
her, turning out for her good fortune. The lirst rendering is comm. preferred. 
— irpbs tc\ <j>pa|d|xeva, in reply to their remarks. 

Chap. §0. dirb (i.ev gGave .... dire Se, sc. e^avov : tmesis. — &re 
with eV- : for, as they knew how, etc. Observe how much oftener &t€ oc- 
curs in Herod, than in Att. Greek. — toicti, relat. : ol jj-t] . . . . dtroX- : 

58 NOTES. 

the neg. ji/fj, because the particip. is to he taken as conditional : they, whose 
ships were destroyed, if they did not perish, etc. — 4v xeipcov vojmo : see Lex. 
vdfxos : in hand-to-hand conflict. G. — Siiveov. Note the force of 8ia-, 
swam through (the wrecks). — ovk lir- : ov with particip. a direct denial, not 
kr.owing how, or because they did not know how. The statement that they did 
not know how to swim, is at first surprising ; and is understood to apply 
chiefly to the eiri j3&Tai, fighting men, marines. — ttj<ti vi]v<r\ irapievcu. (irapd, 
ctju), to pass along with their ships. — diroSef dfievoi : diroSeiKWju. 

Chap. 9©. a>s ... . diroXolaro (Att. dirdXoiVTo) at vees : orat. obliq. : 
declaring that their ships had perished through them (the Ionians) : cos irpo- 
Sovtcov, sc. tcov 'Icovcov. — o-vvrjvetKe (impers. ) cov ovtco coctt€ : now it turned 
out in such a way that, etc. — AXyivaCn], Aeginetan. — kcit€8ij€to, was being 
sunk, i. e. was sinking: 4m<|>€po|j.€v?i (lit. being borne against) .... kcltc- 
8v<t€, attacked and sunk (trans.). The aor. represents the action as single 
and completed, as an accomplished fact ; the imperf., as going on and con- 
temporaneous with some other action. Difference between kg/HSuo-ci and 
kcltcS-uv in meaning ? — dKOVTwrrai : pred. : because the Samothracians were 
javelin-men. — tovs euipdras, obj. of pdXXovTes diHjpaijav (dirapdo-crco)'. — 
KaTa8vcrd<rv]s : remember the meaning of this 1st aor., that had sunk (their 
own ship) : '4<r\ov } took possession of. This meaning is indicated by its close 
connection with kir£$v\crav (2d aor.), they boarded. — rovs"Icovas Ippwa/ro 
(pvop.tu). The Samothracians, who had just performed this gallant action, 
were a colony of Ionians from Samos. — oia with particip., cf. ch. 59, = ore, 
because he was exceedingly displeased, and blamed everybody. — d7roTci|A€iv 
(dirorefJivei)) with IjceXeuo-g (abs.), gave orders to cut off. — Ka.T^p.€vos : KaGTj- 
jxai. — vtto, under, at the foot of The point where Xerxes sat is near the 
base of Aegaleos, but commands a fine view of the strait and the island 
beyond. — TrarpoOev tov rpi- kt!., the name of the commander of the trireme 
with that of the father and of the city. — irpos 8e : adv., cf. ch. 40. — irpoo-s- 
pdXeTO, with gen. irdGeos (a rare const.) : contributed also in part (t!) to this 
disaster of the Phoenicians. — cjuXos Itov, sc. tcov 'Icovcov or tois "Icocri, which 
Ab. and others think must have fallen out from the text. 

Chap. 91. Ot piv : These men, i. e. those whom Xerxes ordered to be- 
head the Phoenician complainants. — tcSv 8e pappdpcov ktc. : gen. abs. , 
and when, etc. — IkitXcoovtcov : i. e. out of the strait lying between Salamis 
and the mainland. — €V tco irop0p.w, in the channel, i. e. between Psyttaleia 
and the mainland. — cwreSeJavTO : diro8€iKvup.i. — <j>€pdp,evoi : cf. <|>€pov<ra, 
ch. 87 : being borne onward. 

Chap. 9&. <fj t€ 0€fi- .... koX tj IIoX- : partit. appos. with vees, 
subj. of <rvv€KTJp€ov (o-DYK-upeco). Here, there happened to meet together (two) 
ships, etc. — tov "Kpiov, the son of Crius (mentioned in Herod. VI., 50.). — 
•fjucp relates to vv\t 2i8-, the very one which had taken, etc. — irpo- . . . . iirl 
2Kid0co : keeping guard of Sciathus (an island near the southeastern point 
of Magnesia). The capture of this ship, and the bravery of Pytheas, are 
described in VII., 179, 181. — KaTaKOirevTet : 2d aor. pass, particip. (fr. 
KaTdKoVTco), agrees with tov (relat. ) : although covered with wounds, he was 


still alive. — -fjXco (&X£<nco[, was captured. — o-^p/rjiov : Att. <n\\keiov : 
cf. €irlo-T]{JLOv, ch. 88, note. — ttjs arrpaTY\yCSos, of the admiral's (ship), or, 
as we often say, of the flag-ship. — pwcrus: j3odco. — erreKepTdp/rjcre (emscepTo- 
p.e'co) .... 6va8i£cs)v : railed at (him), reproaching (him) for the charge of 
Medism (brought) against, etc. This charge was made by the Athenians, 
against the Aeginetans, before the battle of Marathon. Herod. VI., 49, 
73, 85. — vtj'£ : the Sidonian ship above mentioned. — vird : under the pro- 
tection of 

Chaps. 03. ijkowclv .... ftpicrra : Lex. aKOvto, III. : lit. they heard 
the best things, i. e. the best things spoken of their conduct in the battle. 
Freely rendered, gained the greatest glory. Raw. — eirl 84 : adv. and after 
(them). — 6 'Avcvy-, the Anagyrasian: i. e. from the Attic deme Anagyrus, 
on the western coast, south of Hymettus. — IXaXXrjv-, a Pallenian. Pal- 
lene was on the road between Athens and Marathon. — ttXc&oi : orat. obliq. . 
was sailing. — irporepov i] . . . . i] Kal : lit. sooner than . ... or even : i. e. 
until he had (either) taken her, or was even himself taken. - — 7rcLp€K€KeX€ucrTO 
(irapaK€Xe^c«)) : impers. it had been enjoined .... (to take Artemisia). — 
Ik€€to (Keijxai) : as pluperf. pass, of Ti0r]p.i : had been offered. — p,-, 
appcs. with &€0Xqv. We more naturally say, a prize of etc. 10,000 drach- 
mas =a $|,666y 6 o 6 0' an immense sum, considering the value of money in 
those days. — €Troi€t5vTO kt!., they made it, i. e. they regarded it (as) some- 
thing shocking, that a woman, etc. 

Chap. 04. licirXayevTa : iKirX^crcrco. — ws . . . . yivecrQai. Bear in 
mind \4yovwi above. Note also ws before the ace. and infin. in orat. obliq. 
H. 733 ; S. Gr. 501 ; G. § 260, 2, K 2 : and that when they arrived inflight 
at the sanctuary of the Salaminian Athena Sciras, etc. This sanctuary was 
on one of the south points of Salamis, so that the Corinthians must have 
sailed, according to this report, along the eastern and southern coast. The 
whole story is improbable. — Oetrj 7rop.Tn[j, under divine, or, as we often say, 
supernatural guidance. — tov .... ovSeva : lit. that the person who sent (it) 
appeared (to be) no one: more freely rendered, that no one appeared to have 
sent (it). — o#re .... irpocr- kt4., and that it fell in with the Corinthians 
knowing nothing of, etc. — T-rjSe, adv.: erupt. J3&X-, historic pres., and in this 
way they inferred, etc. — -yap, epexeget. : cos as above : that when thry were 
near, etc. — vuccoxkti, TjpeovTO : Ionic for vikwcti (vikcIco), fjpeoVro ( 
— olot T6 : note this meaning, ready, willing. — lir' Ifjepyacrp.eVcHcri (l^p-yd- 
£ : after things were done, after the action was ended — toutovs, ace. of 
specif. : 2x €l ? intrans.: Such a story is told (lit. holds, or obtains) of them, etc. 
■ — tt}s vav\i- .... yevecrOcu, participated in, etc.* 

Chap. 05. tot) with iirejJiVTja-G^v, of whom I made mention. — totjtcov 
(neut.) depends on the comparat. • — TrapaTerdxa/ro (irapaTdo-o-to) : pluperf., 
pass., 3d, pi. : aug. omitted. — d-rrepTjcre (1st aor. trans.) fryav. he con- 
ducted and landed. — rovs IXepo-as .... irdvras. Ch. 76. These are 
represented in the Persians of Aeschylus as among the bravest and noblest, 
and their death as the chief disaster of the day. 

Chap. 06. KcoXidSa : Colias (or Kolias) was twenty stadia (2 J miles) 

60 NOTES. 

southeast of Phalerum. — d*jroir€irX'f]cr0cu. (diroTrfynrXiqfi.i. B. reads here 
dirotrX^orai : St. dTroirX^o-O^vai) : has been fulfilled. — tov re &XXov irdvTa 
tov kt€., both every other (oracle) which has been spoken: BaKiSi, Mov-, dat. 
of agent. — Kal 8tj Kal .... to elprjjjievov : and indeed that also in regard 
to ... . spoken, etc.: "Kal 8^ Kai is frequent after aXXos, when one cir- 
cumstance is set over against another of the same sort." Ab. Cf. chaps. 
52, 79. — A-uo--, dat. of agent with dprpivov* — to 4XcX^0€i (Xav0dvco), 
which (in its meaning) had eluded all the Greeks. — <J>p^£ou<ri : cffpvyco : shall 
broil (their meat). 

Chaps. 9 1 ?- 1©3. Xerxes resolves to return ; sends a courier to Per- 
sia ; leaves Mardonias behind with 300,000 men; sends his children to 
Ephesus with Artemisia. 

Chap. 97. faroGfjTai (inroTt0*|ju, to suggest), sc. irXcoeiv ktI. — liriS-q- 
Xos, clearly manifest, known (in his intentions). — 4s T-fjv .... 8ta\o€v. 
Ctesias and Strabo relate that he had formed the plan of building such a 
mole before the battle. — "yavXoiis : in some edit. YavXovs : round-built mer- 
chant vessels. — dpT€€TO : apr4<a, Att*. dprd<o : he made ready. — ei5 fj - icrreaTO 
(cmo-Tapm), were fully persuaded. — 4k it. v., out of, proceeding from, (his) 
whole mind = in full earnest. — Map8-, obj. of 4Xdv0av€ : none of ... . de- 
ceived Mard-. — re #p.a .... Kai. Note the position of tfjjia, a frequent 
arrangement. We- introduce the idea of djxa with the second member : 
both did these things, and at the same time, etc. — d*yy€X€OVTa, (a person) to 
announce, etc. 

Chap. 9§« toijtcov tcov dyyeXcov : with the comparat. Gdcrcrov. — Mori. 
Notice the accent : there exists. — ft ri . • . . irapa-yt-yveTat, which arrives, 
which reaches its destination. — 0vt|tov eov defines ov84v, nothing that is mortal. 
— ovto) here points to what follows : tois Hip-, dat. of agent : l^e^pi^Tai, 
€|evpio-KO). — -yap, epexegetic : better not rendered here. — oVcov .... 
toctovtoi : lit. of how many . ... so many : i. e. as many days as are occu- 
pied in the whole journey, so many, etc. — toijs, relat., obj. of t f p"y€i. — ovk 
.... ov .... o-u. Notice the asyndeton. Livelier than ovtc .... 
otfr€ .... o*St€. — p.^1 o£ :" H. 847 & a ; S. Gr. 573 ; G. § 283, 7 : hindtrs 
(the courier) from accomplishing, etc. — to, evrer- (IvreXXco), the despatches. — 
to 8e €V- ^St}, and so straightway, etc. — kot (distributive, as often) dXXov, 
from one to another. — tj XajA.ira8 , q<)>opCi], the torch-bearing, or the torch-race. 
See Die. Antiq. 666. 

Chap. 99. cos 2x ot : ora t- obliq. : to the effect that Xerxes held, etc. — 
&r€p\|/€ (Tepirto) : not to be confounded with krpefye. — 8-fj marks outco as 
the emphatic word ; and tI has the effect to soften or tone" down an asser- 
tion. From the lack of corresponding particles in English, we must often 
leave these little words untranslated. — 40-up.icov : 0-ufudco. — 0vo-It|o-i in- 
cludes and makes prominent the idea of the feasts which accompanied the 
sacrifices. — cruvex €€ : omyxew. 

Chap. 100. MapSovios, subj. of irpocWcj^pe below. — cos .... dva- 
•yvcotras (Lex. dvo/yiyvcoo-Kco, II.), that he would suffer punishment for having 
persuaded. — cos Scccrci .... Kal .... ettj. Note the change of mood 


arid tense : lit. that he will (definite expectation) and that it would be (pos- 
sibility) ; or, taking it as oratio obliq., that it ivas better for him, viewed as a 
fact. — vir^p .... altopi^eVra (aia>p£«>), having aspired to great achievements 
(lit. being lifted up, etc.), referring to the conquest of Greece. — irXe'ov .... 
'EXXdSa, parenthetical : however, his expectation tended (&j>€p€ intrans.) rather 
to the conquest of etc. — (jvXtav (alluding to the ships) .... dvSpcov .... 
fanrwv : gen. of cause. — 6 to irciv fyipav : cf. ch. 62, the words of Themis- 
tocles to Eurybiades (to trav .... fyipovcri ai v&s). For that which in- 
volves everything to us is not a contest for planks, etc. — <ro£ (emphat. posit.), 
with dvTiw0f]vai. — o-tyt, reflex, for themselves. — iieujyfiv : Lex. kTtiyja, 
IV., 2. — irapexei., impers., sc. <rot : it is in your power. — \ii\ ov . . . . 
elvai : cf. note on p^ ov, ch. 98 : that they should not be, etc. — Xo-yov, nearly 
in the sense of Stscas, having given an account (i. e. having suffered the penalty) 
for those things which, etc. — pdXto-Ta, certainly, by all means. — Kal €K 
Twv8e, even out of those things — even in that case. — SgS^XirjTcu. (8i]Xeopai) : as 
pass., has been damaged: t<Sv irpTjy-, limits ovSiv. — oi»8e .... 6xov (= Sttov) 
ktI., nor will you say where, etc., freely rendered, nor will you say that we any- 
where, etc. Some understood <Jkcu here as temporal, on any occasion. — • 
ov&\v irpos H- ktL, is not chargeable on, etc. — d'sroXeljdpevov, with epe. 

Chap. !©!. a>s 4k ko.k<£v, as if {delivered) from, etc. — povX€v<r&p.evos 
with -uTTOKpiveWGai (fut.), that he would make reply, after deliberation. — jier- 
, aiTioi, responsible for, to blame for: psra- adding the notion of part, partici- 
pation. — pcuXopivoto-i .... dirdSelis: an opportunity for proof (that they 
were in no way to blame) would be in accordance with their wishes : lit. would 
be to them wishing (it). — avrov with €p« : me myself — <rv .... €p.oi, with 
vvv T€ o-upjSovXcuo-ov : €&>o-a, IdcD. — oKOT€pa ktI., by doing which of the two, 
I shall perchance have deliberated wisely : eiriTv^w (liriTvyxdva)) used with a 
particip. like the simple verb; itn- adding the notion of a successful 

Chap. 102. <rvve$ovkzvero. Note the force of the mid., sought to obtain 
advice, asked advice respecting these things. Above, <rup.|3oi>X€vo-ov, act. give 
advice. — €iira<rav (1st aor. particip.) agrees with the subj. (understood) 
of rvytlv : to speak perchance what is best (for you), etc. — eirl .... irprj- 
•ypaoa, in the existing circumstances: "as thy affairs now stand." Raw. — ■ 
MapSoviov : obj. of KaTaXiirciv. — to€to pev .... toijto Se : cf. ch. 88, 
note. ■ — Ka£ ot . . . . Xeyei, and (if) he succeed in what he, purposing, declares 
(he will do) ; or, more freely, in what he purposes and declares (he will execute) : 
irpo^wp^crTj, impers. — o-ov pred. to £p- subj. with "ylvercw. — iadvow t<3v 
-n-pTjYr, sc. iT€pi€OVT«ov : while your affairs yonder, your affairs at home, are 
safe. — iroXXovs .... Spapeovrai (rptya) ktI., a figure borrowed from the 
public games, in which the foot-race was the oldest and most celebrated : 
will run many a race, qfttimes, for themselves: "must be prepared to fight 
full many a battle for their freedom." Raw. — Xo-yos .... 7lv€tcu,, no 
account is taken. — ovdi ti . . . . vik&vo-i, nor, if the Greeks conquer, do they 
gain any real victory : vixiovres, cond. — SovXov cov (without the article), 
a slave of yours, one of your slaves. — direXas : aTreXavvco. 

62 NOTES. 

Chap. 103. Xiyovtra itr€Tvy\ave (cf. Ittitvxg) PovXeuordfwvos, ch. 101, 
note), she happened to say. — TrdvT€s ko.1 Trdcrai, all men and all women, all 
the men and women in the world. — 8oK€€iv 4 pot : infin. in loose construc- 
tions. H. 772 ; S. Gr. 532 ; G. § 268. — voGoi. Under the Persian sys- 
tem of polygamy, the sons of all the wives except the first are thought to 
have been called voGoi : " some of his natural sons." Raw. 

Chaps. 104-106. Story of Hermotimus. Omitted. 

Chaps. 107 -110* The Persian fleet withdraws, followed by the 
Greeks as far as Andros. Council of war among the Greeks. Second mes- 
sage of Themistocles to Xerxes. 

Chap. 107. Siakiyeiv, to select. Cf.. airokiyza-Qai (ch. 100 end.) : 
CKXeyscrOcu (ch. 113). — iroiiav .... Treipeopsvov : lit. to do attempting, 
i. e. to try to do, or more freely, to do as far as possible. Kr. rejects from the 
text ire Lpeojjievov, and Ab. is inclined to do the same. — g-ytveTO : indeter- 
minate subj.: matters advanced. — es tov 'EX-, towards the Hellespont: a dis- 
tance requiring several days. — ccs . . . . ^kcuttos, as quickly as each one 
was able : toLx€os, with &s : lit. as of speed, or in what state of speed, etc, 
H. 589 ; S. Gr. 427, be; G. § 168, N. 3. Cf. Thucyd. ch. 22, 3, cos . , 
€vvoias .... ^X ou — Siacjj-uXagoxio-cis (ace. plur. fern. fr. Sicl^-uXcLttco), 
agrees with vias, to guard, etc. rropevQi\vai is loosely connected with 8icw[> 
for the Jang to pass over. — Zcecrrfjpos : Zoster, a promontory between Pi 
raeus and Sunium. — 4-irl iroXXdv, a long distance : iiri, strictly, extending 
over, etc. — XP° V <P> ^. in a time, i. e. after a while. — Ikojai^ovto (abs. 
spoken of going either by land or by water) : they ivent on their way. 

Chap. 10§« kcltA x^p^v. Cf. ch. 78. — -qXin^ov. Note this use of 
€Xiri£co : they imagined that the ships also, etc. — irapaprcovTo. Cf. ch. 76, 
end. — olxoDK-utas (oi'xojxai) : supplement, particip. — tov .... o-Tpa/rov : 
obj. both of eiretSov (eiri, et8ov) and of 8ic&|o,vt€s. — 8id v^jo-cov Tpairo(X€- 
vovs, that (they, the Greeks) shaping their course through, etc. — €i \v<rov<ri 
.... tout' &v . . . . ipyoLa-aiaro : lit. if they shall, etc. , they would, etc. 
H. 750 ; S. Gr. 518 ; G. § 227. — to$to : adv. ace, in this, thereby, thus. — 
<r<j>€ts : expressed for emphasis : nearly = avrol. — &yovTi \Uv ol : with 
o#r€ .... otov Tfc &tt(u : particip. denoting condit. : since, if he keep quiet, 
it will neither be possible, etc. : lit. to him keeping quiet, etc. — to oirlcrco, with 
kojxlStj, a verbal noun : nor will any means of getting back, etc. — iiriyjeipiovn 
.... iyo\s.4v<p : like d-yovTi, denoting condition : but if he assume the ag- 
gressive, and engage in action. — ola T€ &rrai irpoo-xcopfjcrcu, will be likely to 
go over to (him) : lit. will be able, etc. : Kara distributive. — ^toi aXio-{co|j.6- 
vcov ktI. : gen. abs. either being taken, or surrendering, etc. The nom. agree- 
ing with TrdvTd would be grammatical ; but the gen. gives more indepen- 
dence, and hence prominence, to the statement. — %^iv <r<$4as. Bear in 
mind \4y<x>v above : and they will have, etc. — iirireov : Lex. eirercios. — • 
dXXd .... IIcpo-Tjv : But, since the Persian seems not intending to remain, 
etc. : ov with the infin. in oratio obliq. — iariov (idea) etvow : he should be 
allowed, etc. — 4s 8 '4\dr\* Note the omission of &v. H. 759 ; S. Gr. 523, 
f ; G. § 234. — T-fjv Icovtov, sc. Xfaptyv. — to €v8€t)t€V .... ¥fir\ : from 


that time at once. Cf. cli. 98. — ItceXeve : sc. EvpupidS^s. — &\ovro with 
gen. adhered to. — jxcTapaXobv irpos ktI., changing his purpose {and turning) 
to, etc. — oSpjAe'aTo (6pp.dco) : Att. «pp.tjvTo (r\ becomes €, v changed to a). 
H. 355 D, e, Hd.; S. Gr. 705 ; G. § 122, 2. — Kal .... (3aXX%voi, 
even undertaking it themselves, or, more lit., even casting it upon themselves. — 
7roXXoi<ri (neut.) irapey-, have been present at, i. e. have witnessed many in- 
stances. — dv8pas kt!., explanatory of iroXXoiou and irXew (irXe'ova, irXefw, 
irXeiova), that men driven (dimXew, dird, and elXeco == etXco), etc. — ctva^dx-, 
dvaXajxp-. Note the force of avd in compos., fight again and retrieve the 
former disaster. — €i5p^|xa .... e EXXd8a : const. H. 555 ; S. Gr. 399 ; 
G. § 159, N. 4, for we have found for ourselves, etc., unexpected good fortune, 
etc. dvcoo-dfJisvoi : dvcD0e'co. — ovk tj^ls. Notice the posit, of the neg. 
not we -. . . . but the gods, etc. — i$Q6vr i o'av, were jealous. Note the thought, 
which occurs several times in Hd. — iovra may be rendered, especially since 
he was. — €|j.iriirpds (epirfrirpijju) .... d.*ydXjxaTa. Goodwin suggests 
here very pertinently that the Persians, like the Jews, were hostile to 
idols. Xerxes may have intended, therefore, no act of impiety, shocking as 
his conduct appeared to the Greeks. — kcitt]K€ : KoiOfojju. — vvv |*ev .... 
eirifjLgXrjGfjvai. This is coram, read, let us now, remaining in Greece, pay at- 
tention to, etc. But it is doubtful whether the infin. may be thus used for 
the 1st pers. plur. subjunc. Stein suggests that Set may have fallen out 
from the original text. — tIs, each one. — dfroOTJKTjv .... irot^creo-Oai es 
kt!., to make for himself a deposit with, etc., more freely, to lay up for himself 
a store of favor with, etc. This, is the comment of Herod, on the motives of 
Themistocles, and it is generally accepted as just, although I think there 
may be room for doubt on this point. Themistocles afterwards, when 
driven from his country, reminded the king of this act, and claimed it as 
a favor ; but it is quite possible that this claim may have been an after- 
thought. Thucyd. 1 : 137. — tI with irdOos. — irpbs *A0- -.from, etc. — 
Tdirep .... eye verOj which very things accordingly came to pass also. Them, 
was ostracized by the Athenians, probably in the year 471 b. o. Cf. Grote, 
ch. XL1V. 

Chap. 110. Sie'paXXe, deceived {them). There is no proof" of any in- 
tended deception. — ol (enclit. hence in the text ol) : dat. of agent with 
dv€<yv- fj<rav, had been persuaded by him. — <n."ydv .... to, to keep silence 
respecting the things which. — cs iracrav .... d7rt,K-, though coming to, or, as 
we say, though put to every kind of torture. — Skivvos : cf. ch. 75. — &rx€, 
restrained, held in check. This message was likely to hasten the departure 
of Xerxes, — most important to the welfare of the Greeks, — and hence 
may be interpreted without any supposition of "median" on the part of 

Chaps. Ill, 112. Blockade of Andros. Punishment of Paros and 

Chaps. 113-117. Ee treat of Xerxes. 

Chap. 113. gSoj-e with irpoTrepj/ai, it seemed . expedient : with dva>pfa]v 
tlvai, djieivov etvai, and ir€ipd<y0cu, it seemed. — diriKaTo (d<j>iKV€ : 

64 NOTES. 

pluperf. 3d pers. plur. — irpc&To-us \&v .... fieTa $4 (adv.), first .... 
but afterwards. — t?jv .... x i ^^ v : collective: note the gender : the thou- 
sand horse : mentioned in Book VII. , as chosen from all the Persians and 
leading the van. — kqlt* (distributive) oXl-yous, a few from each nation. — 
cl'Sea (et8os), good looks. — hiakiywv as in ch. 107, choosing, takes for its 
obj. the anteced. of toio-i. — rlouri — tktl. H. 244 D ; S. Gr. 683 ; G. 
§ 84, N. 2. — <rvvrj8€€ (o-uvoi8a), with ace. and dat. : and if he knew of any 
gallant action having been performed by any (persons), (choosing also these). — 
4v 8c, adv. and among (these). — irXelo-Tov .... atp€€To : lit. he chose the 
Persians, the most numerous nation, i. e. he chose the greatest number from the 
Persians. — krcX Be, and next to these. — &r<rov€S : Att. ^(rarcves, -ifJTTOves. 

Chap. 114. h tw, while. — irepi. Note this use: in the region of. — 
alT&iv kt€., explanatory of \pr\€rri\piov : to demand pf Xerxes satisfaction 
for, etc. — e£ IkcCvov. Note this use of !£, rare in Att. (instead of vtto 
with gen.) : whatever was given by him. — <re .... atT€Ovcri .... Sbcas. 
Cf. the const, of alr&iv above. — direKTeivas : indie. 2d pers. sing, (the 
particip. would be diroKTeCvas) : pvop.evov, while defending. — Kara<rx«v 
(KaT€'x<«>) : in trans, here, having waited. — €K€ivouri Trpeirci, sc. 8oi)vai. 

Chap. 115. airiicv&Tai : d<|>iKV€iTai. — isrbv irdpov Tfjs 8ia|3d(rio$ : 
a pleonasm : comm. rendered, (he arrives) at the place of crossing. — ovBlv 
p.epos, no part of, etc., i. e. compared with his army as it was. — 6ko*u with 
optat. indefinite frequency of past action : wherever they arrived on their 
march, and among whatever men, etc. — Se in apodosis. H. 862, b ; S. Gr. 
585, a b ; G. § 227, 2 : then they ate, etc. — to3v t€ rjfiepwv (not to be con- 
founded with the subst. -qjiepwv) Kal t«5v dy-, sc. SevSpewv. — kcit' oSov 
8t€((>9€ip€ (imperf., continued action), continually wasted away (the army) on 
their march. — ft/a .... ekavvtav, wherever (lit. where on each occasion) he 
arrived on the march. Cf. note on 6kov above. — lv Stpt, in Siris: on an 
east tributary of the Strymon. 

The story about the car of Zeus, and that about the cruelty of a Thracian 
to his sons, for joining the army of Xerxes, are related in the end of ch. 
115 and in ch. 116. They are omitted here. 

Chap. 1*17* Xerxes arrives at Sardis. — oih-oi, these, the sons of the 
Thracian, mentioned in the omitted chapter. — tov Tropov : cf. Toviroppv rqs 
8iapd<rios ch. 115. — Ta$ cr^- .... evTerafievas (kvreivw). As the bridges 
over the Hellespont were made of rafts or pontoons (cr^eSCou) secured by 
cables, Hd. says either crxeSiai IvTeTapivai, or yifyvpai hrera\Livai. — 
ovSeva Koo-fJiov : adv. ace. with Ipiriir- : the dat. would be more comm. : 
filling themselves immoderately (lit. with no moderation). — vhara: note the 
plur., frequent in Greek, where we use the sing.: changing (their) water. 

I cannot but hope the student may have both the leisure and the incli- 
nation to continue the reading of this interesting narrative, either in He- 
rodutus, or in some one of the English histories of Greece to which he may 
have access, that of Thirlwall, or of Grote, or of Curtius, or in Rawlinson's 
translation of Herodotus. 



For the life and writings of Thucydides, see Classical Dictionary. 

SUBJECT OF BOOK I. — Causes whicli led to the Peloponnesian 


Chap. 2S« 8o-a, as many things as, whatever, obj. of etirov. — \6y<o, in 
debate. — ctirov ^Kacrroi, they (indefinite, meaning the parties about to en- 
gage in war) each, or they severally said. — \) [acXXovtcs TroXcjATJo-ctv, either 
when about to engage in war. Notice here the fut. inlin. with [xeXXco, which 
takes either the pres. or the fut. It is difficult to distinguish between the 
two in rendering into English. G. Moods and Tenses, § 25, 2, Note 1. — 
iv civtco, i. e. iv t<J iroXeji^iv. — yjaXeirbv . . . . ^v, it was difficult to retain 
in -memory. — ttjv aKplfSecav ojuttjv : lit. the exactness itself, i. e. the exact 
form, etc., obj. of 8ia(xv7|fiov€i)(rat. — Ifiot re &v (obj. of iJKoutra, attracted 
to the gen. by the omitted antecedent. G. § 153, Note 1 ; H. 808 ; 810 ; 
S. Gr. 552 ; 554) : both for me (it was difficult to remember the exact form 
of) those things which, etc. — to is goes with o/TrayyeXXouo-iv (particip. ), and 
(difficult) for those making report, etc. — cos, as ; correl. of ourcos below. — 
&v belongs, not with I8qkqw, but with elireiv. PI. 783, Rem. c ; S. Gr. 
519, a ; G. § 211. — ces .... eliretv, but as they severally seemed to me that 
they would speak, etc. ; or, as it seemed to me that they severally would speak, 
etc. H. .777 ; S. Gr. 537. — &ei, on each occasion. — jjiaXio-Tci : join with 
to, SeWra, the things most necessary, obj. of elimv. — kyp\k£v<o agrees with 
Ijxoi : takes the gen. Tfjs .... *yvw|iT]s. H. 574, b ; S. Gr. 417, d ; G. 
§171: keeping as near as possible to the general sense of those things actually 
said. — ovrtas el'ptjTcu : lit. thus it has been spoken, i. e. thus (on these prin- 
ciples) I have composed my narrative of what was spoken. — 2. m 8* gp-ya ktI. 
is contrasted by hi with the foregoing, introduced by psv : but of those things 
done in the war, I have thought it proper to describe the facts, etc. ; or, as it is 
often rendered, but the actual facts in the war (in distinction from what was 
said in debate) / have thought it proper to describe, etc. — o£k, connect with 
•n-wGavofxevos. — &XX* ols tc^ktIo, but (I have thought it proper to describe) 
both those (occurrences) at which I myself was present, and (those facts com- 
municated) by the other (observers) after having made investigation (lirefjeXOcov) 
as far as possible with accuracy, etc. — 3. imirovcos 8e evpl<TKero (impers.) : 
lit. and it was found out laboriously, i. e. and the investigation was laborious. — 
dXX s cos €Karip<ov ktI., lit. but (they made report) as in respect to favor towards 
each of the parties, or in respect to memory, any one might be (%x° l might have 
himself) : i. e. according as any one (who brought a report) was prejudiced in 
favor of either of the two parties, or was gifted with accurate memory : |ko.t£- 

66 x NOTES. 

pcev, objective gen. with ewolas. H. 565 ; S. Gr. 409 ; G. § 167, 3 : 
cwolas and ji-vrj^s, with <cs, as adv. of manner. H. 589 ; S. Gr. 427, b c ; 
G. § 168, N. 3. Cf. Herod. Book VIII., ch. 107, ws t&xsos eTxe ^Kao-Tos. 
— 4. to } fjiv0w8es. Observe the negative is expressed by p,rj : G. § 283, 
5 ; H. 832 ; S. Gr. 569. — avroiv limits to p.^ pvOoSes, is in the neut. 
gender. Cf. below afr-d. The non-legendary form of them (the t& '4pya, or 
the narrative of the to, '4pya). Freely rendered, And, perhaps, to the car 
(lit. for hearing), the non-legendary {form) of my narrative will appear less 
pleasing ; allusion being made to the earlier historic writers, who had drawn 
their materials far more largely from the legendary period. In contrast 
with these, the plain, matter-of-fact narrative of Thucydides might appear 
tame. — oVot 8e. Note the contrast of this sentence with the preceding, 
through pev . . . . 8e. — to o-a«j>6S, obj. of o-Koiretv, which depends on 
PovX^o-ovtcu. — t£v "y€V0|xeva>v, and twv peXXovTtov .... &r€o-0ai limit 
to crake's : to examine that which is clear, both of the past, and of those events 
ivhich are about to transpire at some time again, (which events will be) in all 
human probability such (as the past) or similar (to the past), koto, to dvOpw- 
imov, lit. according to that which is human, tolotjtodv Kal irapair- : note this 
use of kciL, lit. such and similar. We more naturally say, such or, etc. This 
use of Kat, rendered or, is distinctly recognized by Pape, but overlooked by 
Lid. and Sc. — Kpivetv takes for its subj. the antecedent (not expressed) of 
bVoi ; that these persons (as many as shall wish, etc.) judge my work (avTu) (to 
be) useful: this clause is subj. of dpscowTcos £|ei, will be satisfactory (to me). 
"If Thucyd. had revised this sentence, he certainly would have improved 
it." Kriig. Perhaps ! — KTfjpa .... ay£vi<r\xa : it (my work, avTa) is 
composed as a possession for always (or for aye) rather than, etc. 4s to ... . 
ciKOveiv, for momentary hearing. 

We have in this chapter a concise and distinct statement of the historic 
principles on which Thucyd. composed his work, and also of his aim. No 
intelligent reader will fail to discover in it an independent and original 
mind. We find here the true object of all our studies in history. 

Chap. S3. irpcrepov, adv. in form : has the attributive position, hence 
used as adj. — to M-jjSucov, sc. 'ipyov, the Median (affair), i. e. the Median 
war, — the name used in Thucyd., yet commonly known as the Persian war. 
Lit. The Median (work) was performed (or was achieved) greatest of the former 
works ; i. e. the Persian war was the greatest of the former events, — a common form 
of solecism in Greek, found also in English literature. Instead of this, we 
should oftener say, greater than any of the former, etc. — #p.os, nevertheless ; 
not to be confounded with opoicos. — Svotv. Notice the numeral with the 
dual number. — and ire^ojxax/aiv are b}^ many called gen., 
limiting Kpurtv. Why not dat. of manner or means ? had its termination 
(or its decision) speedily in two naval and two land battles. Tayj&w, adj. quali- 
fying Kpio-Lv ; has the predicate position, and is most easily rendered as adv. 
The naval engagements at Artemisium and at Salamis (480 B. c.) are usu- 
ally thought to be meant ; and the land battles of Thermopylae, called also 
Pylae (480 b. a), and Plataea (479 B. c), since by these engagements the 


Persians were defeated and driven from Greece. Yet Kriiger thinks Kpuriv 
points to the very conclusion of the war, and understands by the former 
word the battle of Salamis and the naval engagement at Mykale ; by the 
latter word, the battle of Plataea, and the land engagement at Mykale, 
which was a continuation of the naval engagement, and which took place 
the same day as the battle of Plataea (479 B. c). The opinion of Kriig. does 
not seem to me so probable. — rovrov rov iroXep.o'u : the war which Thucyd. 
is about to describe, called by the Athenians che Peloponnesian war. — 
[atjkos : notice the omission of the article : H. 530, c ; S. Gr. 379. But 
(the) length of this war went forward (being) great ; more freely, but the length 
of this war was greatly protracted : re . . . . re, sometimes rendered not only 
. ... but also ; these English connectives, however, are too unwieldy, and 
hence the rendering of the former re may often better be omitted. — fuvr]- 
V€)(9t] : Lex. crufxcpepco, II. 2. Notice in Thucyd. j-vv for <rvv. — iv a-uTw, 
in it, i. e. in this war. rfj 'EXXoLSi limits yevev&ai, happened to arise .... 
to Greece. — oia oi>\ frrcpa (agrees with irci0TJ|xaTa) : lit. such as not others, 
i. e. such as (are) without parallel. — 2. otire -yap kt4.: keep in mind ev i'o-<a 
Xpovw : for neither were so many cities (ever in an equal time), etc. — 'HP*]- 
|x»0Tj<rav : 4pr]|j.dw. — crtjxSy avnSv : reflexive. For though the grammatical 
subj. is iroXeis, yet the leading subj. in the mind of the writer is, Athenians 
and Peloponnesian s, by themselves warring against (each other). — €url 8e at : 
H. 812 ; S. Gr. 556 ; G. § 152, Note 2 : and some (cities) even, etc. — ofrns 
(correlative of otire above), nor. — tea! (too-octSc) <|>dvos, and (so much) 
slaughter, i. e. so much destruction of human life : 6 pev . . . . 6 Se, partly 
.... partly (lit. the one slaughter . . . . the other slaughter) : H. 525, a ; 
S. Gr. 375, a ; G. § 143. — 3. &Kofj jxev \ey6\ieva, '4py<p 8e . . . . pepcuov- 
p.€va, related on hearsay, but more rarely confirmed by fact. — ovk : notice its 
position, before amo-Ta : became established (as) not incredible. — (reio-p.<»v t€ 
ir€pL (G. § 23, 2 ; H. 102, b ; S. Gr. 63), both (those things) concerning earth- 
quakes, etc. — lirl .... €TT€cr)(ov (hreyja), extended over a very considerable 
portion, etc. — ctp.a often serves to connect more closely two clauses united 
by kcii, and is often more conveniently rendered with the second clause, 
thus : and, at the same time, the same were (eTr£cr\ov) most severe; or, more 
freely, and at the same time also were, etc. Notice the omission of the 
article with 7*]s. H. 530, b ; S. Gr. 379, c. — €KXeu|/€is, sc. ^crav, or per- 
haps Ka.T€o-TTjcrav, fr. KaTe'o-TTj : and there were y etc. One might expect 
here irept with the gen., corresponding to o"€lo-{jlo>v irepi : but tjXiov just 
preceding may have led to the use of the nom. The two clauses are con- 
nected by re .... re. — irvKvorepai arapd : lit. more frequently in com- 
parison with, i. e. more frequently than, etc. — av^^ol .... jxeYaXoi : same 
const, with €kX€u|/€is« — &tti imp* ot$ : cf. note and gram, reference on 
€tcrl .... at: and among some (peoples) there were great droughts ; avr&v 
refers to avxjxoi. — teal tj . . . . vdcros, and that which inflicted not a little 
damage and destroyed a certain part (of the inhabitants), (was) the pestilential 
disease, i. e. the plague, described in the second book of Thucyd. — ov\ 
-fJKicrra : an instance of litotes. H. 665 ; S. Gr. 455. Classen takes jiipos 

68 NOTES. 

ti as adv. ace. and in some part, or in some measure brought destruction. I 
question whether a Greek would understand $Qdpa<ra, aor. act.j in this 
way: i. e. as intrans. — ^vven-iOero (crvv, eirt, tuGsiju), set themselves on to- 
gether, i. e. attacked (the inhabitants) together: ^vvep-qo-av, above, means 
simply came together, occurred, happened: KaT€<rrt], became established. — 

4. avTov refers to iroXejiov, depends on fjpgavro, began it, etc. — 'AO^vaiot 
Kal IleX- : notice the omission of the article. H. 530, a ; S. Gr. 379, b. 
— Xvo-avT€S : the means or manner. H. 789, b ; S. Gr. 540 ; G. § 277, 2. 
And the Ath. and Pel. began it by breaking, etc. — p.€Ta .... &Xwcriv : after 
(the) taking of Euboea (by Pericles in 445 B. a). Notice the omission of 

• -nfjv before cLXwonv, something as we may say, after Euboea's reduction. — 

* 5. irpo- irpon-ov : usu. understood as an emphatic pleonasm, though not 
easily rendered : and why they broke (the treaty), I have in the first place 
described the reasons, etc. — to-0 ^Tfjtrat : H. 781, a ; S. Gr. 429, b ; G. 
§ 264 : "Gen. of cause or motive." That no one may ever search, from what 
cause, i. e. that no one may ever be at a loss ; may ever be under any necessity 
of searching. — 6. ttjv jj.€v "yap .... X6*ya>, predicate : toi>s 'AO^vatovs 
p.€7aXous .... iroXsjietv, subject : the copula is not expressed. The 
pred. stands first for emphasis, and takes the article (contrary to the gen- 
eral rule. H. 535; S. Gr. 381). For, the truest occasion {of the war), but 
(the one) least apparent in debate, I consider (to have been the fact) that the 
Athenians, by becoming great, and by inspiring fear in the Lacedaemonians, 
forced (them), etc., or, inverting this order, I consider (the fact) that the 
Athenians, by becoming great, etc., forced them into the war, (to have been) the 
truest occasion (of the war), but, etc. — 8e: correlative with jxev after rfy : in- 
troduces the alleged causes of the war, in opposition to the real cause. — Is 
to <f>av€pdv : nearly equivalent to 4>avepc5s, openly, yet expressing the idea 
of motion, coming forward into that which is open and plain. — eKo/reprov 
seems from its position to be pred. gen. (partitive) with fjcrav. H. 572 ; 

5. Gr. 415 ; G. § 169 : lit. the following (al'Se) openly alleged causes were of 
each of the two parties, or, more freely rendered, the causes openly alleged by 
each of the parties, from which, etc., were as follows. 

Chap. 24. Before entering on the events of the war itself, the histo- 
rian rehearses the causes which led to it, and first among these were the 
troubles which arose at Epidamnus. 

l^*ETrl8ap.vos : called by the Romans Dyrrachium ; by the Italians, 
Durazzo. Notice the omission of the article. H. 530, a ; S. Gr. 379, b ; 
G. § 141, Note 1, a. — 6«nrX&v<ri : H. 601, a ; S. Gr. 437 ; G. § 184, 5 :, 
with respect to (one) sailing into, etc. It belongs rather to the whole clause 
preceding than to any one word : may be rendered freely, on the right of one 
sailing into, etc. — tov .... koXttov (depends on is in compos. The prep, 
is usu. repeated before the noun) : the Ionian gulf, the name in Thucyd., used 
also in Herod., for the Adriatic fASplas). — avWjv, obj. of irpo(roiKot)<ri 
(only here with the ace; elsewhere in Thucyd. without any case as obj.; 
in other Attic writers, often with the dat.), inhabit it. — 20vos, appos. with 
pdpjSapou — airwicurav, &iroiKi£a>. — 2. *yevos, ace. of specif. — t«v d<j>' 


'HpaK-, of those from Hercules, i. e. (one) of the Heraclidae ; depends on ^>a- 
Xio$. — Stj, used here, as elsewhere, to introduce an explanatory clause : 
render, in accordance, no doubt, with the ancient law, etc. — [A'qTpo'jroXecas. 
Corinth was the mother city of Corcyra. — KaraKX^Oeis : Ka/raKaXeco, a 
very rare word. — 4. o-Ta<ridcravT€s . • • • 4<j>0dpi]crav (<|>0££pG>), sc. 01 
*Em8dp.vioi. — tijs iroXXf|s : H. 559, e ; S. Gr. 403, c ; G. § 168, Note 1, 
of the greater part (lit. of the much) of their power. — 5. to. reXtvTata : neut. 
plur. adj., used as adv. As distinguished from to tcXcvtciiov, it denotes 
several particulars ; thus, in the final events before this war (the Pelopon- 
nesian war). — 6 Sfjfxos, the people, the democracy : -reus Suva/rows, the power- 
ful, i. e. the aristocracy = to-us oXt-yovs, the few, the oligarchy : frequent party 
designations. — 6. Ittic^ovto : me^co. — cos ... . oScrav : on the ground that 
it was, etc. Corjnth, not Epidamnus, is above spoken of as the mother 
city, and as having on this account furnished the leader of the colony 
(oIkio-ttjs, sometimes rendered oekist). — jATfTpoiroXiv, a mother city. Notice 
the omission of the article here : expressed above 4k ttjs Y.t\r-,fom the, etc. 

— <r«|>as : indirect reflexive. H. 671, a ; S. Gr. 459, b ; G. § 144, 2 : en- 
treating (the Corcyraeans) not to neglect them (the Epidamnians), while perish- 
ing. — tovs favyovras, the fugitives, the exiles, i. e. the aristocracy (tous 
Svvarovs) that had been driven out from Epidamnus. — ircpiopdv .... 
|waXXd£ai .... KaTaXvcrai. Difference in force between the present 
and aorist infinitive ? H. 716, a ; S. Gr. 486 ; G. § 202, 1. p.^ irepiopdv, 
habitual, permanent, for all the future : £uvaXXd£ai., KaTaXvcrai, a single, 
decisive act. — 7. iKercu : appos. with the subj. of IScovto : and, as suppli- 
ants, etc. (As subj., it would be ol iKerai.) — Tb"Hpcuov : so Boeh. Class. 
Pop. ; but Kriig. et al. write c Hpaiov : the Heraeum, the sanctuary of Hera. 

— dirpdicrovs, sc. avrovs, them, i. e. the Epidamnians. 

Chap. £5. oScrav : supplement, particip. H. 796 ff ; S. Gr. 545 ; G. 
§ 279, that there was no help, etc. TijuopCa in the sense help is unusual in 
other Attic writers, but not unfrequent in Thucyd. — ev dirdpep c'tyovTo, were 
(had themselves) in perplexity, were at a loss: 0e<r0cu to irapov, (how) to settle 
the present (difficulty). — eir/jpovTo (em, ^pdpjv) : used as aor. of lircpcoTdco. 

— iroi€io-0cu, to make for themselves, to obtain. — 6 84, sc. 6 0€o"s. — dveiXe 
(dvaipeco), responded. — T)7€p.ovas, sc. ovutovs, to make (them, i. e. the Co- 
rinthians) leaders. — 2. oVto, : cf. oflcrav above : that their founder was, etc. 

— IScovto p.^| kt4. : cf. ch. 24, 6. — 3. €?vai, was (the property of), belonged 
to. — &p.a 84 xat, and at the same time also : correl. of ri above. — pio-ei, dat. 
of cause with vireSef avTo s out of hatred to, etc. — avTcov, i. e. t«v Kopiv- 
0tcov : irap^p-IXo-uv 6vt€s oitoikoi, sc. ot Kcptcupaiou — 4. o#r€ *ydp kt4.: a 
construction on which the commentators are not agreed : Class, and Kriig. 
think the construction incomplete. Poppo and Boehme repeat irapT]pi- 
Xovv, understanding Yap as introducing illustrations of the foregoing. It 
might then be rendered : For instance, {they neglected them) in not giving at 
the public festivals, etc. It is not certain whether the Grecian games (Olym- 
pic, Nemean, etc.) are here meant, or simply festivals that were common 
to Corcyra and Corinth. — -yepa to. voja., lit. honors those which are customary, 

70 NOTES. 

i. e. the customary honors (such as the front seats ; perhaps, also, presents 
of various kinds). — ovre .... iep<av : and not beginning the sacrifices for 
(the benefit of) a Corinthian man : i. e. not imparting to a Corinthian man the 
first (i. e. the best) portions of the sacrifices. Such seems to be the most 
natural interpretation of this clause, on which there has been much differ- 
ence of opinion. — avrovs : i. e. the Corinthians. — xP T lK' l * Ta>v 8-uvclp.ei, in 
abundance of money, in financial ability. — ojxoia, adv., on an equal footing 
with, equal to : tois .... irXou-, dat. with a word of likeness. — ko.1 ttj 
.... S-uvarwrepci, and, in their preparation: for war, more powerful. i ' More 
powerful " than whom ? — than "the wealthiest of the Greeks," is the nat- 
ural way of filling out the ellipsis. Some critics, thinking this statement 
too strong, read, "more powerful than the Corinthians" ; but this seems 
forced in the grammatical construction, and unnecessary for truthfulness 
of statement. — vo/utikw .... eTraipcfxevot, and sometimes being puffed up 
on account of their naval superiority : more literally, and sometimes being puffed 
up in respect to the fact that they excelled even much in (their) navy : &ttiv #t€, 
H. 812 ; S. Gr. 556 ; G. § 152, Note 2 : irpoe'xeiv, infin. as ace. of specif. 
— Kal .... vavs, also (being puffed up) in view of the former occupation of 
Corcyra by the Phaeacians, who had renown in those things relating to ships : 
^ch&kcdv .... KepK-upas, two genitives with one subst. (irpoevoiK^a-tv). 
The Phaeacians, who figure prominently in the Odyssey of Horn., were 
thought to have been the early inhabitants of Corcyra. — \\,fi>r which reason, 

Chap. 26. IIdvT<ov tovtwv : Gen. of cause. H. 566 ; 577, b ; S. Gr. 
410; 420 ;,G. § 173, 2. It depends on th^ combined idea kyK\i\[i.ara 
^XovTcs. — &ir€[Airov : notice the force of the iinperf., denoting the action 
in its continuance. "Verbs meaning, to send, to say, to command, are often 
used in the imperf., where the aor. would seem to us more natural." 
Boeh. We may here render ^jrefinrov they proceeded to send, or simply, they 
sent. — olidJTopa .... KeXevovres : bidding any one who wished (lit. the one 
wishing) to go as colonist. — Kal .... <j>povpovs. This clause is in the 
same const, with £he preceding ; the conjunctions T€ . . . . Kai binding 
them closely together: and bidding guards of, etc., to go. — 2. Seei (Seos), 
from fear of, etc. By a prolepsis t<3v Kepicupauov is made prominent in 
the thought. — p?j . . . . avr&v : lest they (the colonists with the guards) 
be hindered by them (the Corcyraeans). Without prolepsis, it would be, 8eei 
jj.^1 kcoXvwvtcu vnb Ttov Keptcvpalcov. — 3. TJKovTas : supplement, particip. : 
pres. in form, perf. in meaning. H. 698 ; S. Gr. 475, a ; G. § 200, Note 
3-: is dependent on a verb of past tense, hence rendered as pluperf., had 
come, had arrived: so also SeSop.eV7]V, had been given. — vavtri : const.? H. 
604; S. Gr. 438, c ; G. § 188, 5. — toiis c^ovTas, obj. of Se'xeo-eai. — 
kclt* iiWjpaav, join with eicc'Aevov •' insultingly ordered. — avrovs (i. e. the 
Epidamnians), obj. of IsceXe-oov. — tcU^o-us, (the) graves (of their ancestors). 
These were pointed out in proof of their relationship to the Corcyraeans. — 
o-^as, obj. of Kara/yety : an indirect reflexive. H. 671, a ; S. Gr. 459 ; G. 
§ 144, 2, they entreated (the Corcyraeans) to restore them. — tovs t« <f>povpovs 


.... airoir4iL'K€iv : same const, with tovs ts <j>€t»"yovTeis .... Sexeo-Qai, 

as is indicated by the correlatives tc . . . . ri : both to receive the fugi- 
tives .... and to send away, etc. — 4. ovf&v avriav vtr-qKOva-av, listened 

to them in no respect. Kriig., CL, and others understand abr&v as neuter, 
listened to these things in no respect. For this idea, however, I should ex-, 
pect tovtcov (as in ch. 29, 1), and not avr^v. — ws Ka/ragovTes, as if 
to restore (them, i. e. the exiles). — 5. d/mivai: fut. in meaning: pro- 
claimed that any one of the Epidamnians who wished .... might go (was 

about to go) away unharmed. — xP^°" €(r ® aL depends on irpoeiirov : both 
have the same subject : that they would treat (them, i. e. those who did 
not leave the city) as enemies. — '4<rri .... \oipCov, and the place is, etc. 

For this reason it was the more easily besieged by the Corey raeans with 
their fleet. 

Chap. S^. oes avrols .... oyyeXoi 8tl, as messengers came from Epi- 

damnus (reporting) to them that, etc. avTOi^ is not to be joined with £jX0ov, 
as a dat. with a verb of motion : &Y"ye\oi contains the verbal idea reporting, 
announcing, hence the dat. awrois; and the declarative conj. Sti. — 7roXiop- 
kovvtox : subj. ol 'EitiScLijlvioi ; but, with the Epidamnians,- it must be 
recollected that the colonists and guards from Corinth were also included. 
For the const, of iroXiopicovvTai, see H. 734 ff;'S« Gr. 502 ff ; G. § 242.— 
•n-apeoTKevd^ovTO .... €K^p-u(rcrov : notice again the impf. Cf. ^Trefjurcv, 

26, 1. — airoiK^av : obj. of eKTJpwo-ov, which takes also as an obj. the 
clause tov PovXdjxevov levcu : proclaimed a colony (signifying) that any one 
who wished (might) go, etc. Iir! Trj i'crr] Kal b\ioia : these two words are 
often joined together (tcros denoting quantity ; ojxolos, quality. Kr. ) ; on 
an equal and like (footing). The repetition of similar term's resembles our 
usage in law documents. — irapavriKci : not seldom with the neut. article. 
■ — el . . . . lOe'Xoi .... PovXeTdi : notice the difference of mode : but if 

any one should not decide . ... but toishes, etc. — KaTCi®€VTa .... jAeveiv : 

this clause also is dependent on etc/jpworov : that he might remain (at home) 
, by paying, etc. — SpaxpAs KopivGias. The Corinthian drachma was the 
same as the Aeginetan, and contained 10 Attic oboli, while the Attic 
drachma contained but 6 oboli. Thus the ratio of the former to the latter 
was as 5 to 3. — oi irXeovres. The careless scholar may confound this with 
oi irXeoves. — iroXXoi : pred. with both clauses introduced by Kal .... 

kou. — KaTapdXXovTes : same sense as tca/raGo/TO,. — 2. ^up/xpoirepAJ/eiv, to 
join in convoying them. Notice the fut. inlin. denoting an impending prob- 
ability : also the force of apa after cl : if as might be expected. — oi 8c : and 
they (i. e. the Megarians). — cwtois, with |w in compos. — IlaX-qs ..... . 

c Epp.icvfjs : for the ending, see H. 190, d ; S. Gr. 104, e ; G. § 53, 3, Note 
2. — f|TT](rav with two accusatives. H. 553; S. Gr. 398; G. §164.— 
'HXeiovs, sc. r\rv\crav. Why they asked of the Eleans empty ships, i. e. 
ships without men, is not suggested by Thucyd., and is not, Poppo remarks, 
apparent. The suggestion, that they had not the seamen to man their 
own ships, or that they sought to avoid, by such means, violating their 
neutrality, is not altogether plausible. 

72 NOTES. 

Chap. 28. ovs ircplXafW, whom they took as coadjutors. The Corin- 
thians would be especially influenced by envoys from Sicyou and Lace- 
daemon. — jjlstov (particip. fr.€i|u) : ace. abs. H. 792 ; S. Gr. 544 ; G. 
§ 278, 2 : on the ground that they had no share in Epidamnus. — 2. el . ... 
avTwroio-CvTcu : sc. *Eiri8d}J.VQt), hut if they (the Corinthians) lay any claim 
(to Epidamnus). — Staas .... 8owu.i : they (the Corcyraeans) were willing 
to grant legal measures, i. e. were willing to submit the question to arbitration. — 
afs .... £vfij3a><riv is understood as a brief expression for imp' als .... 
gu|j.|3cacriv Sitcas Sowai : with which both parties should agree (to submit the 
question for arbitration) . — tq-uto-us ispa/reiv depends on $fa\ov above: that 
these should hold possession (of it). — Notice the repetition and emphatic po- 
sition of i^OeXov ; thus showing more clearly the desire of the Corcyraeans 
for a peaceful settlement of the difficulties. — 3. elW : eato. — ircietv. 
Mark the force of the pres. inhn. (cf. Kpartlv above), as distinguished from 
the aor. Imrpe\j/cu : also the difference between the act. and mid. iroieiv 
and TTou&crQai. — €l 8e \L-q : lit. but if not, i. e. if the Corinthians do not 
consent to the terms proposed by the Corcyraeans. el 8e ji^j is often ren- 
dered, otherwise, or, if otherwise. H. 754, b; S. Gr. 520, d. — avroi belongs 
as intens. pron. with the subj. of the in tin. (that they themselves also would be 
compdled, etc.) Why nominative ? H, 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b ; G. § 136, 
Note. 2. — ZizdvoiV (sc. tjwv KopivSuov) pia^cjievwv, should the Corinthians 
resort to force. — eripovs .... |i.aXXov, others rather than those now being 
(friends), — .an intimation which the Corinthians would readily understand, 
that they should seek an alliance with the Athenians, who were not Do- 
rians, but Ionians. — <0«j>eXlas eVe^a : emphatic posit. — 4. po^XeiJcrecrGcu 
depends on cWeKpivavTO, and has the same subj. — irpoTepov Se, but sooner, 
i. e. sooner than the Corcyraeans should withdraw the ships and foreigners 
from Epidamnus. — ou KaXtSs ^x €lv ? ^ mt ^ was not we ^ » ae P eil( l s a ^ so on 
o/ireKpivavTQ. — to-us p.€v .... a-uTOtts Se . . . . : that those (who were in 
Epidamnus) . . . . , while they themselves (Corinthians and Corcyraeans), 
etc. — 5. €TotfjioL (notice the accent in Thucyd.; usually eVoijxos) 8e etvai : 
cf. note on clutch, above. — coo-re kt!., a new proposition, hence introduced 
by Kai also ; and that they were willing also that both parties remain in (their 
present) position. Notice the peculiar use of erotpoi, ready, contented^ willing. 
o-TTovSds, obj. of iroMr{0-a<r®ai. — eVos . . . . yc-v^rai : until justice (by the 
arbitration) should be obtained; or, until the cause should be decided. For the 
subjunc. here, see H. 735 ff ; S. Gr. 503 ff ; G. § 247. For the force of 
&V with the aor. subjunc, see H. 760 ; S. Gr. 515, b. Lit. until the cause 
shall have been, etc. 

Chap. $29. totjtgdv : cf. avnw, ch. 26, 4, note. — irXrjpeis, full, i. e. 
when spoken of ships, fully manned. — irpoTre'fJuj/avTes .... irpOTepov: not 
pleonastic : having sent forward previously. — irpoepcnhn-a (Lex. irpoepew, <a, 
as fut. ), to declare : agrees with K^p-uKd. — ctpavTes : crtpo. — 2. etrTpa^-yei 
agrees with the nearest subject, and is understood with the others. H. 511, 
h ; S. Gr. 361, h ; G. § 135, Note 1. — 3. cWepowTO (&ird<fttip.i ) f. &ircp<3, 
ktI.) agrees with KTjp-uKa. — crcjjas : indirect reflexive : refers to KepKtJpcI'oL. 


— i-rrkiipovv : closely connected (by tc . . . . kcu) to irpolirepAlrav. Notice 
the change of tense. Difference in force ? — £a»|avT€s. The most probable 
meaning seems to be, having braced with pieces of timber. So in substance 
Boeh., CI., Kriig., Pop. The rendering, having undergirded with ropes t 
seems to me less probable in itself, and less naturally drawn from the word 
|€v-yw(u. — 4. €ir€ir\^pa)VTo : irX-qpow. — T€<r<rapdicovTa -yap ktc. is thrown 
in with the previous statement, at the end of ch. 25, in view. — 5. irapd 
iroXv, by much, or by far. — irapaa-T^cracrOai : trans, with tovs .... iro- 
XiopKodvTas as subj. and ttjv 'EirtSajxvov understood as obj.; forced (the 
city) to a capitulation (6p.oXo-y(a). — «<tt€ .... diro8oo-0ai, with the condi- 
tion that they sell, etc. tox>s eir-, obj. — Kopiv0£ovs: obj. both of 8^o*avTas 
and of ^X €tv : oui ^ iai they, having bound the Corinthians, hold (them) : more 
freely, but that they hold the Corinthians in custody, until, etc. 

Chap. 30. : the southeast promontory of Corcyra, now 
called Leukimo, or, with the modern Greek pronunciation, Levkimo. — 
ous 2Xcl(3ov al\-, whom they had taken prisoners (in the naval battle) : not to 
be confounded with the prisoners taken at Epidamnus. Respecting the 
former, there was no treaty, and hence, in putting them to death, no viola- 
tion of existing engagements, nor any violation of the usages in war at that 
time. — 2. tjo-o-t] pivot : f^cro-dopat. Notice era- in Thucyd. instead of the 
more usual Attic tt. — rats vavo-tv : joined with the particip. preceding, 
a dat. of respect : with the verb following, a dat. of accompaniment : with- 
drew with their ships. — ttjs kcit' €K€iva rd yjapia defines more exactly rfjs 
6aX- dor-, all the sea, which bordered on those regions. — ot KepKvpaioi (subj. 
of iKpaTouv) : emphat. posit. — ttjs -yf|s : partit. gen.: frequent with 
T€|xvco : they ravaged a part of the territory. — iveirpTjcrav : Ip.TrfarpTjp.t. — 
irapecrxov : they (i. e. the Eleans) had furnished. Cf. ch. 27, 2. — 3. tov 
itXcio-tov : for the gender of the partitive, see H. 559, e ; S. Gr. 403, c ; 
G. § 168, Note 1. — lircKpaTovv : lirvKpctTea). — pixP 1 (notice pi xpt . before 
a vowel) ov, until (lit. up to the point of time in which). — ireptovrt (rapt, 
clpi) to> Oepei, in the (part of the) summer remaining. Several editors (on the 
authority of a single MS. ) read irepuovrt (irept, etpt) «nj> Gepei, when the sum- 
mer was about to come round, i. e. as the summer ivas drawing to a close. The 
critical authorities seem to be about equally divided. The idea, at the close 
of summer, is involved in both expressions. — cirel <r<|><5v : since for them, etc. : 
<r4><»v has an emphatic position, and is understood as belonging, not simply 
to ot Jvppa\oi, but to the whole phrase, as causal gen. — <j>vXa,Kf|s €V€Ka : 
for a guarding of, etc., i. e. more freely, for the protection of, etc. — <r$lcri 
and above c-<j>cuv, indirect reflexives. In ordinary Attic prose, avrots would 
stand here, and ctvTcov above. — 4. to Ocpos tovto, through this summer (i. e. 
the portion of it still remaining) : xcifuSvos tjStj, when it was already winter. 
The ace. duration of time : the gen. time within which, the partitive rela- 
tion. Notice Th. does not speak of the autumn. So, frequently, the mili- 
tary year is divided into two seasons, summer and winter, or, the hot 
season and the stormy season. Difference between 4icdT€pot and ftccurroi. ? 
between oiSercpot and ovSc ves ? 

• 74 NOTES. 

Chap. 31, opyr) fyipovrzs, bearing angrily, or, as some render it, carry- 
ing on with spirit. The opinions of critics are about equally divided be- 
tween these two renderings. The usual meaning of op-yfj in Attic Greek 
favors the former, and so I have been in the habit of translating it ; yet it ' 
is quite possible that the phrase may contain both ideas. An angry feel- 
ing would naturally lead to vigorous warlike preparations. — to. KpaTicrra : 
adv. with the utmost energy. — kpiras : obj. of &7elpovT€S. — p.i<r0u> (dat. of 
means) : TretGovres (sc. avTOvs, i. e. tovs epeVas). — 2. teal f t crav 7&p : Kat 
goes with 28o£€V below : fj<rav 7<xp begins a parenthetical clause : and, since 
they were, etc. — ovSsvcs with £vcnrov8oi, in alliance with no one, etc. — ov$k 
.... ea/UTO'us : and had not enrolled themselves : notice the mid. with a 
reflex, pron., and the aor. where we should use the pluperf. — o#r€ .... 
o{Jt€ : either . . . . or. — cos : prep, with tovs *A8- : used only before names 
of persons. — fjvp.p.Jxovs 7€ve<r0ai, to become allies. One might expect here 
£vp.p.dxois, agreeing with avrots : yet see H. 776 ; S. Gr. 536, c ; cf. A nab. 
1, 2, 1. XapdvTa. — ir€ipci<r0ai, connected by Kai to 7€veo-0ou, depends on 
£8o|€V (as subj.). — 3. irp€<rp€ucrop.€Voi : purpose, to negotiate as envoys (with 
the Athenians). — Strcos p/fj . • • . 7€Vtjtcu : that the Athenian navy might 
not, after being added to that of the Corcyraeans, become an obstacle to them 
(cnjsteri, reflex., referring to ct Kop£v9icn) : more freely, that the Athenian navy 
might not be added to that of the Corcyraeans and become, etc. — OecrOcu, with 
lp.ir68iov : cf. 25, 1. Iv diropcp Oco-Oai. — 4. KaTacrTdcrTjs (what tenses in 
the act. are intrans.?) ijctcX/qcrias : when an assembly had come to order. — 
ToidSe, somewhat as follows Observe Th. does not say rdSe, as follows. He ' 
does not profess to give the exact words of the discussion. Cf. ch. 22. 

The speech of the Corcyraeans extends through ch. 36. The reply of 
■the Corinthians extends through ch. 43. For a clear statement of the 
argument on both sides, see Grote's History of Greece, Vol. VI. ch. xlvii. ; 
•also Wilkins's Speeches from Thucydides. 

Chap. 4L4. ToiaOra : observe Th. does not say to/Ctci. Cf. note on 
•ToidSe, ch. 31, 4. The historian may himself have been present and lis- 
tened to this debate, as Grote suggests ; yet he does not profess to report 
it with verbal accuracy. — kal 8 Is : even a second time: indicating the cau- 
tion of the Athenians. — ttj p.€v irpoT-pa (sc. IfCKX/rjaria) . . . . 4v 81 ttj 
icrTepata. Notice Iv with the latter expression ; not with the former, 
which comes under the rule of dat. of time. — ox>x rjenrov : not I ss, i. e. 
with not less favor : usually taken as an instance of litotes, the writer im- 
plying that they were even more inclined to receive the arguments of the 
Corinthians. — p^Tfyvtocrav (force of p.€Ta in compos. ?).... p.4j iroi^- 
<rct<r8ai : notice the conciseness of the expression : they changed their minds 
(and decided) not to make a full alliance (offensive and defensive). — to{>s 
.... cjnXous : the same persons enemies and friends (sc. whom the Corcy- 
raeans considered enemies and friends). — €i 7ap : for (in that case) if, etc. 
el . . . . €K€\€uov .... IX/uovt* civ. Force of this form of cond. sen- 
tence? H. 746 ; S. Gr. 514 ; G. § 222. As obj. of UOeoov, understand 
tovs 'AGTjvaio-us : cn|>Uriv with (--up.- : avrots, not same as vir' cavtcov, agent 


or doer; but strictly as dat. on their part, so far as related to them (tlie Athe- 
nians). — earifjiaxtav : a defensive alliance. — giroi^jo-avTo. We might expect 
here iroiTjo-ac-Gcu to correspond with the const, above ; but the parenthet- 
ical clause leads to a change, from a dependent to an independent state- 
ment. — ttj oXX'rjXov, sc. *yfj or Y&P*b '• an ellipsis not uncommon in Th. — 
2. Kal cos (accented : rare in Att. prose : differs how fr. a>s ?) : even thus 
(with all their precautions), at all events. — avrois : is it to be joined with 
c8oK€i, or with ^<rc<r0ai ? The position favors the latter : seemed . ... to 
be impending over them (lit. to be about to be to them). — irpoeo-Gai : irpotiqiu. 

— afrrovs : obj. of firyKpoveiv : refers both to the Corinthians and Corcy- 
raeans. — i'va .... KaOto-roivTat contains the motive for the course 
adopted by the Athenians : that, should it be necessary, they might engage in 
war both with the Corinthians, etc. : acrGeveo-Tepois oia-iv (predicate particip. ), 
emphat. position : agrees with the datives following : it is more naturally 
rendered at the end of the sentence in. English : being weaker : KopivBtois 
kt!. limits the entire clause 4s iroXejiov KaGia-TwvTcu, considered as a single- 
idea. — 3. tt)s T€ 'IraXias kt4. gen. objective with 4v irapd?r\a>, in the voy- 
age to, etc. 

Chap. 45. Th. uses the various expressions ov iroXv do-Tepov : vo-repov 
ov uoXXw : 6XL"ya> vcrTepov, in about the same sense. — 2. avrols, for them, or 
to them (the Corey raeans), not as denoting motion, but as dat. of interest. — 
porjGovs : appos. with vcii)s. — 3. irpoetirov : subj. ol 'AG-qvalou — ttXccco-i, 
piXXcoaa : subj. oi KopivGiou — ^ 4s twv 4k€ivg)v tl yapicav* In a few other 
passages Th. places the indef. rls in a similar way between the art. and 
noun : 4k€ivwv cannot agree with x<»pta>v (H. 538 ; S. Gr. 382, d ; G. § 142, 
•4), but depends on «rcav yjiop'wv, which in turn depends on tI : or (uhless 
they sail) against some one of the places belonging to them (i. e. to the Corcy- 
raeans). — ovtco Se tcioXveiv kt!., but thus" to hinder, etc. Notice the brevity 
of the expression. More freely rendered, but in that case (i. e. in case they 
.sail towards Corcyra, etc.) (the Athenians ordered the commanders of 
their ships) to hinder (the attempt), etc. — tov jatj Xveiv : gen. depending 
.on <-v€Ka, denoting a purpose. The prep, is often omitted in this sense. 
:H. 781 ; S. Gr. 429, b ; 533 ; G. § 262, to the end that they might not break, etc. 

Chap. 46. avrots : const.? H. 600 ; S. Gr. 435 ; G. § 188, 3 : irapc- 
o-3€6va<TTO, impers. — &irXeov : notice here again the imperf. Cf. '4. €fi/n-ov, 
ch. 26, 1. — 2. <TTpaTT]7ot : without the article, hence pred. : and there 
were, etc. — KopivGitov kt4., sc. o-Tpo/rrj-yos. Notice also the ellipsis of i^v. 

— tt€[xtttos civtos : a frequent and peculiar idiom : may be rendered, with 
four associates (more lit. himself fifth and chief). — 3. upoo-€p.i|civ (Vpocrfu- 
•yvvjw), with dat. H. 605 ; S. Gr. 439 ; G. § 187. — Kara, KepK- : opposite, 
etc. — 6pp,i£ovTai (notice the difference between act. and mid., also between 
6pp. l£<o and bpp.i<a) : denotes motion, hence followed by eg. We may ren- 
der it (although not with perfect exactness), they come to anchor at, etc. — 
4. 'EtJnipT] : defin. appos. with iroXis* — imp* cuittjv, by it, past it (the city 
Ephyre). - — 4s avrfjv, i. e. \i\kvr\v. — ov, i. e. iroTap.ov : 2x €t > subj. Xtp.v?], 
a frith, not of water entirely stagnant, as Th. says above ggeifri. — coy 4vtds, 

76 " NOTES. " 

between which (i. e. tlie two rivers Thyamis and Acheron) : dvex.€i, rises, juts 
out. — 5. ttjs 't\irelpov cvTaitfa : H. 589 ; S. Gr. 427, b ; G. § 182, 2. 

Chap. 4:7* avrovs (i. e. KoptvOiovs) irpoanrXcovTas (supplement, 
particip.), that they were sailing against (them). Although the reference of 
avrovs is plain enough in the Greek sentence, yet an English writer would 
he likely to use here a substantive instead of a pronoun : when they were 
informed that the Corinthians were sailing, etc. — 2vJ2oto. (<r€s, swine, fSo<TKw, 
to feed) : Syb&ta, or Swine-pastures. — 2. avrots, dat. with %\v : notice the 
peculiar position of civtois. — 6 ire^ds (also in the form to irc^dv) : the foot- 
force. Cf. 29, 2 ; 30, 4. — ravry\, in this region, adv. of place, used as at- 
tributive of -fjireipwTai. — dei irpre .... clcriv, have always been, etc. G. 
§ 200, Note 4. 

Chap. 48. irapeo-jccvao-ro with dat. Cf. 46, 1. — rpiw TJ|X€p<ov : gen. 
of measure. — avrj-yovTO : notice again the imperf. Cf. 46, 1. Recollect 
that dvd is spoken regularly of putting out to sea, as well as of going from 
the coast to the interior : kclto, of approach towards the coast, either from 
the sea or from the interior. dvfJY- «s lirt, they put to sea, as if for. — 
2. uXcovtcs Kci0op»<ri, while sailing they descry. — irXcovons (irX«i>) agrees 
with vavs. — 3. dvTtirapcTdo-o-ovTo : spoken of both parties. — eirl to 
.... vfj€s, sc. irap€Tdo-<rovTo, suggested by the preceding verb. It im- 
plies the idea of motion, hence takes iirl with the ace, on the right iving of 
etc. — to 8c dXXo .... Iiretxov, but the rest (of the line), they themselves 
(the Corcyraeans) occupied. — tcXtj (tc'Xos), divisions. Th. elsewhere uses 
tcXtj for divisions of cavalry, also of infantry. — <av (referring to tcXt] ) de- 
pends on cKdcrrov ; <rrpcLrr\yu>v on cts : each of which, one of the three, etc. — 
4. KopivOiois 8c, but on the side of the Corinthians : dat. of interest in looser 
relations. — Kara 8c rb jxeo-ov kt4., verb omitted : but in the centre (were), 
etc. Notice the frequent use of tos before CKaoroi, in Th., each by himself 
each in order, severally. — cvwvvjiov Kcpas : article omitted in Greek, but 
necessary in Eng., the left wing: "Scjjidv, p.e<rov, cvi&vv|iov, when used in a 
military sense, often omit the article. Yet this omission can hardly occur, 
if either word have a qualifying adjective or clause." Kriig. — rats dpicrra 
.... irXcovo-ais. So in English ; with the best sailing of etc. — KctTa tovs 
ktI., over against the, etc. 

Chap. 49* J3vp.p.££avT€s 8c, And having joined battle. €rv^lyvv^.\. may 
also be used of a friendly meeting. — ijp0T| : ctfpw. Kriiger supposes the 
signals (o-T]ji.€ia) were some kind of banner, supported by the masts of the 
ships, and raised or lowered by means of ropes. — tw iraXcucp Tpoirw ktc., 
after the ancient manner having still prepared themselves with less skill. This 
implies that when Th. wrote the passage, some years later, the Greeks had 
made great improvements in the art of naval warfare. The lack of skill 
here alluded to consisted chiefly in the large proportion of land forces com- . 
pared with the seamen. — 2. rfj p,cv . . . . , irc£o|xaxici 8c ... . oSo-a : 
explains icapTcpd : the naval engagement was obstinate, not so much (lit. not 
eq^iaFy) by reason of the art (displayed), but because it was more nearly like a 
land battle: o£<ra, particip. causal. — 3. vtto re ... . Kal . . . . itio-tcvovtcs 


assigns the reason of ov . . . . direXvovro : both on account of the number 
and press of the ships, and because thy trusted somewhat more for the victory 
to, etc. — "no^X" • • • • vewv : gen. abs. while the ships, etc. — SictcirXot 
(8id, €K, 7rXo€s) .... fjo-av : and there were no evolutions. The particular 
kind of evolution here referred to is described in part by the composition 
of the Greek word. It consisted in breaking through the enemy's line, 
returning with as much force as possible, and striking a hostile ship either 
on the side or on the stern, with the aim to sink, or, at least, to disable it. 
Herodotus first speaks of the diecplus. The Athenians resorted to it in all 
their naval battles a few years later than this engagement. — to irXiov 
.... 4], more than. — 4. iroXvs 0dpv(3o$, sc. fjv, expressed in next clause. 
— irapa-yiYvofJievcu : observe the force of the pres. particip. : €i' irrj irie^oivTO 
(subj. ot Kepicupaioi) : optat. expressing indefinite frequency of past" ac- 
tion. H. 729, b ; S. Gr. 498, b ; G. § 220, II. (b). — 8 € 8iot€s ot cr T paTT|- 
■yol : grammatically in appos. with the subj. (at 'ArriKal vf]€s) of ^px°v* 
The gen. abs. would have been correct, but less animated. — ri\v irpdppTj- 
oriv : cf. ch. 45, 3. — 5. Iirdvet : 7rov€o>. — o"iropd8as with avrovs. — 4s t^v 
•ijirapov : connect with KaTaSiwfjavTes : uexpt tov o-Tparoirc'Sov avr&v with 
irXevcravTes. — eveVp-qo-av : 4p/irtTrpT]fju. — ep'fjp.ous : pred. adj. with tcls 
<rKT]vas. H. 535, b ; S. Gr. 381, b ; G. § 142, 3 : the tents which were de- 
serted. — \pi\is.ara : not limited here to the idea of money, but in the wider 
sense of goods, property, baggage. — 6. tcivtt) p.€v oSv . . . . r\ 8e : used here 
of place : here therefore (i. e. on the right wing of the Corinthians) . . . . ; 
bat where, etc. — ot KoptvOtot Kal ot £vp.|xaxot : the Corinthians themselves, 
as we learn from the next sentence, were victorious ; but they are men- 
tioned here with the allies, because the interests of both were identical, 
and the defeat of the latter was in so far their own defeat. — t<3v .... 
irapovo-wv : gen. abs. denoting the reason of iroXv Ivikcov (vticda>) : because 
the twenty ships, from a number (originally) less, etc. Recollect that the. en- 
tire number of the Corcyraean ships, including the ten from Athens, was 
only 120 (ch. 47, 1), while the Corinthians had 150 (ch. 46, 1) : 4k ttjs 
Stwf-ews, see § 5, in this chapter. — 7. p.&XXov .... dirpo<|>acrto-Tci>s, more 
unreservedly: a7r€xdp.€Vot, holding themselves in check: ccxrre p/fj 4p.pdXX€iv 
rivt, in so far as not to make an attack on any one. They still bore in mind 
and acted on the instructions of the Athenians. — Xap/irpcos is comm. de- 
fined by <f>av€pw9, openly, plainly : yet it is more emphatic, as is indicated 
by the etymology : <j>avep^s fr. <(>, to appear: Xap/rrpcos fr. Xduir<o, 
to shine, to be bright. — gp-yov .... el'xeTO, every one had a share in work, 
i. e. participated in (the) engagement: ^8-q, at once, forthwith, emphasizes the 
foregoing words. — 8t€K€Kpvro (8taKplva>) : impers. there was no longer any 
separation : or, as it is often rendered, any distinction (between the Athe- 
nians and the other combatants). The idea is made clearer by what fol- 
lows. — Jweirecev (cruiA-rrCirTG)) : impers. : 4s tovto dvaYKTjs worre kt4. : it 
came to this (point) of necessity that, etc., it became unavoidable that, etc. — 
tovs Kop- Kal *A0- : emphat. posit.: subj. of emxetpfjo-at : one article 
with both nouns, thus uniting them more closely as one definite idea. 

78 NOTES. 

Chap. 50. to. <rKd4>t] .... twv vecSv : the hulls of the ships. — ov)£ 
cTXscov avaSoxSjwvoi : Lex. dvaSco, 111., did not take in tow. — KciTaSvo-eiav 
(jcaraS-uw) does not imply the sinking of a ship to the bottom, but only a 
partial sinking : &s KaTaSvtraav has the construction and force of a hypo- 
thetical, or, as it is also called, conditional, relative sentence, after a sec- 
ondary tense. H. 757 ; S. Gr. 523, e ; G. § 233 : which they had {one after 
arwtlier) partially sunk, which they had disabled. Observe that the relat. &s 
is not here attracted to the case of the antecedent. — <J>ov€tJ€iv .... piLXXcv 
i] l(oyp€lv : infin. denoting purpose. Does the Greek differ in this respect 
from the Latin infin. ? <|>ovev€Lv and ^coypetv are connected equally in sense 
with iTpdirovTo and with StcKirXeovres, but are more naturally rendered 
with the partieip. The statement here shows that the desire for revenge 
in this battle was paramount to that of obtaining booty. — tovs .... 
4>tXous : obj. of 2kt€ivov (ktcivo)) : imperf. again denoting the beginning of 
an act. The Megarians and Ambraciots were on the Corinthian right. Cf. 
cli. 48, 4. — 2. -yap introduces the whole sentence, especially ov . . . . 
Ittclovvto kt€., as explanatory of what precedes. In addition to this, the 
notion' of cause or reason lies in the construction iroXXwv .... ovcrwv 
kt4. gen. abs. : For, since many ships bdonged to both sides, and extended, etc., 
they did not easily make (for themselves) the distinction, etc. : lirl iroXv, over 
a wide space : eireiS^, after. — vav\La\la .... avri\ : this, as a naval battle 
(not this naval battle) : H. 538 ; S. Gr. 382, d ; G. § 142, 4. — "EXXtiou 
(dat. of interest) irpbs'EXX^vas : of Greeks against, etc. — psyla-Tt) .... 
a^Ttjs : lit. the very greatest of those before it, — a frequent form of solecism. 
We, however, commonly avoid it by using a comparative, — far greater than 
any of, etc, Note the force of 8^ after \t.eyioTir\. H. 851 ; S. Gr. 580, d ; 
also of the perf. yeyevs]rai f has been (up to the time when Th. wrote). — ■ 
3. iKp&TTjo-av : Lex. Kparew, II., they gained possession of: with gen. — ■ 
wa-xe Trpoo-KOfJitcrai (irpos, kojxI£g>), so as to convey (them, i. e. the wrecks and 
the dead). — ot, adv., to which place, whither: avTots, dat. of interest with 
irpoo-€peP-, had come to aid them. Cf. ch. 47, 3. — &tti (H. 406, Kem. b ; 
S. Gr. 277, c) kt£., and there is the Sybota of, etc. A cluster of islands 
called Sybota was mentioned above, ch. 47 ; here, another place of the 
same name, on the mainland, is referred to : Xipfjv IpfjjJios, descriptive" 
appos. with to. Svpora. — iroi^cravTes, sc. oi KoptvGtoi. — 4. ot 8£, i. e. 
ol KepK- : rats irXcatfxots, sc. vavari, dat. of accompaniment. — Kal .... 
XoiiraC : and (with) as many as were left: i. e. left behind when they sailed 
out for the battle just described. The number appears, by comparing 
ch. 25, 4, with 47, 1, to have been ten. Why these ten were previously 
left behind is not stated. — kciI avrol, themselves also: avritrkeov (&vti- 
•ztXsg)), sailed to meet (the Corinthians). — o-tfxSv: reflexive for a depend, 
sentence : refers to ol 8e. — impoco-iv (sc. ot KopCvOioi) is used in the active 
several times by Th. ; yet the mid. (as deponent) is far more common. — 
lire^aio&vto-TO (iranwvt^to) : impers. : aiJTots, agent with pluperf. pass. , H. 
600 ; S. Gr. 435 ; G. § 188, 3 : the paean had been sung by them, they had 
sung, etc. — 5. irp-ujAvav ItcpcuovTO : a nautical expression : put back stem- 


wards (lit. struck stern) ; retreated with prows towards the enemy. — t<3v 
Sc'iea : depends on the compar. vo-rcpov : later than the ten, subsequent to the 
ten (cli. 45, 1). — por { 0o'us : appos. with. us. — oXt-yat dp-weiy : infin. with 
adj., H. 767 ; S. Gr. 530 ; G. § 261 : lit few to defend (the Coreyr.) : freely- 
rendered, too few for defence. The force of p.rj extends to the end of the 

Chap. 5 4 • 7rpoi8cvT€5 : Betant defines this by prius videre ; "but this is 
the only passage in Th. which he cites with this meaning. It is certainly 
not the usual meaning of the word. See Lex. irpoopdo, and irpoeiSov. It 
means rather, having seen before (themselves), having seen in the distance, 
having descried. Spoken of the same act as koi,tiSgvt€s (50, 5, Kara, opela, 
to look down upon, to regard, to descry). Classen renders irpoiSovres, da sie 
sie schon aus der Entfernung sahen : as they had seen them (the ships of the 
Ath.) in the distance (lit. out of the distance). — air* 'AG-qvwv .... irXeious, 
that there were from Athens, not (simply) as many as they saw, but a greater 
number. — 2. tois Kspkvpcuois is not, I think, to be regarded as agent 
(H. 600; S. Gr. 435; G. § 188, 3); but rather as "dat. of interest in 
looser relations." H. 601 ; S. Gr. 437: or, as "dat. denoting that with 
respect to which a statement is made." G. § 184, 5 ; but on the part of the 
Corcyraeans .... (the ships) were not seen. — eiretrXeov (eiri, irXe'w) sc. at 
vi]€S. — jaciXXov .... &cj>- : rather from that point which was obscure (to the 
Corcyraeans). Kriiger drops the parenthesis, and makes tois Kepic. depend 
on dc|>avoi)s ; but he is not followed by the editors generally. — kcu (sc. ot 
KfpKvpcuoi.) kQavpa'tpv. — oVt before the oratio recta. H. 734, b; S. Gr. 
502, c ; G. § 241 : may be omitted in translating, and its place supplied 
to the eye by quotation-marks. — vfjes (without the article) Ikcivcu : some 
persons .... said, "ships yonder are sailing towards (us)." — 8idXi)ouv, sep- 
aration : diraXXa-yTj .... dXXTjXwv, departure from one another. — 3. Ire- 
XeiJTa Is vi>KTa. "In TeXeuTcLv schwebt noch das sich erstrecken vor." 
Boeh. The idea of extension lies in TeXeuTdco ; hence, with is and ace. 
The naval engagement continued into the night; or we may also render it 
freely, ended at nightfall. It was above mentioned that it was already grow- 
ing dark (£vveo-K- .... *j8t]). — 4. tois Ktpicupatois : depends on irpoo-jco- 
jji',o-0€to-ai (irpop-KO[jii|G>) : may be rendered freely, And while the Corcyraeans 
were, etc. Notice the unusual position of 8e. . Classen places it after Tots. 
— 'AvSoklS^s 6 Ae^opov, an Athenian orator, mentioned only here by 
Th. — 5. Uyvtao-av (2 aor. of *yfyv<»CKCs>) : recognized (them) : koA cop(j.t<ravro, 
and they came to anchor: at v^es is usually understood as the subj. of 
copper- ; but Kriiger thinks this scarcely ad 
persons on board as subj. Cf. 46, 3, and 5. 

Chap. 53. 4v tois Xuj36tqis : attributive position : lit. in the Sybota 
harbor: i. e. the harbor at Sybota. — 2. ol 8e, i. e. ot KoplvGtot. — apavTes 
(al'pco) kt!. } getting the ships under way from, etc. — jxeTewpous : adj. of two 
endings ; agrees with vcu)s : drawing (them) up at sea. — vo/ujxaxtas : gen. de- 
pending on apx^v. — irpoo"y€"Y5V't]fi.€vas : supplement, particip. : dKpat<j>vcts, 
pred. adj.: both that ships had arrived from Athens afresh: iroX.»&, also pred. 

80 NOTES. 

,adj.: and that embarrassments many in number: %vp$t$-, same const, as 
Trpca-yzy- : c.lxK.aXa>T<«)v t€ . . . . k&I €Tm.o-K€vf|v kt4., explanatory of to, 
taropo. : both concerning guarding of prisoners .... and in respect to ship-stores 
which did not exist, etc. Notice the change of const, from irepl with gen. 
to ace. of specif.: iitia-Kev^v r<av v€<£v (ship-sto?-es) includes the idea of 
material for repairing the ships and, also of the requisite provisions. — 

3. 6ttt| KO|H<r0TJ<rovTai (kcjx^o)) : explanatory of tov .... irXov, the home- 
ward voyage, in what way they should be conveyed. — t&s o-7rov8ds : cf. 23, 4, 
where it is called the thirty years' truce. — €S x^P 0,5 ^X0ov : Lex. \dp t 4 : 
came to blows, came to an actual engagement — fjur) . . . . ovk, that .... not. 

Chap. 53. €o-pipcI<ravT€$ takes avSpas for anobj.: one might expect 
here €<r(3i(3d<riv agreeing with avrois, yet see £v(X|xdxov$ 31, 2, note : having 
put men on board, etc. — aveu Kt]pvKeCov : thus indicating that they still 
regarded themselves as at peace" with the Athenians; since, in time of war, 
the herald's staff (in modern phrase, the flag of truce) is necessary for pro- 
tection. — £Xe"yov, spoke, i. e. through the men whom they sent. — 2. o-irov- 
8ds (notice the omission of the article) XiSovtcs : in violating treaty-obliga- 
tiohs. — TJ|xtv . . . ► Xcrraa-Qi : for you stand in the way of our avenging our- 
selves on, etc.: lit. you stand in the way to us while avenging, etc. — yv&p.T\ (a 
determination, a purpose), with the infin. — kcoXvciv tc : one would expect 
Kal Xveiv after it (both to hinder .... and to break, etc.) ; but, in lively 
narrative, the infin. Xveiv passes over to the indie. \vere, before which cl is 
to be understood : and (if) you continue to break, etc. To make a gram- 
matical English sentence, ri after kcoXvciv may be omitted in rendering. — 
irXetv : with KwXveiv (to hinder us from sailing, etc.), also with povXojieOa. 
— i k |uis TovcrSe, us who are here, obj. of XapovT€s, and understood (in the 
dat.) with xp^a-aa-Be, — 3. #<rov ctHjkovo-cv; parenthetical, defining rb 
CTTparoTrcSov : as much as paid attention to (them): dv€poT]<r€v, dva(3oda>. — 

4. KepK- Tot<r8e. Note the omission of the article, contrary to H. 538 ; 

5. Gr. 382, d ; G. § 142, 4. The substantive with a demonstrat. pron. 
does not take the article, if the subst. be a proper name. Kiihner, § 246, 
3, Rem. 1 (b). — aXXocrl irot, lit. elsewhere anywhere, i. e. anywhere else. — 
el ... . irXeu<r€io-0€ (fut. of irX&o), if you shall sail, etc. — is . . . • x<op((ov : 
cf. 45, 3, note. — ov < ir€pio\|sop.e6a (weptopdw), we shall not overlook (it) = we 
shall hinder (it) : Kara rb SvvaTov, according to that which is possible = to the 
best of our ability. 

Chap. 54. tov itr' oiWu : article repeated with attributive. H. 533 ; 
S. Gr. 380, b ; G. § 142, 2 : the homeward voyage, or the voyage home. — 
irap€<rK€vd,£ovTO, imperf. implying a series of actions: &rTTjo-av, aor., a 
single action, a past event. H. 701, 705 ; S. Gr. 476, 480 ; G. § 200 : 
&rn]<rav is either 1st or 2d aor. in form. Why is it 1st aor. here? What 
tenses are trans, in the aet.? Lex. X<rn\\u. — 4v rots Iv rfj i\ir€lp<a 2vp-, 
in the continental Sybota-. Recollect there was also an insular Sybota. Ch. 
47, 1. — to. vctud-yia Kal v€Kpot)s : one article for both nouns, which are 
thus closely joined together as one idea: tol . . . . e^vexBivra (iK^'pw) is 
spoken of both nouns preceding : the wrecks and dead, which had been borne 


within their reach (kclto. <r<|>as) by, etc. — ri after to, : correlative with scat 
before TpoTraiov. Same const, with tov tc .... kclI rpoir-, just above. — 
4v tois €v ttj vrjcra) 2vp-, lit. in the in-ihe-island Syb. = in the insular Syb- : 
cf. note above. — 2. *yv«p,T| .... TOiaSe, with some such opinion as follows : 
explained by the following sentence : KoptvOioi p.£v .... ftrnrjo-av Tpo- 
iraiov * KepKupcuoi Bk . . . . Tpoiralov Korrjcrav. — aicrtt .... irpoo-KO- : notice the force of the mid., so as to convey to themselves. — ovk 
IXdcrcrovs x i X£»v (a litotes). A more exact statement will be found below, 
ch. 55, 1. — KaTa,8v<ravT€s, because they had disabled: cf. Ka/raSvcreiav, ch. 
50, 1, note. — jjiaXiora, with designations of number, about. — to, koto, 
ktI. : cf. note on t& vavoVy- above, also kcito. <r<f>ds : the wrecks and dead 
within their reach. — civtois : dat. of interest with i)ire)(japr\arav» — irpvp.vav 
Kpo-uop.€voi : cf. note, ch. 50, 5. — t€ after ttj : correl. with Kat before 
€7m8r| : and because the Cor. both retreated, rowing sternwards,fro?n before them, 
the day preceding, having seen the Athenian ships ; and, after the Athenians came, 
did not sail, etc. Perhaps the idea might be plainer by rendering t\ . . . . 
Kat, not only .... but also. — vik&v : not, to be conquering, as a pres. ; but, 
to have conquered, to be victorious, as a perf. H. 698 ; S. Gr. 475, a. 

Chap. 55. 'AvaKTopiov (obj. of ctXov) : Anactorium was a little south 
of Actium, mentioned ch. 29, 3. — a7ra.Tr), by deception, by stratagem: in 
opposition to pla, by force. — ^v 8£ koivov ktI., and it was a common posses- 
sion of, etc., having been founded in common by both cities : more freely 
rendered, and it belonged in common to, etc. : 4k€ivg>v, i. e. toov KopivOfav. — 
8ovXoi : they had probably been employed as rowers (4p£rai), while the 
250- were the fighting men (empaTcu). — d.ir48ovTO. Notice the meaning 
in the mid. : they sold. — 8tjo-civt€s 4<j>vXa.cro-ov. In ch. 30, 1, we have 8tj- 
<ravT€s €t\ov in nearly the same sense. — 4v Qepairda d\ov iroXXfj, held in 
much care, i. e. treated with much attention. — ottws .... irpoo-iroi^o-eiav, 
in order that they (the 250 Corcyraeans, who were held in custody) oh their 
return (home to Corcyra) might win over, etc. civtois, i» e. tois KopivOCois. 
The bloody party strifes which afterwards occurred at Corcyra resulted 
directly from the favor which the Corinthians gained with these 250 men. 
— S-uvdfX€i, power, influence: particularly political influence. — irpwroi, first, 
or, as we often say, leading men. — The idiom €Tvryx. avov • • • • oVtcs (subj. 
oi irXclovs) is already familiar to the learner. — 2. TrepiYtyveTai .... twv 
Kop- : Poppo and Goeller render this, Corinthios bello superat ; but superat 
seems to be too strong a word for irzpiyly- : Betant renders ircpi/yfyveo-Ocu 
for this passage, superstitem esse, servari: Classen, sich behaupten, glucklich 
davon kommen, to maintain itself to come off happily : Kriiger, behalt die 
Oberhand, keeps the upper hand. Is, then, tcov KLop- dependent on t<S itoX- 
(in the war of the Cor.), or on the verb ? The critics are not agreed, but 
the prevailing opinion favors the latter, maintains itself in war over (or 
against) the Cor. — atria, without the article, predicate : avrt], subj. : 
irpwTT] qualifies aWia : a frequent arrangement in Th. ; cf. 50, 2, vav\i,a.\Ca 
.... a.vTt\ .... \L€yia-Tr\ : and this became the first cause of war between 
the Cor. and the Ath. (lit. on the part of the Cor. against the Ath ) : o>t (ex- 

82 NOTES. 

planatory of airta), the fact that. — <r$i<riv (tois KopivO-) : dat. of inter- 
est, against them, depends on 4vcu>jx&xow (subj. ot 'AOijvciioi) : ev (rirovSats, 

during the existence of a truce, in time of peace. 

Hostilities between CopaNTH and Athens respecting Potidaea. 
(Chaps. 56-66.) 

Ctiap. 56. ravra, these things (the things above mentioned) : Kal r&8e 
|w4pT| "yev-, it happened that the following {difficulties) also arose: Stdc^cpa 
(subst.) es to iroX-, as differences tending to war. — 2. "yap, epexegetic. Lex. 
II. In English, an explanation of this sort is introduced without any 
connective ; hence -yap, in this use, is better omitted in the rendering : 
while the Corinthians were managing; not, for while, etc. — (Jirws with the 
subj unc. depending directly on irpaaro-ovrav (a primary tense) ;'but as this 
is a dependent clause, and as the leading verb above (£vW|3t)) and that be^ 
low (tKikevov) are in the past, it is more natural to render irpao-crdvTcov 
also as past, were managing. Then tJiros with subjunc. would come under 
the principle. H. 740 ; S. Gr. 508 ; G. § 216, 2. Several critical editions 
have here TijJwop'fjo-ovTai, fut. indie, under the rule, H. 756 ; S. Gr. 522 ; 
G. § 217 : that they might avenge themselves on them (avrovs, i. e. the Athe- 
nians). — XIdTi8at&Tas .... exeXevov .... KaOeXeiv, ordered the Poti- 
daeans . ... to demolish : eavTtSv (refers to ot 'A0-) .... <J>opov uttotc- 
Xcis (subject to tribute, tributary), but tributary allies of themselves. — to Is 
naXXTJvTjv T€txos, the wall towards Pattern. See map. Obedience to this 
order would expose the Potidaeans on the side of the sea, where the Athe- 
nians were, at this time, undisputed masters. This, it was hoped, would 
secure their continued allegiance to Athens. — tovs 4m8T3|wovp70Tj$, the 
Dorian magistrates. Recollect that the Athenians were Ionians. — eKire'fJwreiv 
. . . . |xfj hix&a-Bai : pres. iuiin., to send away, to refuse to receive (as often 
as they should be sent). — Sefo-avres agrees with the subj. of eKeXevov, ot 
'A0- : d-TrocTTwo-LV, subj. oi noTi8ai&Tai. — f-waTroo-TTrjcrfcjo-i, 1st aor., trans., 
fearing that they might revolt .... and induce the other allies on the Thracian 
frontier to revolt with (them). These clauses depend on eKeXevov above, a 
-verb in a past tense. H. 735, ff ; S. Gr. 503 ; G. § 218. eirl ©paierjs is 
used to denote that part of the Thracian coast which was occupied by the 
Grecian colonies ; that is, Chalcidice eastward as far as Amphipolis. CL, 
Pop. For €tti with gen., see H. 431, a ; or Lex. 

Chap. 5K» 2. eTreTroXejJioTO (iroXejJioco), had been provoked to hostilities. 
— <ov : concess., though he was, etc. — 3. 6tl, causal. — ^iXCim-co .... 
£v}ili.axtav 4iroiT|o-avTo, had formed an alliance with, etc. — AepSa : 1st 
declens. masc. : Derdas. — Kotvfj, adv. with evcLVTiovjjievois. — 4. eVpao-- 
o-£v : same sense as irpacrcrovnov, 56, 2. — es re . . . . irep.-n'ttv .... Kal 
.... iTpoo-€irot€iTO : an irreg. const. : both by sending .... and he pro- 
ceeded to win over to himself, etc. — cvutois, i. e. tois A0Tjvaiots. — rqs .... 
acrco-T&o-eojs, for the sake of the revolt of, etc. , i. e. to bring about the revolt of 
Potidaea (from the Athenians). — 5. irpco-e^epe Xd-yous, made proposals. — 
eirl ©paicns : cf. note above, ch. 56. — el ... . e^ci, if he should have these 


in alliance with (him) : raiira refers to XaXiaSevo-i. and BoTTiafois (Chalci- 
dians and Bottiaeans) : yet the gender conforms to that of the appositive 
clause, op-op a .... ywpia, the places which were conterminous. — t6v irdXe- 
jjlov, i. e., the war with the Athenians : jjlst' avrwv, with them, i. e. partici- 
pating with them, aided by them. — 6. &v (neut., refers to the foregoing 
statements respecting the movements of Perdiccas) with alo-86ji.svoi. — 
&tv)(ov Yap .... &7ro<rTs'XX.ovT€$, for they were just then sending, etc. , or, 
for they were sending, as it chanced, etc. — eirl T-rjv yfjv avTOt), against his land 
(that of Perdiccas). — \ier' dXXcav SeVa. This would make eleven generals 
in all, and five were sent afterwards (ch. 61, 1) ; but the Athenians chose 
only ten annually. Hence, instead of SeKa, Kriiger conjectures 8' = t£ttcI- 
p(ov,four: Classen adopts the conjecture of Hermann, and reads Svo, which 
seems most probable. — imo-TeXXouoa (cf. Eng. word epistle), instruct, charge. 

— to t€lx.os, i. e. to €s XXa\X.TjVY]v T€tx<>s, ch. 56, 2. ^ 
Chap. 58. HoTtSaidTai : subj. of d*|>lo-TavTai. — irejuJ/avTes jxev .... 

€X0ovTes 8e : correlative. — ko! -before -imp' 'AOijvalovs, correlative with 
koI before es t^v Aaic-. These connectives are not very conveniently ren- 
dered here, although their force may be readily seen in the Greek sentence. 

— -rrpeVPcLS, obj. of irgp/^avTes. — [atj . . . . •jiTjSev, to adopt no new policy 
respecting them, — an expression usually denoting some harsh measures : 
irept, notice <the anastrophe. — &7rpaa-<rov is rejected by all the recent editt., 
and hence the learner may disregard the word entirely. So in general of 
words included in brackets. — eirciS^ &c t€ 'AG- .... eiipovTO .... ical 
to. tcXt] .... vTreVxeTO . . . . , tots 8fj . . . . a^ia-ravrai, when .... 
they obtained nothing satisfactory, .... and (when) the magistracy . . . .prom- 
ised . . . . , then indeed .... they revolt, etc. : T€ after €K, correl. of Kai 
before to, ri\i\ : 4k iroWov^for a long time. — dXX' .... ^rXeov, but the 
ships (appointed to sail) against Macedonia, were sailing against themselves also 
in like manner, i. e. were sailing against Macedonia and the Potidaeans 
equally, with like hostile intentions against both. — tcXt] : Lex. tcXos, III. 

— fjV IWiv, and above, §v Sei), where €i with the optat. would be equally 
grammatical (if it should be necessary, if the Athenians should go, etc.) ; but 
fyv with the subjunc. denotes a more definite probability. — d<j>to-TavTat : 
historic present. H. 699 ; S. Gr. 477, a ; G. § 200, Note 1 : has the con- 
struction of a past tense. — Ivvo^ocavTcs : fuv<5ji.vvjtt. — 2. ejeXwrovTas, 
KaTajSaXovTas, agree with XaXiaSeas, and take Tas .... irdXeis as obj. 
- — dvoiKurao-8cu is, o move upward (i. e. from the coast to the interior) 
into, etc. — jxiav xdXtv, without article ; hence explanatory of tcwt7]v : 
lo"xvpdv, pred. : and to make this, a single city, strong. — tois €KXi/irovcrt : a 
repetition of the idea in eKXiirdvTas : as the obj. (Tas irdXetsTwas expressed 
above, it is left understood here. — tijs .... yrjs and tt]s Mi>Y8ovlas : 
partitive gen. with 23g>k€ : and to those having left (their cities), to these he 
gave of his own land (that district) of Mygdonia adjacent to (iripi), etc. 
V€|xso-0at, inrm. denoting purpose, to till, to occupy : £«$ dv kt!., as long as, 
etc. — Kal ol (jiev .... At Se ... . vi\e$ (ch. 59) : correl. sentences. CI. 
and Kriig. place only a colon after irapeo-Kevd^ovTO, and begin ch. 59 with 

84 NOTES. 

a small letter, whi<£h seems to me better : and these, demolishing .... both 
movfd upward . . . . : but the thirty ships, etc. 

Chap. 59. t& en-l 0p- (sc. \<apia): cf. 56, 2, note. — KaTaXctfifidvcnxri, 
they find: d<|>eo"ripcoTa, supplement, particip., have revolted, are in revolt. — 
. 2. dSwara : pred. adj., impers. const., plur. for sing. H. 518, a ; S. Gr. 
369, a ; frequent in Th. : that it was impossible. — irpos re ... . ko.1 (irpbs), 
both against Perdiccas, and against, etc. — €«(>' &irtp,for which very object. — 
KaTcwrrdvTes, having taken a position. Cf. 49, 3. — liroXe^ovv juto., they 
proceeded to carry on war together with (i. e. participating with). We say in 
English "to carry on war with," meaning against. The Greek for that idea 
is iroXejwtv tivi, or irpds riva, or eirl Tiva ; but iroXejictv ji.€t& with gen. can 
only be understood as explained above. For the fact stated in the Greek 
sentence, cf. 57, 3. — &v«0€V .... €<rj3ef3-, who had made an incursion (pre- 
vious to the alliance with the Athenians, as the perf. particip. implies) 
with an army from the upper country, or we may render it, from the interior. 
Recollect that Kara or k&tco denote, with a verb of motion, approach to 
the coast, either from the interior of the country, or from the sea ; with a 
verb of rest, situation on the coast : dvd and dvw, departure from the coast, 
or situation, in the interior or at sea. Combining the meaning of &vo>, 
situation in the interior, with -Qev,from, we have the meaning from the upper 
country, or from the interior. 

Chap. 60. kv rovr<a (t<j> Kcupcp), at this crisis. — wepl tw X w P"? (^pi 
with dat. not frequent in Att. prose), for the place, i. e. Potidaea. — olicetov : 
pred. posit. : considering the danger their own. — ical .... irclcravTcs : and 
(men) of the other Peloponnesians, having influenced (them) by pay, or more 
freely, and hired soldiers of the other Pel. : fwtrGco irda-avr&s, a frequent ex- 
pression, cf. 31, 1. — 4£ oirXiTCis, six hundred and a thousand the 

whole (number) hoplites; i. e. in our idiom, 1600 hoplites in all: notice iravras 
in attrib. position, usu. in pred. posit. — 2. avrov, object, gen. with cJuXlav, 
on account of friendship for him : ov\ 'fJKurra (litotes), not in a very slight 
degree, i. e. especially, chiefly. — *ydp introduces the reason for eo-Tpar/j-yei 
kt4., while Kara .... £w&rirovTO is to be regarded as parenthetical. — 
3. varT€pov . . . . fy later than, after : lirl ©patens, upon the Thracian coast : 
here, after a verb of motion : cf. 56, 2, note. 

Chap. 61. *HX0€ kt4. A similar order is admissible in English t And 
there came to the Athenians also, directly, the announcement that the cities have 
revolted (lit. of the cities, that they, etc. ; prolepsis. H. 726 ; S. Gr. 495. Cf. 
26, 2. T<3v KcpKvpaCcov). — ir€|iirov<riv, fjcrOovro, subj. ot 'A©-. Notice 
the change from historic pres. to aor. — Imirap^vras (M, irapd, €tjj.C : 
some editt. have enairapiovTas, M, irapd, clfxt) : supplement, particip., 
were present in addition, i. e. the forces with Aristeus in addition to the 
revolted cities of Chalcidice. — IcnmSv, i. e. Athenian citizens. — irpos rd 
d<j>€orTWTa (d-rro, farrrjfu), against the (places) in revolt. — ttIjiittov avrov : 
cf. 46, 2 : crrpaTrwov, app. with KaX-. — 2. KaraXajipdv- : cf. 59, 1. — 
3. avayKciav, necessary, forced : explained by cos .... irapeXrjXvOc&s, since 
Potidaea and the arrival of Aristeus (lit. Aristeus having arrived) compelled 


thnn to hasten, urged them on. — 4. diravtirravTai, withdraw from : subj. same 
as that of €*iroXidp-. Notice the change from aor. to historic pres. — k&kci- 
0€V (crasis, = Kal 4k€i0€v), sc. d4>iKop,evoi. — lirl 2Tp&|/<».v, against Strepsa, — 
the reading adopted by Pop., Kriig., Class., Boeh. "Strepsa was a city 
of Mygdonia, north of Therme." Class. — iretpdo-avTes (usu. deponent : 
yet the act. in Th. is not unfrequent) .... x.wp(ov, having first made an 
attempt on the place, i. e. on Strepsa. — oirXiTCus, iroXXots, lirirevcri : dat. of 
accomp. In what connection does this chiefly occur ? H. 604 ; S. Gr. 
438, c ; G. § 188, 5. — xupis (adv.) ; and besides with, etc. — Uav<ravCov : 
supposed to be either a son or a brother of Derdas. — irapeirXeov (impd, 
irXew). From Therme to Potidaea they would proceed near the coast : and 
the ships sailed along near (them), or in a direction parallel (irapd). — • 
ip8o|j.-. For the number, compare 57, 6, with 61, 1. — 5. kcit& with ace. 
often distributive : kcit' oXfyov, little by little, i. e. by slow marches. — Tpi- 
Tatoi : H. 488, Rem. c ; S. Gr. 340, c \ G. § 138, Note 7. 

Chap. 62. irpbs 'OXvvQov, in the direction of Olynthus. ■ — <£f*(o rr\s iroX-, 
without {the walls of) the city, i. e. Potidaea. — 2. tJptjvto (alpew), had chosen. 
— Tfjs fanro-u. Notice the gender. Lex. fcmros, II. — dir&rn] "yap, for he 
revolted, etc. Cf. 61, 3 : fuv€|Aa\€i, <rv|ijjiax€0). — dpxovTa, i. e. of Mace- 
donia. — 3. fjv 8^ ktI., and it was the plan of Aristeus, keeping . . . . to watch, 
etc. Notice '4\ovti, as though t« 'Apicrret had preceded, — a rare con- 
struction, occasioned in part by the resemblance in idea of fjv rj yvJ>pr\ to 
the more common 28ofj€ (which takes the dat.), in part by the tendency to 
the dat. in the expression of a defining relation. Class. — XaXxiSlas .... 
jA€V€iv, but that the Chalcidians and .... remain in Olynthus : depends on, 
or more properly explains, rj yv<&\}.r) : lirl <r<f>cts, against them, i. e. Aristeus 
with his aimy in the isthmus. — potjOoSvTas .... irot€iv : same const, 
with jx€V€tv : subj. XaXiuSeas .... JvjJ.p.dxovs .... farirov : coming up 
for assistance in the rear, put the enemy, etc. — avTwv includes the idea both 
of Aristeus with his army in the isthmus, and of the Chalcidians, etc., in 
Olynthus : depends on ev p.€<ro>, in the midst between themselves. — 4. lirl 'OX-, 
towards, etc. H. 641, a. — tovs €Ket0€v, obj. of €ip7«<ri, same as subj. of 
lirLpOTjGeiv. H. 774, 776 ; S. Gr. 536, c : that they may hinder those (coming) 
thence from rendering assistance. — avroi, they themselves, i. e. Callias and his 
fellow-commanders. — dvcto-T^jo-avTes to orpciT-, ordering the army to march 
(lit. having caused the army to rise up, or having started the army). — 5. irpos 
with dat. close by, close upon. — £uW|u<ryov (<rvp.p,l<ry« = o-up.p.C'yvvp.t), joined 
battle, -r- 6. XoydSes : emphat. position : join with o*<roi : as many as were 
about him, chosen men both of, etc. — to ko.0' «u>tovs, that which was opposite 
to (lit. along by, near: cf. 54, 1, 2) themselves. — lirl iroXv may denote either 
time or place ; here, the latter : a long distance. — cs t6 Tei^os, within the 
wall, i. e. of Potidaea. 

Cfiap. 63. tj<r<rqp,€Vov (rjcrcrdofMu) : cf. 30, 1. — ^iroptjo-e : diropla). 
— SiaKiv8vv€vo-T) x^pi^as, he should run the risk of going : tj . . . . ij, whether 
. ... or. Notice the force of kiri with gen. in the direction of, towards, and 
cs with ace. into. Olynthus was some miles away, Potidaea close at hand. 

86 NOTES. 

i ' - 

— 8* o?v, but in fact, but finally : o£v after 8e is regularly confirmative. — 
a>S es eX- x°>- : ? " w ^° a space as small as possible : a>s, intens. with 4Xdx«<o-TOV, 
often thus separated from, the superlative by an intervening particle. — pido-ao-0cu ((3id£to) is, by running to force his way into. — irapfjXOe 
irapvi t^v X'nMv kt *' (I jex - X'HMj !!•)• The gates on the side towards 
Olynthus were of necessity closed lest the Athenian army rush into the 
city at the same time with Aristeus. His object, therefore, was to reach 
another side of the city, where the gates could be safely opened to him. 
And he passed along by ... . through the sea, etc. "The position of TrapfjXGe 
denotes that he at once attempted to carry out his resolution (28o£€ kt4.), 
and the aorist denotes the successful completion of the attempt." CI. — 
paXXojJievds t€ kg.1 xo-Xeircos : a circumstance in the form of an adv. closely 
connected with a circumstance in the form of a participle : both under a 
sho/cer of missile weapons (lit. being cast at), and with difficulty. Occasioned 
by the fact that he must wade through the sea. The missiles are supposed 
to have been chiefly from the Athenian fleet. — 2. d-n-eixe .... &ttl 
Note the change of tense. Cf. Swo/rcu .... kyjapei : Xen. Anab. 1, 5, 6. 
And it (i. e. Olynthus) was distant (i. e. from Potidaea) .... and it (i. e. 
the intervening distance) is, etc. — ra o-^p,- f]p0- : cf. 49, 1. — tirir^s : H. 
190, d ; S. Gr. 104, e ; G. § 53, 3, Note 2. Cf. 61, 4 : horsemen of Philip 
and Pausanias. — Sid. Tdxoi>s (rdxos), speedily. — twv 'A0- : pred. gen. H. 
572 ; S. Gr. 415 ; G. § 169 : the victory appeared {on the side) of the Athenians 
(lit. became the part of, or possession of, the Ath.) — 4s to Ttix©s, i. e. of 
Olynthus. — tirirf)s (without article : pred.) .... irape-yev- : there were 
horsemen present (i. e. in the battle between the Athenians and Aristeus), 
etc. Difference between cuSerepcs and o^Sets ? — 3. ifTroo-irovSovs : under 
an armistice, which the Potidaeans no doubt had asked for, thus acknowl- 
edging their defeat. — dire'Soo-av, delivered up. (Cf. direSovro, 55, 1, deliv- 
ered up for their own advantage, i. e. sold). — d^cGavov Se kt!. The order may 
be folio wed very nearly in English. And there perished, etc. A monument 
was erected to the memory of the Athenians who fell in this battle, in the 
Ceramicus, just west of Athens. This monument, with a large part of the 
interesting inscription on it, is now in the British Museum. 

Crap. 64. to 4k tov lo-0p.ov T€ix°?> ine wall on the side of the isthmus: 
strictly,, the wall (which one reaches in coming to the city) out of the isthmus: 
obj. of diroTeixuravTes, having circumvallated , having invested. — to 8 j Is *r?|V 
IlaX-, but the one towards Pollene: also a condensed expression, the full idea 
seeming to be, the wall {from which one departs on going) into Pal. — dT€C- 
Xiottov fjv, was without circumvallation, was not invested. — iKavol, pred. with 
ctvcu. H. 775, "A predicate-noun," etc.: S. Gr. 536, b ; G. § 136, Note 
2. — <j>poupeiv .... T6ix^t 6iv ( to construct a line of circumvallation) depend 
on LKavot : 8ia|3dvT€S (cf. note on Ikcivoi), having crossed over, i. e. by ship, 
as the city extended across the lower part of the isthmus. — o-^ionv (reflex- 
ive for a dependent clause), refers to the snbj. of the leading verb of the 
sentence (4vop.i£ov, subj. ot 'A0ijvaioi), depends on 4m0a)VTOi.i. — Yi*yvojxe- 
vois, the usual reading; Classen has -yevojxevois Sixes., after they were divided 


info two parts (the one 011 the north, the other on the south of Potidaea), as 
preferable in sense to Yiyv- Sty"} white they were becoming divided, etc. - — 
2. Iv ttj iroXci, i. e. Athens. — o3<rav : supplement, particip., that Pal. 
was, etc. — Xpovco (H. 610 ; S. Gr. 444 ; G. § 188, 2) iio-repov, a while after- 
wards (lit. later by a time). — e| 'Atjjimos (Ionic gen. ending) cpfxwfjievoej 
lit. rushing out repeatedly, or habitually, from, etc., i. e. making Aphytis his ha* 
quarters, making Aph. his base of military operations. — Ka/rd ppa^v : cf. Ko/r 
6X.LYGV, 61, 5. — Kcipcov, ravaging (lit. shaving) : frequent in Herodotus 
only here in Th., who elsewhere uses tcjivco. — 3. kcito. Kpdros, in force, 
strongly. — vava-Cv, dat. of means and also of manner : e^opfiovcrcus (eirl, 
opfxc'co) : note the force of em in compos. 

Chap. &5. airoreixia-Qeicrris avrfjs Kal .... 'lx<ov : particip. nom. 
connected by kcii with gen. abs. : when it had been invested and having, etc. 
For another example of clauses in different forms connected by ko1, cf. 63, 
1. PaXX6(X£vos T6 Kal yak-. — &XXo, sc. tI, expressed just before, something 
from Peloponnesus, or {something) else. — irapd Xoyov, contrary to calculation: 
the opposite of kcito, X-, according to, etc. In other authors, in the foi m 
irapdXo"YOV. — irXTjv ir€VTaKoor-, join with tol$ &XXoi$ : advised (all) the others 
excepting .... having watched for a (favorable) wind, etc. — itri irXe'ov, of 
time : &vTi<rXT3 (avTeyco), might hold out longer. — tcSv fxevovTcov : pred. gen. 
and partitive with etvaij to be (one) of etc. — cos ... . eV€i0€, and when he' 
did not persuade (them), etc. — tci eirl tovtols (obj. of irapacrK-), the things 
after these, i. e. the next best measures (next to the proposal first made) : or, 
as Boeh. and CI. understand eirl to-utgis, the measures (which were requisite) 
in these circumstances. The use of eirl with the dat. admits of either ren- 
dering. — ows . . . . ^ei : also dependent on irapao-Keud^eiv. So Poppo, 
Kriig., Boeh., CI. : and (to provide) that the affairs without (the city) be in the 
best condition : 6ircas with f. indie, is frequent. H. 756 ; S. Gr. 522, a ; G. 
§ 217. — eKirXow iroieiTcit, he effects an escape by sea, lit. a voyage out: XaBJiv 
(Xav0dv&)) has the const, of a trans, verb, having eluded', etc.; may be ren- 
dered, unobserved by the blockading squadron of, etc. H. 544, a ; S. Gr. 390, 
a ; G. § 158, N. 2. ■ — 2. to, re aXXa |weiroXejA€i, not only in other ways did 
he join with (them, the Chalcid. ) in ivar : T€ . . . . Kai, not only .... but 
especially, but particularly. Of two sentences thus connected by tc . . . . 
Kai, the more important is introduced by Kai ; hence we may often render 
it as above, "rd aXXa is adverbial ace. rather than obj. of £uv€tt-." CI. 
Yet there is no objection, I think, to viewing it as obj. : he not only engaged 
in other military operations with, etc., but particularly, etc. Although we may 
sometimes render kcu as above, yet it is not to be viewed as an adversative 
conjunc. — SepfxvXiwv belongs both with irdXei and with iroXXovs : near the 
city of the Sermylians .... many of them. — es t?|v IleX- eV- : es with ace. 
because eVpao-o-ev involves the idea of sending. The entire phrase is regu- 
larly spoken of secret negotiations : and (sending) into Pel., he (secretly) nego- 
tiated that, etc. — oTTTj, with f. indie. , less frequent than oVtos, nearly ak in 
to it in meaning: oira>s, in what way, in what manner : Stttj, in what direction, 
where, at what point; both are used as final conjunctions, in order that, or 

88 NOTES. 

simply, that. — 3. fi€Ta with a.iPord\i<riv, after the circumvallation of, etc. 
Notice the unusual order. — tovs 4£~ kt4. : with the article here,, because 
they were mentioned above, ch. 64, 2. — cSjjov (8-qioo)) : imperf. he pro- 
ceeded to lay waste. — '4<rriv &. H. 812 ; S. Gr. 556 ; G. § 152, N. 2 : KaC 
before iroXCo-p.-, intens. ; and took some towns even, or thus, and even took, etc. 
After Phormio had finished the line of circumvallation, and withdrawn 
from Pallene, Callias was left with the first army of 3,000 men (cf. ch. 61) 
to prosecute the siege of Potidaea. It lasted two years, and was attended 
with great expense to the Athenians. 

Chap. 66, ali-Ccu. : without the article : cf. 55, 2 : avrai here points 
to what immediately follows : < jrpoo M y€"y€VT]VTO (pluperf. augment omitted. 
H. 311, R. a ; S. Gr. 200. (line print) ; G. § 101, Note 2). I have adopted 
here the reading of Poppo and Class. ; Boeh. reads irpo€-y€"y€VT|VTQ, Krtig. 
irpo<reysyivr\vro : and to the Athenians and Peloponnesians, these (difficulties) 
arose, as accusations against one another, etc. — 6ti, the fact that, explanatory 
of cutlcu. — liroXidpKovv, sc. oi 'A0-. — air4<rrr\crav (1st aor., trans.), sc. 
ot IleX- : aor. where we should use a pluperf. H. 706 ; S. Gr. 481 : the 
fact that they had not only induced a city, allied and tributary, belonging to them- 
selves, to revolt, but especially (the fact that they), etc. : rk . . . . KaC, not only 
.... but especially — 4X0dvT€s (emphat.) .... 4p.dx oVTO > went and fought. 

— <r<(>t(rtv : the Athenians. — airb rov irpocjxxvovs, openly. — £vy€pp4>y€i 
<ruppTjYW|w) : 2d pluperf., intrans. — dvaKwx 1 ^ denotes here not a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, as the war had not yet actually begun, but rather a post- 
ponement of hostilities. — i8£a, privately, on their own responsibility : not from 
any formal authority given by the Peloponnesians generally. 

Chap. 67. cr^Uriv : dat. of possessor with cvovtcov (4v, ctp.£) : H. 598 ; 
S. Gr. 434; G. § 184, 4.— dvSpcov tc . . . . Mvrav Kal . . . . 8e8«$T€s: 
observe again clauses in different forms closely connected : cf. 65, 1 ; 63, 
1 : the notion of cause is prominent in the particip. here, since their own 
men (lit. men belonging to themselves) were within (the city), and .... because 
they feared, etc. — Sti . . . . XeXvxdTes iUv Kal dSiKofcv : oratio obliqua: 
declaring that they had both broken .... and were wronging, etc. — <rirov$ds: 
without the article : cf. 53, 2. — 2. AIyivtjtcw : mentioned particularly, 
because they were not included under tovs jufjip.dxo'us. — Kpv<j>a Be : with 
irpecrpcvdiievoi : sending envoys not openly, but secretly,. through fear of, etc. So 
Poppo, Kriig., Boeh., CI. : others join Kpvcjxx %i by an irregularity of const, 
with Ivifyov (ev, dyo). — o*x ^Kwrra (a frequent form of litotes) .... 
Ivrtyov, in no slight degree .... helped on, etc. — avTovopoi : why nom. ? 

— KttTa rds o-irovSds (the opposite of irapd Tds <nr-) : according to the treaty. 
What treaty is here referred to by the Aeginetans is not known with cer- 
tainty : some say, the thirty years' truce (concluded 445 B. c, fourteen 
years previous to this debate) ; others (O. Miiller and Goeller), the ancient^ 
alliance against Persia is alluded to. Cf. Grote's History, ch. xlviii., in a 
foot-note on this passage. — 3. irpoo-irapaKaX&ravres .... Kal €i' tis : 
having summoned in addition (irpoa*-), i. e. in addition to those whom the 
Corinthians had summoned, — any one also whoever of the allies affirmed (ttyt\) : 


cl' tis, like iJcrns, has the force of a compound relative pron., the antece- 
dent part being limited by t«v |vp,jx-, the relative part being the subj. of 
&(>*]. — tI &XXo .... TjSiKtjcrQcu, that he had been wronged in anything else 
(aside from the specifications of the Corinthians and Aeginetans). — (jvX- 
Xo*yov <r^»v avrwv .... rbv elcoBoTa, their own customary assembly, i. e. the 
Spartan assembly composed of all citizens above thirty years of age. (Schoe- 
mann, cited by Classen.) Cf. Smith's History of Greece, ch. vii., § 7. — 
Xeyeiv IkcXcvov, ordered (any one present, not only those whom they them- 
selves had summoned, but also the Corinthians and those whom they had 
summoned) to speak. — 4. t£ . . . . kcU, not only . ... but especially. — 
•jrapiovres, coming forward, — a common word, spoken of those who came 
forward to speak in an assembly. Cf. below irapeXOovres. — «s ftccurroi. : 
cf. 48, 4, Note. — Kal erepa .... (JidXwrTa 8£ kt!., both other grievances, 
not a few, and above all the fact that they were excluded from, etc. — Kal tovs 
aXXous 4d<ravT€S, having allowed the others also. (So KaC is understood here. 
Kriig., Boeh., Cl.) For a full account of the important debate which fol- 
lows, cf. Grote's History, ch. xlviii., and especially Wilkins's Speeches from 
Thucydides (p. 25). 

After the Corinthians had spoken, the next speech was from certain 
Athenians (through one of their number, selected to speak for the others), 
who were accidentally present in Sparta on other business. After the Athe- 
nians, had concluded, Arehidamus, one of the kings of the Lacedaemonians, 
"a man seeming to be both prudent and temperate," came forward and 
spoke ; and he, in turn, was followed by Sthenelaidas, one of the ephors, 
in a brief, but stirring and warlike address. Thus four speeches in all are 
reported by Thucydides. The first three are especially instructive, and 
worthy of study, but are too difficult, in my judgment, to be really profit- 
able to the young student. 

Chap. 8 7« Ive^/i^C^ev' .... 4s ri\v 4k-, he put the vote to the assembly 
of ... . himself, by virtue of his office as ephor (lit. being ephor, or because he 
ivas ephor, the particip. «v denoting here the idea of cause). €irw|rq<()^c«> 
with es and ace. occurs only here, and hence 4s rfjv 4k- is considered doubt- 
ful. It is retained by most editors, but bracketed by Kruger. — 2. 6 84, 
but he, same subj. as in the preceding sentence, used as in Homer. In At- 
tic writers, "it refers almost always to a different subject from that of 
the preceding sentence." H. 325, a (7). "The account here given of the 
method of taking a vote is the fullest that we possess." Schoemann, cited 
by Classen. — Kpivovcri -yap, for they decide, they vote. — ovk '4tyn\ 8t(ry-, de- 
nied (Lex. 4>t]pi, III.) that he distinguished, or affirmed that he did not, etc. 
Though it may be. rendered in the latter way, yet o^k must be understood 
as qualifying tyr\, not Stay. — oiroTepa, sc. elr\ : p.€i£cov, greater, i. e. louder, 
indicating a majority. — 6p|xfj«rat (bp\xd<o). trans., with avrovs as obj., to 
impel them more into, etc., i. e. to commit them more fully to, etc.: diroSeiK-, 
the means, by declaring, etc. — &va<rrfJTtt 4s kt4., a condensed form of ex- 
pression : let him rise up (and go) into the place yonder. — Seiijas refers back 
to the subj. of gXegev. — jidj, hypothetical ; assumed as real in Sokovo-iv (sc. 

90 NOTES. 

cu o-irovSai). H. 761 ; G. § 233, Note 1 : to whomsoever they do not seem (to 
have been broken), etc. — Before 4s tci kt4., supply cLvao-T^Tw : to,, se. \<ap(a : 
6J>epa (so, without coronis, Poppo, Krtig., Boeh., CL), crasis for to. 'irepa, 
(also written with coronis, 0&T€pa), (let him rise up and go) to the places in 
the opposite direction. — 3. irXeiovs, without the article, predicate : and there 
were far more, etc. — 4. irpoo-KaXea-avres ts tovs 6"uji-, and having called in 
the allies. It was mentioned above (in ch. 79-, which was omitted) that 
they had removed the allies from the assembly, after the Corinthians and 
Athenians had spoken, and deliberated by themselves. — Observe after 
€L7tgv the two constructions, on .... 8ckoi€V (orat. obliq.), and povXco-Gou : 
also the emphat. posit, of cnfylari before p.iv (correl. of Se after fJovX-), that, 
to them, the Athenians seemed . . . . , but that they wished, etc. — K<xl toxjs 
TrdvTas f^p.-. On the position of iras, cf. H. 537 ; S. Gr. 382, b ; G. § 142, 

4, Note 1, the whole body of allies also, i. e. representatives from the entire 
confederacy. In the deliberations which had just taken place, only- a part 
had been represented. — irapaKaXeo-avTes, having summoned, agrees with the 
subj. of pov\6<r0ai. Why nom.? — \|/fj<)>ov liraYtrygtv : Lex. Iird-yto, 5. — 
Koivfj qualities rbv irdX- ttolgovtcu, not less than povXeuo-djJievoi. — 5. ol 
.... irpeo-pgts, sc. direx^P T l <rGV ^ #ir ' oI'kotu. — £<$>' &irep .... XP T lf JLa ~ 
TuravTes, having accomplished the business for which they came. What this 
business was, Th. does not state. "In contrast with Herodotus, he per- 
haps intentionally avoids digressions, which do not illustrate his proper 
theme." CI. — 6. ttjs €KscXT]<rtas, tov .... \ekva-Qai : two genitives with 
one substantive (tj 81017-) ; the former subjective, the 1 latter objective : 
this decision of the assembly, to the effect that the truce, etc. — o-irovSajv limits 
%ra (fr. &ros) : TrpoK£)(jbipr,Kviw, pf. particip. fr. irpoxcopew : lit. on the four- 
teenth year of the thirty yars' truce having moved forward, i. e. on the fourteenth 
year after the conclusion of, etc. — t<x Ev^o'iicd : cf. Smith's Hist, of Greece, 
ch. xxiii. § 22. 

Chap. §§. TroXejx^Tea etvai : verbal adj., impers., plur. H. 804, b ; 

5. Gr. 549 ; G. § 281, 2. — ireurOeWs .... <j>oPovp.evoi : denoting cause : 
not so much because they were persuaded by .... as because they feared, etc. 

■ — p.£| . . . . 8w7]0£criv : lit. lest they (the Ath.) become powerful to a greater 
(degree), i. e. lest they become still more powerful. — avTots, i. e. tois 'A0-. 

History of the growing power of Athens from the battle of Mycale to the 
beginning of the Peloponnesian war : 479 to 431 b. 0. (Chaps. 89-118.) 

Chap. §9. ToiwSe. Recollect the distinction between tolovtos and 
Toioo-Se, the former denoting what precedes, the latter what follows. — rd 
TTpay\s.ara : used here in its widest sense, affairs, events. — 2. iced vcujctI ical 
ire^w, both in ships and in land force : the former at Salamis, the latter at 
Plataea. — Is M-ukclXtjv, with KciTatfnYJvTes. — dirb paanXews, from the king, 
i. e. of Persia: without the article, as in Xen. Anab. H. 530, a, end; S. Gr. 
379 ? a# — -uirop.€tvaVT€S (vtto\l£v(o) , having stood their ground, standing firmly. 
— In-oXiopscow, imperf. denoting the act in its beginning and continuance, 
proceeded to besiege. — MrjScov {the Medes, called in Herodotus and in modern 
histories usually the Persians) txcvTwv, while the Mcdes held possession (of it). 


— txxTi\v (i. e. E^cptov) : o"bj. both of etXov and of licXi-tr-. — ica/rd (distribu- 
tive) irdXeis, to their several cities. — 3. to kolvov : collective : the common- 
wealth, the body of the citizens : takes the verb (8i€Kop,-) in the plur. — o0ev 
■6it€^€0£Vto, from the 'place in which they had put (them) for safety. See Smith's 
History of Greece, ch. xix., Battle of Salamis, § 2. — iraiSas, kt4., obj. of 
8i€koja-, and understood with far€fj€0-. — tt|v irepiovcrav (rapt, eijiQ kcltci- 
<tk€vt]V, their remaining house-furniture, i. e. remaining, after all the losses, 
in the hasty flight to Salamis, and in the sojourn there. — tov .... irepi- 
pdXov ppa\4a,for of the wall around (the city) small portions. — al jxev iroXXai, 
oXl-yai 84 : partitive appos. with oIkLcu. We may render, and the greater 
part (lit. the many) of the houses .... but a few, etc. ircirTtoKSo-av, pluperf., 

" augment omitted. H. 311, E„ a ; G. § 101, JSL 2. irept^o-av, were remain- 
ing. Cf. irepiovcav above. 

Chap. 00. t& jjiIv . ... to 84 irXeov : partly .... but the more. — 
-fjSiov : TjSecos. — dv with the particip. H. 803 ; S. Gr. 519 ; G. § 211. — 
6poavT€Sy particip. denoting cause : because they themselves also would rather see, 
etc. — 4k€lvovs, obj. of opwvTes, emphatic, referring to the' Athenians. — 
^XOvtci, supplement, particip., in the possession of a wall, i. e. a fortified wall 
around their city. — t<Sv gx>jxfx- 4£oTpw- : particip. again- denoting cause : 
because the allies roused them up. — outwv (i. e. tg>v 'A0-) limits toO vaw-, 

— Y€VO{A€Vi]V implies motion, hence the const. Is tov .... iroX- : their dar- 
ing spirit which had been thrown into the Persian war, or more freely, which 
had arisen in the Persian war. — 2. ^£low, subj. AaKeScu. — dXXd Ka! .... 
jxdXXov .... £iryKoi0€X€iv (depends on f|£lovv) p.€Ta o-<jx»v (i. e. t<5v AaK€8-) 
ktI., but even rath&r to join with them in demolishing the walls of (all) those with- 
out, etc. : oVois relates to tcov ggco Uek- : {jwei<rHjic€i, subj. implied in 
T€tx^t €lv ' *• e - T< * t&XH '• lit. to as many as (their walls) ivere standing, i. e. 
more freely, of (all) those without Pel-, who still had walls. — to povXdjxevov 
(as subst.) ko,1 ■uttotttov, the wish and suspicion, obj. of 8t]Xovvt€s. — «s 84, : 
but on the ground that, closely connected with the demand just mentioned : 
tov fJappdpov .... ovk dv <k%ovTo% the barbarian (i. e. the Persian king), 
if he, etc., would not have the ability, would not be able. Notice dv again with 
the particip. — iro0ev, joined with d-rrb kxvpov, has nearly the force of the 
indef. pron. tlvos : 6pp.dcr0ai (dird or 4J, to rush forth from, to make one's 
head-quarters at), would not be able to make his head-quarters at any strong-hold, 
as now, etc. — dva^wp^o-tv tc Kal d<|>oppufjv (denote here not an act, but 
place), both as a place of refuge and as a starting-point. — 3. tons AaiceS-, 
obj. of diroKpivdjJievoi, having replied to the Laced. — a>s (prep.) aiiTOvs, i. e. 
toi»s AaKeS. — irepl wv (neut.), relat. attracted to the case of the omitted 
anteced., concerning {those things) which. — dTnfjXXaijav (sc. avrovs, i. e. tovs 
AaK-) is not quite synonymous with air£ir€fu|rav, but implies that they 
were glad to get rid of their unwelcome guests. — 4k4X€V€v, sc. clvto-us, i. e. 
tovs 'A0- : Iovutov, obj. of diroo-TeXXeiv. — IXopivavs agrees with the obj. 
of eKeXevev, which is also subj. of diroo-TeXXeiv and iKirljiireiv, and takes 
&XXovs .... *rrp4o-pas as its obj. : urged (them) to send himself . . . . , and 
having chosen other envoys, etc. — enivyjiv (h:iyjj>), sc. civtoiss. — I^'XP 1 ' 

92 NOTES. 

toctovtov &os dv . . . . dpcocriv (at'pw) : dv with aor. subjnnc. as fut. perf; 
H. 760 ; S. Gr. 515, b : until they have raised, etc. — ikclvov (pred. adj. with 

. to T€ixos) .... «<tt€ clito|x onj/ovs, sufficiently, so as to fight from 

the most necessary height, i. e. from the lowest elevation absolutely necessary (for 
defence). He exhorted them to detain the envoys until the wall had 
reached such a height, and not a day longer. — ir&VTas .... 7rai8as, 
subj. of T€ix^€tv, depends on ckcXcvcv above : the subj. is stated with the 
utmost emphasis, that all, without discrimination, who were in the city, both 
themselves and women and children, etc. — &ttch : more vivid than if he had 
said eiTj, which would be the more usual const. — 4. 6 jxev (correl. with oi 
$«, ch. 91), he, i. e. Themistocles. — vTreur&v : Lex. vn-eiiretv, III. — TuXXa 
.... irpd|oi (optat. fut., in a dependent sentence, after a historic tense, 
very rare : the aor. optat. is more eoirim. ; the fut. indie, still more fre- 
quent. Kriiger reads here irpdfci) : in respect to the rest, that he himself would 
attend to matters there (t&k€i = t& Ikci, the things there, i. e. in Lacedaemon). 
— 5. irpo<rjJ€i irpos, only here : elsewhere irpocrievcu. with dat. CI. — t<xs 
dpxds : abstract for concrete : the magistrates. Lex. dpx^]. Cf. twv Iv ri\a 
6vtwv (below), of those being in office. — 6tt6t€ .... gpoiro (Ipwrdw, aor. 
i\pc\i.r\v) : indefinite frequency of past action. H. 729, b ; S. Gr. 500 ; G. 
§ 213, 3: whenever any one of, etc., asked him: 8 ti (in an indirect ques- 
tion), why: (in a direct question rl, why) .-adverb, ace. H. 552, a; S. Gr. 
397, a ; G. § 160, 2. — €ir€pX€T<u : notice here the pres. indie, after a past 
tense : more vivid than the optat. kirip\oiro : H. 735 ff ; S. Gr. 503, 504 ; 
G. § 247. — eirl to koivov, before the public assembly.—- dvap.€V€iv, same subj. 
as s £$t\, he said he was waiting for, etc. — do*xoXias .... oti<rr\s : gen. abs. 
denoting cause : because there was some business. Quite true ! but he was 
careful not to tell what that business was. — irpo<r8^x«r0ai .... *fjf €tv, 
however, that he expected (them) to come shortly. — irdpeuriv : cf. note on 
4ire'px€T<H above. 

Chap. 91* Oi Se, the Lacedaemonians. — avrov : objective gen.: out 
of regard for himk — tcov 8£ dXXav d<f>iKvovp.€V<ov .... Kwnyyop-: gen. abs. 
denoting here prominently the idea of time ; less prominently that of 
cause : pres. particip. denoting repeated action : and while the others — i. e. 
all that came from Athens to Sparta, on any business whatever — (contin- 
ually) arriving were declaring unequivocally (ko.1 crcufxies, lit. even clearly, even 
distinctly), etc. — tfn ktI. orat. recta, for greater vividness. Instead of a 
declarative conjunc, in English, only quotation-marks would be used ; and 
w r e should render it, if we retain the orat. recta, " the wall is going up and 
already attains," etc. rnyJX^raif impers. : Xap.f3dv€i, subj. to T€tx<>s, sug- 
gested by T€ix^ €Tau Cf. 90, 2: note on. the subj. of €urWJK€i. — ovk ctyov 
#ttcos ktc., they lenew not (lit. they had not the knowledge or the ability) how they 
could disbelieve (the reports) : lit. how it is proper, etc. XP^> pres. indie, 
where the optat. would also be grammatical. H. 735 ; 736 ; S. Gr. 503 ; 

504 ; G. § 242. — 2. jxfj . . . . jxdXXov ^ trip^m : lit. not to be misled 

by reports rather than to send : in an English idiom, not .... but rather to 
send, etc. — xp^'ci. Kriig. and CI. understand here etorC. Why not 


connect \pr\trroi and <rK€\[rdp.~? who being mm of character (Lat. probi), and 
having made personal inspection, shall bring trustworthy reports. — 8. ireixirei, 
sends (a message) : kcXc^wv, bidding [them, the Ath.). — «s 'rJKurra €iru|>av<os : 
as little as possible openly : with as little apparent force as possible. Join with, 
the following infinitives. — icaTacrxetv .... d<j>€tvcu, sc. avrovs. — avroC, 
they themselves, i. e. Themistocles and his fellow-envoys. — jxt| .... ovkc'ti 
cufxioo-iv (cf. d<f>eivcu above, fr. d<j>iT]|J.i, to let go) : that . ... no longer, etc. 
Notice fju-^i ov, that not, after a verb of fearing. How is the idea that not 
expressed in Latin after verTbs of fearing ? — <r<f>ds (ohj. of d<|)<S<riv) : same 
persons as avroi above. — ottotc . . . . oKovo-eiav : when they should hear 
(the facts) distinctly. The optat. denotes simply possibility. H. 730 ; S. Gr. 
499 ; or,, as G. explains it (§§ 224, 232, 4), "a supposed future case, in a 
less distinct and vivid form." The subjunc. oiroTav dicov<ra>cn.v would be 
equally grammatical here, but would denote a more distinct. probability. 
H. 728 ; S. Gr. 497 : or "future condition in the more vivid form." G. 
§ 232, 3. — 4. GKriTCp lirccrrdXT] (eirurT€XX<»>), just as was enjoined (by 
Themistocles). — lircXOav tois Attic- : having gone before the Laced., i. e. be- 
fore the assembly of the people. Const. H. 605 ; S. Gr. 439 ; G. § 187. 
Cf. ch. 90, 5, ovk €ir€px€T«u €irl rb koivov. — Notice the emphatic force of 
8^j after ivravQa. — cos irpos 8ury l.'vai : that they (the Lacedaemo- 
nians, or the allies) henceforth go as if to persons thoroughly comprehending, 
etc. — ra tc <r<j>£<riv avrots £vfJ.cj)opa Kal to, icoivd, sc. £v|x<f>opa : both those 
things prof table to themselves and the public {interests). — 5. ri\v .... iroXiv: 
obj. of ctcXiiretv, placed before 8t€ for emphasis : for when it seemed that it 
was better to abandon, etc. Allusion is made again to the events just pre- 
ceding the battle of Salamis (480 B. a). — avcv ixdvoiv : without them, i. e. 
without the advice of the Lacedaemonians. — yvovres ToX(j.i]<rat, that they, 
having decided, dared (i. e. t-^v iroXiv ctcXiiretv kt|.) : toX|it)o-cu .... fov- 
Xcvco-Oai .... cjxxvfjvcu, depend on <-<j>a<rav. Instead of (3ovX€V€<r0cu, we 
should expect PovXevotv-ro (a hypothetical relat. sentence referring to past 
time) ; and, on the other hand, whatever measures they deliberated on together 
with the Lacedaemonians ; yet, says Boehme, Th. has the in fin. after the 
relat. pron. in orat. obliqua nine times. - — vcrrcpoi, pred. with $avi\vai, 
which has the same subj. as tyacrav : that they appeared behind no one, etc. 
— 6. 8oK£iv : oratio obliqua continued ; dependent on &j>curav, or perh. on 
€Tir€V at the beginning of these remarks from Themistocles. Kriiger rejects 
&f>acrav, but the other editors retain it : accordingly (i. e. in accordance - 
with this habit of deciding independently) it seemed to them now also (i. e. 
now also, or now again, they had decided), etc. — Kal ISCa .... g<rc<rOai: 
the rendering, and that it would be more profitable for the citizens privately and 
for all the allies, is rejected by Classen, who makes ISia and es tovs irdvTcs 
fup.- parallel expressions ; thus, and that it would be more profitable for the 
citizens, in their private interests, and in their relations to all their allies, — a 
more exact interpretation, as it seems to me. Ci. shows by citations that 
the insertion of a clause, like rots ttoXItcus, between two parallel expres- 
sions, is quite after the manner of Thucyd. — 7. otdv T€. Recollect that 

94 NOTES. 

ol6s re means able : otov T€, possible : for it was not possible, etc. — jx^ diro 
cLvt- irap-, sc. poTjXeuojisvovs : ojxotiv ti t( 1'o-qv .... PouXevecrOcu : to 

offer any similar or equal advice (i. e. similar or equal to that which the Lace- 
daemonians and others might offer) before the public assembly (or, as many- 
understand it, for the public good), unless {offering such advice) with a corre- 
sponding (military) preparation (lit. from, etc.). • — irdvTas, subj. of |\jjjlji.- ; 
ariiyla-TovSj pred. ; he said it ivas fitting, either that all, etc. — t&Sc, the 
things which hadjust been done by the Ath. ; or (it was fitting) to consider 
even these things, etc. 

Chap. 02 • dKovtravres, having heard (these things, i. e. the words of 
Themistocles). — luL with dat. denoting aim : understood with irapaiveoret : 
for they did-not indeed send envoys to interpose any hinderance, but to urge advice 
(lit. for urging of etc.) forsooth. — to> koiv<o : depends on irapaivecrei, the 
noun taking the same case as the verb from which it is derived : to urge 
advice forsooth on the public assembly. So Boehme, Classen, Betant, and 
others. Gf. 91, 7 ; 90, 5 ; 89, 3. Some, however, understand this, and 
4s to koivov, 91 : 7, to mean, for the public good. The former interpre- 
tation is now preferred. — Connect irpoVcJHXits ovi\$ .... irvy\avov, — 
€V t<5 tot€ (adv. used as stibst.), at that particular crisis. — 8id ttjv is tov 
MfjSov irpoQv\iLav. The Athenians were foremost among the Greeks in 
repelling the Persian invasion. See especially the account of the battles 
of Marathon and Salamis. — to, |idXi<rra : more frequently without the 
article : " is to be understood only relatively, since they were never at 
heart friendly to the Athenians." CI. — airrois with 7rpoo-«(>iX€is, they hap- 
pened to be most especially friendly to them, etc. — 4jx9ovto. Note the force 
of the imperf. — oi irpecrpeis iKa/repcov : i. e. the envoys of the Athenians 
at Sparta, and the envoys of the Spartans at Athens. — dvemtcX^Ttos. Each 
party might have found occasion for censuring the other ; the*Athenians 
because the Lacedaemonians had attempted, under a false plea, to hinder 
them in repairing their fortifications ; the Lacedaemonians because the 
Athenians, acting under the advice of Themistocles, had completely out- 
witted and deceived them. 

Chap. 93. 2. 8tjXtj tj oik 4"yev€T0 : prolepsis and also a per- 
sonal, instead of an impers., const. : lit. the structure is plain yet even now (at 
the time when Thucyd. wrote this), that it was executed in haste. In an 
Eng. idiom, it is still, even now, plain that the building (of the wall) was exe- 
cuted, etc. — iravToicov X£0<ov, predicate gen._Boeh. : gen. of material. CI. 
It may be viewed either way : the foundations are laid of all sorts of stones. 
— ov £uvap7a<r- (cruvsp-yd^oixai.) agrees with XlGwv. — 'isrnv •§ : cf. 23, 2. 
Note and gram, references : and, in some places, of (those) not hewn and fitted 
together. — dXX* «s Hkcuttoi kt!., but (being) as (the laborers) severally, etc., 
i. e. being in the shape in which they were found and brought by those at 
work. — XiOoi €lp7ao-(i€voL, stones that had been hewn (for other purposes) : 
l-yKcvreXeY^trav : iyKwraXiyoD. The walls around the city have disappeared; 
but in the wall on the northern side of the Acropolis are still seen very dis- 
tinctly large fi a^ii: juts of fluted marble columns, reminding the scholar of 


this passage in Tbucydides. — jas^wv : predicate : emphat. posit. : ri\$ iro\-, 
with 6 irepi|3- : for the wall of the city was on all sides extended farther (lit. 
greater), i. e. than it had previously been. — 3. 'iiraa-e (sc. toi»s 'A0-) kt4., 
persuaded (the Athenians) to go on in building (pres. infin. ), etc., — the second 
great public work undertaken by the advice of Themistocles. — avrov 
limits the subst. idea in the verb iirfjpKTO (virapya), there had been a begin- 
ning of it, i. e. the building of Piraeus. — krri with gen. in the time of; tt)s 
Iksivou dpx^s, his archonship. Boeckh fixes the date at 494-3 B. c, and 
this is followed by Curtijis, in his Grecian History. Kriiger fixes on the 
date 482-1. Grote understands dpx?]S of his command as general in the 
year 480 b. c.; bnt this opinion is not generally adopted. — r\s with Tjp|e 
as ace. of cogn. meaning, but attracted to the case of the anteced. : kcit* 
Iviclvtov, closely connected with ^s, which annual office he held over the Athe. 
Some, however, understand kcit* Ivio-vtov to meaner a year, daring a year. 
— tois 'A0- : dat. of interest. — vopLXpw : connect closely with the subj. 
of Zireia-s. — T6 .... Kat. Two considerations influenced him, — the favor- 
able situation of the place (i. e. Piraeus), and especially the fact that they (the 
Ath.) in having become a maritime people, obtained an important advantage in 
■respect to the acquisition of power. — to xcapiov, i. e. Piraeus. — Xipivas .... 
Tpsis ctuTCKJ>- : consult map. — 'iyov agrees with to x^ptav* — avTovs, subj. 
.of irpo<|>€p€iv (intrans.). Some, however, continue to x w p£°^ as the subj. 
■of Trpo<j>€petVj considering it as transitive, and take a-uTovs as obj. This 
const, is rejected by Kriig., Boeh., CL, Betant. — -yap : Lex. I. 2, p : used 
to confirm what has just been said : strengthened by Srj. In fact, he first 
dared, etc.: ttjs GaXcunrqs, with dvGeKTea (plnr. impers. : verbal adj. fr. 
&vt€xo|a(h) kcrrC, sc. avTots, dat. of agent : that they must hold to the sea. — 
T"h v <*PX^1 V • • • • ^7KaT€o-K€vcL^€V (<rvv, Kara, o-Ke-ud^co) : closely connected 
with ^irao-e .... oiko8oji.€iv above : Themistocles persuaded (them), etc., 
.... and he immediately joined with (them) in laying the foundations (of the 
work.) : more lit. in preparing the beginning (of the work, i. e. the fortifying 
of Piraeus). The expression indicates that the work was only begun, not 
finished, before his banishment. — 5. oVep relates to to irdxos. Connect 
irgpl tov Xleip- with wKoSdp/rjo-av. — Sxio "yap kt4. : a clause thrown in to 
indicate, as by a picture, the thickness of the wall : for two wains, passing 
each- other, eta. kiri\yov, eird-yo : 4ir-, upon (the wall). — evTos, within, i. e. 
in the inner part of the wall, between the two outer sides. — dXXd .... 
XtGot, sc. -fjo-av, there were,, suggested by ^jv above. — fuvtpKoS-, o~uvoikoSo- 
\k4(o. — iv TOjxfj lyy&ivioi, in hewing (made) rectangular. — onS^pco .... Kal 
p,oXv(3S&), with iron and lead, — melted lead having been used then, as now, 
to fasten the bent ends of the iron in the holes drilled in the stone. — to 
Ufa-: ace. of specif., on the outer surfaces: connect with SeSejiivoi (Sew, to 
bind). — fjfjLio-u : pred. : was completed (to) about half of that which he intended. 
Curtius (Gr. Gesch.) conjectures that a height of 60 feet was intended. 
-The foundations o^ this wall are still easily followed almost entirety around 
■ Piraeus, and, on the northern side, portions of considerable height are now 
standing. — 6. Kal rav axpe^-, and those the least serviceable (either on ac- 

96 NOTES. 

count of their youth, or of their age, or for other reasons). — dpK€*o-€iv t?jv 
4>vXaKT|V (subj.), that the protection {the guarding) of ... . would be sufficient, 
i. e. to defeat the plots of enemies. — 7. jxdXio-Ta irpo<r€K€iTo (with dat. 
H. 605 ; S. Gr. 439 ; G. § 187), he laid great stress on, he attached the highest 
importance to, etc. — T-fjv .... &j)o8ov .... o3<rav (supplement, particip. 
after IScov), that the attack of .... by sea was, etc. — ttjs Kara yijv, sc. 
e<f>dSov, depends on the compar. €virop-, easier than, etc. — ttjs &va> irdX-, 
than the upper city, i. e. Athens, in distinction from Piraeus. — dpa, not 
ea^ity rendered by % sufficiently brief expression, but quite expressive in 
the Greek sentence, indicating that some such event as is here supposed 
might very likely happen. — KaTa,pdvT€S, after tois *A9- ; cf. the const, of 
€<r(3ipd<ravT€S after avrots, 53, 1 : dTroXo-yT|o-o|j.€vovs after avrois, 72, 1. — 
€S avTov, i. e. Piraeus : having gone down into it (from the upper city). — 
rats vav<rl, means or instrument with dv0l<rr-. — 8. jiiv has its corral, at 
the beginning of the following chapter. 

Chap. 04. The narrative, interrupted with ch. 89 : 2, is here resumed. 

— Iwe-rr-, sailed in company, i. e. with Pausanias and the Peloponnesian 
forces : under the command of Aristides and Cimon, according to Plut. 
Ar. 23. — vawrt : dat. of accom. — irXfjGos : connected by ica£ to 'A8-. — 
€s B-u^dvTtov : connect with €<TTpdT€v<rav above. — efjeiroXidpicqorav : mark 
well the difference in meaning between this and the simple verb iroXiopiccco. 

— ev ttj8€ tyj T|7€[A0VLa, during this command, in this leadership, i. e. while 
Pausanias still had the chief command. 

Chap. 95. avrov : Pausanias. — t€ . . . . Kai : not only . . . .but espe- 
cially, but particularly. — ov\ *f]Ki<rra: litotes: in no slight degree. — ol "leaves. 
For an account of the early settlement of the Ionians in Western Asia 
Minor, see Smith's Hist. ch. iv. § 9. — diro pao-iXc'tos, from the king (i. e. 
of Persia) : note the omission of the article, as though it Were a proper 
name. H. 530, a ; S. Gr. 379, a. — oVoi .... r\\€vQ4pavTO. See Smith's 
Hist. ch. xx. §§ 13, 14. — avrovs, subj. of "yeveVOcu. : f|Y€|iovas, pred. : <r<|><Sv 
refers to the subj. of ^jjtovv : demanded that they (the Ath.) become leaders of 
them (all who had lately become independent of the king). — ica/rd to fvy- 
7<ev€S, in accordance with their relationship, because of their, etc. In this en- 
tire history, it must be borne in mind that the Athenians were Ionians, 
and the Lacedaemonians, Dorians, and that affinity to one or the other of 
these two leading tribes constituted often a powerful motive. — 1\v iron 
(Lex. irov, 2) ptd£i]Tai (mid.) : if perchance he may act with violence. The 
optat., €? irov pid£oiTO, would be equally grammatical, but would denote a 
less distinct probability. — 2. ISeJavTo .... irpo<r€ix°v : n0 ^c the differ- 
ence between the aor. and imperf. : received the representations, a single act : 
gave their attention (during the time that Pausanias, by his overbearing con- 
duct, was alienating the allies). — «s with particip. H. 795, c ; S. G. 540, 
c ; G. § 277, Note 2 : irepi.oxJ/d|i,€Vot (irepiopdw) : cf. 24, 6 ; 25, 2 : here 
without an obj. expressed : as if thy would not look on with indifference. — 
TdXXa, obj. of KaTa<rnj<rd|i.-. — a^Tois : does it refer to the allies or to the 
Athenians ? The language admits either ; the sense suggests rather the 


latter (the Ath.). So Poppo, Kriig., Boeh., CI.: and would settle the rest as 
7night appear best to them. — 3. dvaKpivo€vT€S (dvaKp£va>) : tut. particip.: 
purpose. — «>v iripi (anastrophe), concerning those things which. — clvtov, 
with kcit-, was alleged against him. — €<|>a£v€TO : subj. not expressed ; sug- 
gested by the connection : (his conduct) appeared rather an imitation of, etc. 
— KaXetorGai re &p.a Kat : render dp.a with the second clause: both to be 
called, and at the same time (it happened) that the allies, etc. — CKeivo-u, objec- 
tive gen., against him, or towards him. — 5. twv .... d8ucr]ji,aTG>v : gen. of 
cause : for the wrongs privately committed in respect to certain matters. So 01. 
understands irpos nva, but suggests that irpds tivo-s is perhaps the true 
reading. Some, however, understand Tivd as ace. sing, masc, against any 
individual. Opposed to this is to. |A€"yicrTa, in respect to the principal changes, 
i. e. those pertaining to his offences against the state. — diroXvgTcu jjltj dSt- 
K€iv : H. 838 ; S. Gr. 572 ; G. § 263 : he is acquitted of injustice. — ciutov : 
with kcit- : oi>x fJKUTTa (litotes) Mtj8- : and, not among the least of the chaiyes, 
Medism was alleged against him. — cSoksl : subj. the idea of the preceding 
sentence: and it (the fact that he favored the Medes) seemed to be most clear. 
— 6. Kal eKeivov ktI. His -subsequent fortunes are related, ch. 128 ff. — 
7. ot Si : Dorcis and his colleagues. — ortjucnv (reflexive for a dependent 
clause, refers to ot AcikcS-) .... x € ^P oa, S (Lex. xdpav) :' worse towards 
them, i. e. less loyal to them. — dTraXXajciovTes (diraXXafe^w) : a desiderative : 
how formed? H. 472, j ; S. Gr. 327, j. — egr^ /- : without obj., depends 
on iKavovs : competent to take the lead. — <r<|>i<ri.v .... €iriTT]8€iovs (cf . ch. 
60, 2), friendly to them, —yiv tw totc irapovn : in the then present (crisis) : 
an unusual expression, instead of which we commonly hnd either ev T<j> 
totc or iv t« irapdvTi. 

Chap. 06. Ikovtwv t<3v fjvp,- : gen. abs. : particip. oVtcdv omitted. H. 
791, b ; S. Gr. 542. — &ra|av (rdo-o-o) : cf. Eng. tax) (Is t€ kt!., arranged, 
or determined both which of the cities should furnish money .... and which 
(of them) ships: irpos tov (3dpp- against, etc. — irpdo"X^p,a (cf. Eng. scheme), 
i. e. irpd<j>ao-is, a pretext, i. e. for requiring the money and ships. — djJiv- 
vcurQai <ov JhraGov, to obtain reprisals for those things which they had suffered: 
wv, relat. attracted to case of antecedent : gen. of cause. — SrjovvTas (agrees 
with the subj. of dp.ijvao-0at) : denotes manner : by ravaging, etc. — 2. 'EX- 
Xt] voTap. tcu .... KaT€o-TT] dpx^j •' Grecian treasurers . . . . were appointed 
as an office, or as a board of officers : Karearrr], assimilated to the number 
of the appositive dpx^j : 'AGYjvaiois, dat. of advantage. — tov <(>dpov (the 
tribute), — a word which afterwards, and very naturally, became hated 
among the Greeks, and hence the explanatory clause. — ovrco . . . . rj <f>opd, 
for thus the contribution of, etc. : hence also, after the Peloponnesian war, a 
new name (sruvTd|€ts, assessments) was introduced. — AtjXos : a national • 
Grecian sanctuary, sacred to Apollo. The treasury was afterwards, in 460 
B. c. , according to Boeckh, transferred to the Acropolis of Athens. — cu 
jjvvoSoi, the gatherings, the synods, the assemblies (of the delegates of the fvp.- 
p.axoi) : iyiy (implies motion, hence cs with the ace), came together, con- 


98 NOTES. 

Chap. 97 • 'H-yovjicvoi, sc. 01 'A0-, expressed at the beginning of the 
preceding chapter: with gen. taking the lead of — avTOvdficov : pred. posit. : 
join with it to irp^TOV : (being) at first autonomous. — dirb koiv- £w- : cf. 
91, 7. diro dvTtir- irapao-tccvfjs .... pov»\eve<r0at. — PovXcvovtwv : no- 
tice here the act.: "generally in Thucyd. in the same sense as the mid." 
CI. : connected by icai to a^TOvdjJLwv : and deliberating in common assemblies. 
— TO<rd8€ 4irf]X0ov: cf. 89, 1, rjX0ov cirl rd irpay-. — iro\€jxa> .... 8ia\€tp- 
irpcry- : dat. of means, both by war and by the administration of affairs. — 
tovSc toO iroXcjiov, this war, i. e. the Peloponnesian. — irpos, against. — 
airots = rots 'A0-. — tovs del irpoo-TV7X-j connected closely with the pre- 
ceding and depending on irpds : dc£, on each occasion, at any time, — a use 
of this word not clearly presented in Lid. and Sc. : €v €KdcrT<j>, neiit. : and 
(against) those of the Pel. happening at any time to be involved in each (affair). 
• — 2. &ypcu|/a and €irot^ora|j.€v : notice here the aor. where we should more 
naturally use the perf. In the same way irpo€Ypcu|/a, ch. 23, 5. Cf. H. 
706; S. Gr. 481. — a.vrd, them, the affairs just above referred to in d. — 
«rf|V eKpoX^v to€ Xd-y-, the digression from my narrative. — oti : causal. — 
tois .... diraoriv : dat. of interest in looser relations : on the part of all 
those before me ; is understood of the so-called logographers up to the time 
of Herodotus, and perhaps including him. — tovto to x^P^v, this passage, 
or this period, that which intervened between the Persian and the Pelopon- 
nesian wars. — Td 'EXX-qviKa, the affairs of Greece : rd. MijSucd, the Median 
affairs = here the Persian war: fuv€Ti0eo-av, they composed (a history of). — 
tovtcov, neut. ; refers to the same events as avrd, after &ypa4 a : cf. note 
above : depends on -fji|/aTO : the very man who barely touched upon these events : 
'EXXdviKos, appos. with 6o-ir€p. — Tots xpovois, in the times, i. e. in respect to 
the dates. — iir€\\(rBr] (€,v^o-K«), sc. tovtwv, made mention of (these 
things). — dirdScigiv tx*» subj. TavTa, expressed above in tovtwv : (these 
events) afford an exhibition of etc. — ttjs dpy^s .... t9\s t<5v *A0- kv ol'cp 
Tpoiro) KaT€o-Tr) : prolepsis : lit. of the government, that of the Aih., in what 
manner (it) became established, or, in an Eng. idiom, of the manner in which 
the government of, etc., became established. 

The events on which the historian touches in this digression from his 
main narrative, though interesting and instructive to the ancient Greeks, 
and especially to the Athenians, are less interesting, I think, to a young 
student now than some otheE passages, and hence are omitted in this work. 
For a full account of this period the student is referred to Grote's History 
of Greece, or, for a briefer narrative, to Smith's History. 

Chap. 118. MctoL toajtci 84 : And after these things, i. e. those events 
which had just been described in the digression. — ^t-yveTai : subj. to. 
• irpoeLp-njxeva (perf. pass. Lex. irpocp&o), those things spoken of before. — 8<ra, 
subj. of KaTco-TT] : irpd<|>acri.s, pred. : tovSc tot) iroXe'fxov, cf. 97, 1 : whatever 
became an occasion of etc. — 2. TavTa fjvp/iravTd, subj. of kyivero : jxaXto-Ta, 
about, very nearly : 480 B. c. date of the retreat of Xerxes ; 431, beginning 
of the Pelop. war. — lYKpcmo-Tepav : pred. posit. : KaT€or^o*avTO (note 
here the meaning of the 1st aor. mid. of Ka0£<rrq|u), established (for them- 


selves) their government on a firmer basis. — - Kal avTol kt!., and they them- 
selves, etc., spoken of the growth of their power at home in Attica, while 
the preceding clause is spoken of their government over the entire confed- 
eracy. — cirl \iiya .... 8vvdfi€cos : a form of expression rare in Attic 
Greek : may be rendered by the English, to a high degree of power. Cf. eirl 
irokv ttjs 6aXdor<rrjS, ch. 50, 2. — otfre . . . . t€ : did not hinder (it, i. e. 
the growth of the Athenian power) .... and, etc. — eirl Ppa\v is under- 
stood, not of time, but of measure ; in a slight degree. — irpb rov : H. 525, d ; 
S. Gr. 375, b ; G. § 140 : before this (time). — |atj tc^is Uvea, not hasty to 
go. Note here the negative p.TJ, where we should expect ov, — an exceed- 
ingly rare use, presenting the thought (if the reading is genuine) not as a 
mere negative, but as "a negation willed, aimed at, or assumed " H. 832 ; 
S. Gr. 56& Kriiger suggests that fvrj is used on account of the infin. iivai 
just after ; CI. that there is something lively and deprecatory in the expres- 
sion (etwas lebhaft Ablelmendes) ; Arnold and Poppo, that jjtfj is a mistake 
for ov. — to 8£ ti Kai, but partly also: H. 525, a ; S. Gr. 375, a : may per- 
haps be explained as adverbial ace. — irplv Srj : note here the force of 8^j, 
"marking the idea of the sentence as immediately present to the mind. " 
H. 851, until now, until at last. — ffpero (al'pw) must not be confounded with 
any part of atpeco. — Kal .... •fjirrovTO. I understand this to be spoken 
of the Athenians, and avrwv (which is not reflex., and cannot refer to the 
subj. of ■fjirrovTO) to refer to the leading subj. of the sentence ot Acikc8- : 
and they touched their confederacy : i. e. and they encroached on their confed- 
eracy. — &vao-)(€Tov : used as subst. : they made it (the fact that the Athe- 
nians had reached their confederates) a thing no longer tolerable : they con- 
sidered it no longer tolerable. — kTriy^ipr\ria ISoicei etvai . . . . rj !o*xvs: a 
personal const. : more easily rendered into Eng. impersonally : it seemed 
(to them) that the strength (of the Athenians) must, etc. : dpapivois (ai'pa>) 
agrees with the dat. of the agent understood with the verbal adj.: (by 
them) in taking up, in beginning.— 3. avrots (intens.) .... AaraS- may 
be viewed either as dat. of interest or dat. of agent. H. 600 ; S. Gr. 435 ; 
G. § 188, 3 : now, on the part of the Lacedaemonians themselves, it had been 
decided. Cf. ch. 87. — ir€p.\|/avT6s . . . . 4ttt]p<&tg>v (cirqwrda), subj. ot 
AaiceS-. — cl (sc. cnjrfan) iroX- .... &rrai (more vivid than dr\), whether 
it would be better for them engaging in war : i. e. whether it would be for their 
advantage to engage in war. — dveiXcv : Lex. dvaipeco, III., gave a response. 

— avros, with the subj. of the infin., that he himself would take pan with 
{them), etc. 

Chap. 119. A30is : cf. 67, 3 ; 87, 4. — i|rfj4>ov eiro/yaYeiv : cf. 87, 4. 

— £w6*8ov (Eng. synod) yev-, an assembly having been convened. Cf. 96, 2; 
97, 1. — ot T€ aXXow .... Kal ot KopivOioi, not only the others .... but 
particularly the Cor. — ot irXefovs, appos. with ot aXXoi. — twv 'A0-, with 
KaTT]*yop-, the greater part accusing the Ath. — 8€T]0€VT€s (Sc'oaai) .... ISCa. 
Kotice the remarkable particularity of this sentence, having previously be- 
sought (them) each privately even city by city. — «o"T€, though not necessary 
here, yet brings out more fully the notion of purpose (a result to be attained). 

100 NOTES. 

-r-jx?| irpoSia^Oap^ (*n-po8ia<|>0€ip<«>), lest it be previously destroyed, i. e. before 
the Peloponnesians declare war against Athens. Cf. 65, 3. — 8€tj0€VT€S 
[asv .... irapo.vTcs 8e : correlative. — Kal tot€, then also, join with irapov-. — - 
TeXcvraioi !it€\0ovt€S : cf. irap€\06vT€S tcX-, ch. 67, 5 : coming forward last. 

Chaps. 120 -12 4. Speech of the Corinthians. For the substance, of 
this speech, cf. Grote, ch. xlviii. For a full account of it, cf. "Wilkins, 
Speeches from ThucytRdes. 

Chap. 125*' •yvwji.^v, \|rr]<|>ov: notice here the omission of the article, with 
abstract nouns, H. 530; S. Gr. 379, a; G. § 141, Note 1, b.— to irXi)0os 
it|/- : collective noun with plur. verb. — 2. 8c8o7|j.€vov (8ok««>) : particip. 
of an impers. verb, in ace. abs. H. 792 ; S. Gr. 544 ; G. § 278, 2 : conces- 
sive, though it had been resolved upon. — dSwciTa fjv : impers. neut. plur. 
H. 518, a ; S. Gr. 369, a. — oSq-lv : causal, since they were. — €Karopi£cor0ai 
takes as obj. the anteced. of a : to provide (those things) which, etc. — Kal 
jjtfj ctvai jjAXtjo-iv, and that there be no delay. — Ka0io-Tap.€'vois, sc. avrols, 
dat. of interest with SicTpCpt] : «v with £Sei, a verb of want : but still, in 
preparing those things of which there was a lack, an entire year did not pass 
away, but a less period, before they, etc. 

Chap. 126. ^v . . . . co-aKovoxriv, sc. ot \A0-: notice here fjv with 
the subjunc. (instead of cl with the optat.) after a historic tense, denoting 
a more decided probability. — 2. irpoyrov jxev. The correlative clause js 
found ch. 139, 1. — to fryos .... tt)s 0€ov, to drive out the abomination of 
the goddess. The goddess Athena is here alluded to. — The remainder of 
this chapter is occupied with an account of the conspiracy of Cylon,~ a 
remote ancestor of Pericles. As it does not further the narrative before 
us, it is here omitted. See Smith's History, ch. x., § 7 ; also ch. xxv. § 7. 
Also Grote, eh. xxxi. 

Chap. 12 7* Ikc'Xcvov, sc. tovs 'AOtjvafous. — 8t)0€v (cf. ch. 92) . . . • 
Ttjic«)po\ivT€s, forsooth, first of all, avenging the gods. Not the first nor the 
last instance in which zeal for religion has been an ostensible reason for 
waging an unjust war. — irpoo-cxouevov, supplement, particip. : avTw, i. e. 
t<u fryei, was implicated in it. — kcito. rfjv p.T]T€pa, by his mother, or on his 
mother's side. — Iktt€<tovtos avrov: gen. abs. denoting .condition : if he were 
banished (lit. fell out). — irpox,»p€iv : infin. pres., where we might expect a 
fut. : Tol dirb t«v 'A0- (subj. of infin.) : that the things (which they hoped for) 
from the Athenians would more easily turn out in their favor (lit. more forward 
fori them). — avTov (i. e. Pericles) : subj. of 7ra0€tv : tovto, obj. — oVov 
8tf p- kt4., as that it (the fact of their making the demand) would bring 
reproach, etc. — a>s Kal Sid kt£., as though, through his misfortune also in part, 
etc., i. e. the misfortune of being descended from an ancestry that was 
accursed. — 3. ko.0* lavrdv, contemporary with himself — ^vavTioxiTO : Ivav- 
Ttoa). — irdvTa: adv. ace. ■ — t.ovs *A0- : obj. both of ci'a (law) and of upua 
(opjjtdco) : emphat. position. 

Chap. 12 §. 'AvTCKeXevov. Observe the force of dvr-, in reply, in return. 
A counter-accusation is not usually difficult. — to diro Tcuvdpov fryos, the 
pollution (proceeding) from Taenarus.-6.Trb Tcuv- below is taken by some as 


a local gen., at Taen. I think we may understand it in the ordinary sense 
of dird with gen. and connect it more closely in thought with dircvya.'ydvTes. 
Though it is more convenient for us to render it as a local gen., yet we are 
not to conclude for this reason that a Greek would view it as such. — tcov 
EiXcotcov. See Smith's Hist. ch. vii. § 9. — 8^j suggests that the fact here 
stated was well known : wherefore, as is well known, they even suppose that, 
etc. — tov .... creio-jxdv. Smith's Hist. ch. xxiii. § 5. — 2. to t^s XaX- 
fryos, the abomination of the goddess of the bronze house, i. e. Athena. — 3. to 
irpcoTov |i€T- : cf. ch. 95, 3. — dircXvOi] ji/fj &8iK€iv : cf. 95, 5. — ovk€ti cjcir- : 
ch. 95, 6. — dvev AaK-, without (the authority of) the Lac-. Cf. 91, 5. — tcj> 
p.ev \6y<o . . . . Tip 8« %py<9, professedly . ... but in fact, eirl t6v 'EX- 
irdX-, for the Hellenic war, i. e. to engage in the, etc. ; the war which the 
Greeks were still waging against the Persians. — to, irpbs Pcur- .... irpdcr- 
C€tv (with d<f>iKV€iTai), to manage his business with, etc. — €V€X€tpt]o-€v : 
€7X€«-P^ W » — €<(>t€|x- . . * » ttpX'n 5 * while aspiring to the government of (all) 
Greece. — 4. €V€pY€o-£av .... 4s pour- KaT€0€To, he laid up^a favor with the 
king, i. e. he laid the king under obligation. — dirb tovSc points to what fol- 
lows, and belongs to both members of the sentence : in the following manner, 
or more exactly, from this (as a starting point). — tov .... irpdYficiTOS, of 
the whole affair, i. e. his treasonable communications with the Persian king: 
dpx^jv, in its primary sense, a beginning. — 5. 7&p : epexegetical, Lex. II.; 
it may be omitted in rendering into English, as we use no particle in such 
a connection. — rj\ . . . . irapovcrta : dat. of time : at his former arrival, 
mentioned in ch. 94 ; omitted in this work. — avro and avT<3 : Bv£dvTiov. 
— gXaPev, diroire'fiim : subj. Ilava-avtas. — pcuriXet: dat. of interest. — t£ 
Xd-yco, according to his statement : avTov : Ilavo-av-. — 6. &rpao-o-€ .... 
e7T€Tp€t|/€ .... &ir€|jw|f€ : mark the force of the imperf., and of the aor. — 
w e7r€Tp€\|/€, to whom he (Pausan.) intrusted. — emo-ToX^v, obj. of fyipovra : 
avTw, i. e. PaoaXei. — cos . • • • dvevpe'07] (dv€vp£o-Kn>), as was afterwards 
. found out: subj. of dvevpeOi], the fact stated just before, that the following 
things had been written in it. — 7. tovo-Sc : obj. of diroTr^jiirei. — 8opi (8dpv), 
an old and poetic form of Sopori : with IXcov, lit. having taken (them) with 
spear, i. e. having taken them prisoners. — Kal .... TroiovfAcu, and I make a 
proposal. How strikingly does this passage reveal the position of woman, 
according to the Greek and Persian ideas. It is not intimated that the 
wishes of the daughter of the king were to be consulted in this arrange- 
ment. Note the change of person d*rroir€p,ir€i .... — Oxiyaripa 
ri\v o-f|v (ya\t.£<a). Note the order, giving prominence both to 0vya- 
Tepa and to ri\v cHjv. — viroxtipiov : neut. : qualifies both SirdpTTjv and 
tt> .... 'EX-: H. 511, f : S. Gr. 361, f ; G. § 138, Note 2. —el ... . 
dpecrKa, if therefore any of these things pleases you: r\ (indef.) followed by <r& 
(enclit.), hence written ti (same form with the interrog.) : dpeoncei with 
the ace. (<r(), frequent in Plato and other Greek writers ; only here in 
Thucyd. — lirl 0dX-, to (the) sea, i. e. the Western coast of Asia Minor. 
We omit the article in the kindred expressions, by sea, at sea. 

Chap. 129* ' M.^y^par^v : obj. of dTraXXdJavTa : having disci tar ged Meg. 

102 NOTES. 

— -f]cr0T] t€ . . . . koV ttiroorT^XXet .... Kal iceXevei .... Kal .... 

dvTCTrtTiGct (dvT€iriTi0T{|ji,i). Note the change of tense. — avnp, i. e. Arta- 
bazus. — 8iaTrep.t|/ai .... dxo8ei|ai depend on the idea implied in dvr€- 
TnriQei, intrusted to him in reply .... (with instructions) to transmit (it) as 
speedily as possible, etc. — t^v <r<j>pa"yl8a : the seal on the letter, the impres- 
sion oi the royal signejfc. — avrw again refers to Artabazus. — cavroO, reflex., 
referring to the subj. of the leading verbs (i. e. to Xerxes). — irpd<ro-€iv : 
same const, with diroScigcu, 8iair€|M|/<u. — 3. Observe the directness and 
simplicity of this letter; and of the preceding: quite unlike modern 
diplomatic correspondence. — r<av dvSpwv : objective gen. with evcpyecrla. 
Boehme, CI., Kriig., Poppo: (the) favor to the men, whom, etc., is laid up for 
you in, etc. The practice of the Persian kings to register the names of 
their benefactors is implied in Herod. 8, 85 ; also in the Old Testament, 
Esther, ch. 6. — oiis p.oi .... &r<o<ras (orw^w), whom, (being) beyond the sea, 
you sent me in safety, etc.: jiot, dat. of advantage. — lo-atl dv&"ypar t TOS (adj. 
of two endings, agrees with €vep*y€<rta : fr. dvd, *ypd<()w), registered forever } 
intensifies the idea of k&tolL <roi. — <r€, obj. of lirtcrxeTco (fr. htioyjia, or 
2d aor. of kiriyja) : jx^tc vv? p.^0' Tjp.€pa kt!., an Oriental form of expres- 
sion, let neither night nor day detain you, etc. — «<tt€ dvetvcu (2d aor. of 
dv£?j|u), so as to omit, etc. : <ov, obj. of virwrxvfj, attracted to the case of the 
omitted anteced., (of those things) which you promise me. The 2d pers. sing, 
mid. (pass.) occurs in only one other passage in Thucyd. (Book 6, ch. 14, 
fj-yfj.) Poppo. — kocwXvo-Gco : note here the perf. imperat. mid. (pass.) : 
"has a definitive final sense" : "affords an energetic mode of expression." 
Buttmailn : let (nothing that you promise me) be hindered by any expenditure of, 
etc.,, i. e. do not scruple to call for any expenditure of, etc. — irapayi*yv€- 
<r0at : subj. expands irXf)0os : if there is need that it arrive at any place. — 
gircpj/a : note here the past tense. "The writer puts himself in the time 
of the reader." Kriig. — tfirTj .... %i, as shall be most honorable, etc. 

Chap. 130. Tavra . . . . to. 7pd|xp.aTa. Note the order: like the. 
definitive apposition, so frequent in Horn., H. 500, d; S. Gr. 353, c: lit. 
these . . . .the writings, i. e. this letter. — vtrb rav 'EX- : (held) in great esteem 
by, etc. : with d£i»p.a.Ti, as with the pass, of o|i<5o>. - So -uiro with gen. of 
agent is used with tija^ ; with vpa<j>Tj, etc. — nXa/reiao-iv (Lex. likaraiai), 
at Plataea: adv., in the attributive position. For the historical allusion, 
see Smith's Hist. ch. xx. — fjpro (at'pw) : not frequent in a metaphorical 
sense in Att., but often in later writers. 01. — 4v t« ko.0- rprf-ino: Lex. 
Ka0ttrrnjj.i : in the established manner, i. e. in the manner established by 
Grecian, especially by Spartan, "hereditary usage. — eicevds : rare in plur., 
which denotes apparently the various pieces of Median apparel : with €v8vd- 
pevos, putting on, etc., or arraying himself in, etc. cjrjet, ^et|xt (Ig, etfJit). — 
t^ after Tpdire^av continues the narrative ; does not point to the following 
K0L t. — iraperMkro : note the force of the mid. : and he had a Persian table 
set. (for him). — <ipy- fip-i dat. of manner or of means: but by small (lit. 
bri'f) acts: irpo&WjXov, irpoStiXow. — d T-rj yvdi\iy\ . . . . fyxeXXe irpcgetv, 
(those things) which in mind (i. e. in his thoughts, or, as he* supposed) he was 


about to do: |i€i£ovtts (adv. comparat. : cf. adj. pettpv), on a larger scale: 
io-iirtira (or es teiTa, Pop., Kriig., CI.), in the future: usu. with the art. 
4s to feiTcc. — 2. T€, not a correl. with the following ical, but introducing 
the sentence as a result. — tyj op-yrj : feeling, temper. It is clear in two 
other passages, if not in this, that Th. used 6p"y^j sometimes in this sense, 
which afterwards disappeared in Attic prose, but was revived in later 
writers. Cf. Boeh., CD, Kriig., Pop.: xo-kCTfi' P re( i. adj. with opyg, temper 
so harsh towards, all men. etc. — p/qSeva SvVao-0ai, no one was able, i. e. with- 
out some annoyance, some unpleasant experience. — rj fup.- fierccm) : the 
alliance went over. Of. tovs fuppdxovs p.€TaTd|acr0ai, ch. 95, 4. 

Chap. 131. alo-0op.€voi : without any obj. expressed: being informed 
{of what was. going on) : cf. 95, 7. — to irp«TOv : 95, 3. — Kal eireiS^ kt4. 
The principal sentence is outco .... eirecrxov. — ttj *Epp- vr\C : article 
expressed here, because previously mentioned (128, 3). — vr\l. So Kriig., 
CL, Boeh. With the diaeresis (vqt), Poppo, also Kriig. in his grammar, 
CI. in his note, H., G.: vavs is the generic word for ship; in 128, 3, Th. 
uses TpiTjp-qs (spoken of the same object), a trireme, the usual form of war- 
ship at this time. — kfyaivero iroiwv : H. 802 ; S. Gr. 547. — picj, .... 
€KTro\topKi]0€ts, having been forcibly driven out. The fact that he had taken 
possession of Byzantium is mentioned in ch. 128, 5. A regular siege of 
the city is hardly meant. CI. — irpd<r<r<ov .... irpcs kt!., he was reported 
to them (the Lac. ) as negotiating with, etc. — ovk. Note the position of the 
negative : regularly placed just before the word or clause on which its force 
fails. So here ; not for any good (object). — pov/jv (novfj). Only a blun- 
derer can confound this with the fern, of jxdvos. — ovk4ti kTr£<r\ov (ltri\o)) : 
they (the Lac.) no longer endured (it, i. e. the conduct of Pausanias). — ctirov 
. . . . p/r} Xe£ir€O-0eH, told (him) not to depart from, etc., i. e. bade (him), etc. 
etirov has a different sense with irdX- .... irpocryopevav : told (him) that 
the Spartans would declare war against him: d 8e p^j, but otherwise, i. e. if he 
did leave the herald. For a fuller explanation, see H. 754, b ; S. Gr. 520, 
d. — 2. ttio-tcvwv xpi\\J.a(ri SiaXvcreiv ri\v SiapoX^jv, being confident that he 
with money (i. e. through bribery) would do away with the unfavorable opinion, — 
a noteworthy statement. That Pausanias, w T ell acquainted as he was with 
the leading men of Sparta, should even have hoped to escape the demands 
of justice through bribery, does not convey the loftiest idea of Spartan vir- 
tue. — €(nrtiTT€i. : used as pass, of ecrfidWw : hence with vir6 and gen. : is 
cast by, etc. to T.p»Tov, at first, i. e. on his arrival the second time in 
Sparta. - — tcov &|>opcov. For an account of the ephors and other magis- 
trates at Sparta, see Smith's Hist. ch. vii. § 10. — tov Pcwr- Spdcrcu tovto: 
two accusatives with one verb. H. 553 ; S. Gr. 398 ; G. § 164: to do this 
(i. e. to cast into prison) to the king : so much the more to any one lower in 
rank. The rank of Pausanias is described in the next chapter. ■ — fireiTa, 
then, correl. of to irparov. — 8ia/irpa£dpevos .... IgijXOc : lit. having ac- 
complished (it) he subsequently went forth (sc. from the prison), i. e. by success- 
ful management, he subsequently went forth — irepl avrbv €k£yx* lv > io or ^9 an y 
proofs respecting him. Note this use of ircpi with ace. 

104 NOTES. 

Chap. 132* <j>a.vepbv .... ovSkv .... err][xetov: more emphatic by 
the separation. — : 4x.0pot .... ttoXis : partitive appos. with SwapTiaTat. 
— oVa> relates to (r-qp-etov : connect &v with 4Tip.a>povvTO, Pepcuws with iri- 
<TT€tJo*avT6s. The const, is not in an Eng. idiom. We may render it, in 
which they might securely trust so as to punish, etc. — *yevovs tov pacnXclov : 
more emphasis is thrown on tov pour- than if the order had been tov Pacr- 
■yevovs. — IIXeCo-Tapxov : obj. of 4*ir€Tpd7revev (l-rriTpoirevo)). — dv€\|/ibs «v, 
being cousin. Their fathers, Cleombrotus and Leonidas, were brothers. 
The clause in parenthesis explains tija^v. — 2. viroi^tas 8£ iroXXds : 84 is 
correl. with ja4v after <|>av€pdv : no open proof .... but many suspicions. — 
£rjXc6o-€i (g^jXwri's) : note the omission of the article here : the two datives 
are thus united more closely. — ^ Connect closety in thought with 
vTrovJ/tas: that he was not willing to remain contented with (lit. equal with), etc., 
or, as CI. renders, was not willing to keep himself within the existing regulations: 
i'o-os, why nom.? H. 775 ("a predicate noun," etc.); S. Gr. 536, b; G. 
§ 136, Note 2. rots irapovcn, neut. — to. tc &XXa : "t4 stands here in the 
double function of a copulative conjunction, connecting this clause with 
the foregoing and also of a correlative with the following kcU, as though we 
had rd t4 tc &XXa, which, however, would be an inadmissible repetition." 
CI. : and they viewed attentively not only other things respecting him, . ... but 
especially the fact that, etc. — IgcSeSi'g'njTO ( : double augment, 
H. 314, b; as though it were compounded of 4k, 8id,, whereas in 
fact the compos, is 4k, Siairdoji-at : if in anything anywhere he had departed 
in his manner of living from, etc. — aKpoOtvtov : appos. with c»v, which .... 
as an offering (properly an offering of first fruits) . — I8ta, privately, on his own 
responsibility : opposed to SijfJiocria. The distich contains a hexameter and 
a pentameter verse, — an elegiac distich : thus, — 

H. 911 ; S. Gr. 752; G. § 295, 5.-3. c^KoXa^/av : 4KKoXdirra>. — rovr : 
subj. of 48ok€i : dSfa^fAa,, pred., this also (the act of inscribing the above 
distich on the tripod) seemed to be an unjust act, etc. — iv tovtw, in this 
(present condition). — fc'<j>cuv€TO : subj. tovto, this act. — SiavoCq.: with irapd- 
poicv, an adj. of likeness : in .keeping with Ms present purpose. — 4. es tovs 
Ei'X- 7rpdcrcr€iv : cf. 65, 2, Note. — civtov, subj. of irpao--. — kci! . . . . 84 : 
iare in Th. and the writers of his time, but frequent in Plato, Xen., and 
the later Attic writers : 84 connects the sentence with the foregoing, Kai 
belongs with the word just after it : — and so it was also (in fact). — fuvsir- 
ttvao-Twcn, : crvvcTravUmriju (o*vv, 4ttC, dvd, I'ctttjju). — to irctv, the whole 
(plan). — 5. dXX* ov8* «s (to be carefully distinguished from «s) ov8fc .... 
TtcrTevcravTes. We can imitate the emphatic repetition of the negative ; 
but not even thus, not even trusting to, etc. — vec&T€pdv ti : lit. anything newer, 
i. e. as the connection indicates, anything harsh, a euphemism for kclkov ti. 
— wTrcp elwOcuriv, sc. xp'n "® - 1 suggested by xptojxevoi, adopting (in respect 
to him) the course which they have been wont (to adopt), etc. — t«5 Tpdirw is ex- 
plained by jx*f| Tctx€£s etvcu .... povXcvcrcu, not to be hasty to decide on, etc. — 


trpCv 7€ 8^ : still more emphatic than irplv 8^, 118, 2 : ci^tois, with ji^vvt^s 
■y£*yv€Tat, becomes an informer to them. — tols TeXevTaCas .... €iri<rToXds : 
spoken of a single letter : cf. t& YpdfijxaTa, 130, 1. — dvfjp 'ApYiXios, an 
Argilian man, thought to be from Argil us, a city in Chalcidice. — TrcuSiKa 
itot€ a»v avrov : being once a favorite of his, or, who was once, etc. — mo-To- 
tcitos €K€£va> (Pausanias) : most faithful to him, i. e. up to this time, but fear 
for his own safety now overcame him. — SeCcras : Boeh. places a colon be- 
fore this word ; CI. has no point whatever ; Kriig., Pop., and others have 
a comma, which seems to me preferable. — 8ti kt!., explanatory of €v0vp,Tj- 
<rlv nva, on a certain reflection that no one, etc. Some, however, understand 
6ti as causal with Scleras. — ^v \|/€v<r0fj (tjrevSouai) ttjs Sc'fqs: lit. if he may 
be deceived in his opinion, i. e. if it turn out that he is mistaken in his suspi- 
cion that the letter may contain a direction to put him to death. — €K€tvos : 
Pausanias. — tI p,€TaYpd\|/at, to change something (in the letter). — yA\ €iri- 
-yvw (cirtYtYvwo-Kco), connect with Eva, to the end that he (Pausan.) may not 
detect (it, — the fact that the letter had been opened and sealed again). — 
Xv€t kt!.: connected by KaC (before irapa7roiT](rdfi€VOs) with *yt"yv€Tai, and 
in the same const. , i. e. historic pres. — {jirovo^cras .... irpccreireoTaXOai. 
(irpo<r€Trio"r€XX<«>), having suspected that some such thing had been enjoined in 
addition (i. e. in addition to the main contents of the letter). — €*yy€"ype.|j.- 
p.€Vov (ev, Ypd<|>tt) : masc. agreeing with o.vr6v : ktcIvciv, infin. denoting 
purpose : act. where we should more naturally use the pass. : like the Latin 
fut. pass, particip. (intern ciendum) : he found himself also enrolled to be put 
to death (lit. to put to death). 

Chap. 133. Tot€ hi: the authorities are about equally divided be- 
tween this reading and tot€ 8^j. — avHJKOoi 8£ kt!. indicates the extreme 
caution of the Spartan government : XlaiKravtov, with avT^KOOt, lit. ear- 
witnesses of Pausanias himself saying something. — dirb irapao-Kevijs tov dv-, 
closely connected in thought with tjo-0ovto irdvTa <ra<|>(Bs (below, middle 
of the chapter) : by an arrangement of the man .... they ascertained every- 
thing clearly. — o-KTjvT]<rap.e'vo-u (Lex. o-KTjvew) : usu. intrans., but here trans. : 
StirXfjv 8ta<|>pdYp.aTt, (made) double by a partition, i. e. constructed with two 
apartments. — 4s tjv . . . . &cpv\|/€ : a verb of rest with a const, denoting 
motion. H. 618, a ; S. Gr. 448, b ; G. § 191, Note 6 : into which he con- 
ducted certain of the ephors, and concealed them within. — «s (prep.) avrov : 
the Argilian man, who had gone as a suppliant to Taenarus, etc. — Calais : 
notice the emphatic position : not to be confounded with <ro;J><ws. — «s kt!., 
explanatory of TdXXa : setting forth the other things severally, that he never in 
anything had endangered him (i. e. Pausanias). — irpoTipjOttT] 8' . . . . diro- 
6aveiv: spoken in bitter irony : but that he was highly honored with death (lit. 
to die) : iv ftnp, with the dat., equally with, etc. — KaKelvov (= Kal €K€ivov) 
kt!. Most of the genitives abs. in this chapter denote prominently the no- 
tion of time, and are best rendered by when. So here, and when he (Pau- 
sanias) acknowledged, etc. All these dependent constructions are to be 
referred back to the leading verb fjo"8ovTo, middle of the chapter. — Kal 
.... ovk €«vtos, sc. avr6v : and did not allow (him) to be angry, or, as we 

106 NOTES. 

should more naturally speak, and begged him not to be angry, etc. — tritrriv 
(irtorts) : security, or pledges of security : takes rfjs dvacrrdcrecos, as objective 
gen. : €tc tov tepo-O, with ttjs dv-, as with a verb of motion : pledges of security 
in respect to rising up (and departing) from the temple, or, more briefly, in case 
he would depart from. etc. It was of the highest importance to Pausanias 
that the man should leave the temple, and not attract attention to the 
fact that he had become a suppliant. — dj-iovyros, sc. avTov. — t& irpcur- 
o-ojieva, the negotiations, i. e. those with the king. 

Chap. 134. tot€ is of course to be joined with dirTjXOov. — pepaCws 
.... elSoTes : knowing (the facts) with certainty This knowledge was 
wanting, previous to the event described in ch. 133 : lv ttj iroXei is con- 
nected in thought with what follows : cttoiovvto, note the force of the 
imperf., they proceeded to make, etc. — avTov (Pausan.) : subj. of ^v&vcu 
.... xvprio'ai .... irpoKaTacfwY^v : that he knew, etc. — cvds, with rb 
irpdo-anrov, which is obj. of elSe : as he saw the countenance of one of, etc. — 
ity' <S i\d>pei, for what (purpose) he (i. e. the ephor) was approaching. — dXXov 
8e, sc. tcov €<J>dpwv : correl. with ivbs p.ev. — vev|xaTt d-^avci, a secret nod, 
observed or understood only by Pausanias. — 8rjX<&o-avTos, made plain (to 
Pausanias what was intended). These clauses in the gen. abs. are better 
rendered, as in ch. 133, by when with a finite verb. — evvoiq,: dat. of cause. 

— ttjs XaXxtolicou : cf. ch. 128, 2. — irpo-, beforehand, i. e. before he was 
overtaken by those in pursuit. — rb T€p.€Vos, the sacred enclosure (in which 
the temple was built). — 4s often p.a . . . . 8 i]V tov tepov, into a building 
.... which belonged to the temple (predicate gen.). — {rcra£0pios, in the open 
air: a pred. adj., especially an adj. denoting time, place, order, number, 
or manner, is frequent in Greek, where we use an adv. or a preposition 
with. its case. Kiih. Larger Gr. § 264, 3 ; H. 487, Rem. c ; S. Gr. 340, c ; 
G. § 138, N. 7. — 2. rb irapavriKa : adv. ace: for the immediate time, or, 
as we often say, for the time being. — dt|>€iXov (dc^apeco). By the removal 
of the roof, he was left v-n-aiOpios. — toLs Gvpas : obj. of dirancoSop-^o-av. — 
dTroXapdvT€s ci'o-co, having shut him up when he had entered, or, as we may often 
more easily render the aor. particip., shutting him up when, etc. €i'<rco and 
gvSov differ as els and eV, the former implying motion, the latter rest. The 
description is very circumstantial, and not altogether free from tautology. 

— €|iiroX- Xijjuu, they forced (him) by hunger to give himself up. CI. renders 
it, sie hungerten ihn aus, they starved him out. — 3. oierirep €l\€V,just as he 
was: usually understood in the sense, immediately, forthwith ; and in this 
sense sometimes strengthened by cvGvs. (Yet Boehme questions this mean- 
ing ; I think, without sufficient reason.) — t€ .... KaC : a copulative 
in both of the connected members, as often. It is sometimes awkward to 
render the ri into English. In such cases it is better omitted in the trans- 
lation. Cf. H. 855, a (examples). — aur0dp.€vot : without any object ex- 
pressed, but plainly implied. Cf. 95, 7. — i £a.yov<riv, sc. avTov. — irapa- 
^pfjjxa : same general sense as oienrep et\ev (as explained above), but may 
be rendered by another phrase, on the spot. — 4. ovirep tovs KaKOvp-yovs, sc. 
€p.|3dXXovonv, where (they cast), etc. — €|xj3dXX€i.v with ejieXXrurav. — TrXq- 


criov wov, somewhere near, is coram, understood to mean, near the Caeadas. 
— KdTop^Jai, sc. avTov. — tov Ta<j>ov : obj. of p,€T€V€*yK€iv (jj.€Ta(|>€p«). — 
%Xpr\a-e: Lex. xpda (B), A. — ovircp, (to the place) where. — 6, which fact, 
that he lies in the space before the temple : obj. of 8t]X.ovo-i. — as &yo$ 
.... 8v to ireir- : ace. abs. H. 793 ; S. Gr. 544, a ; G. § 278, Note. The 
position of cwtoCs, between fryos and 6v, connects it in thought with them 
rather than with to ireirpcrynevov (with which it is understood) ; on the 
ground that the thing done (by them ) was a pollution to them : 8vo o-wjxaTa, 
obj. of cforo8oi)vai (same const, with p.€T€V€7K€tv) . — x a ^ K0 ^ s • • • • Silo, 
two bronze statues (of Pausanias). The two, instead of one, were to serve 
in some sort as an atonement for the sin committed against the goddess in 
the violence done to her suppliant. These two statues of Pausanias, in 
the temple of the goddess Chalcioecus, near the altar, were seen by the 
traveller Pausanias three centuries later. (The death of Pausanias occurred 
between 471 and 466 B. c. The traveller Pausanias lived in the first half 
of the second century b. c.) 

Chap. 135, Oi 8* 3 A0-. The narrative, broken off ch. 128, 1, is here 
resumed. — m .... KptvavTOs: observe here the gen. instead of the ace, 
abs. Cf. 134, 4 : on the ground that the god also had judged (it to be) a pollu- 
tion. — dvT€TT€T- : dvT€irtTdo-o-<o. In nearly the same sense we have above, 
ch. 128, dvT€K€'X€vov. — 2. tov Mr]8to"|JLOv : causal gen. with ^vverrryri^vro 
(o-vv€7raiTido|Jiai) ktI. : they implicated (or more strictly as imperf. they pro- 
ceeded to implicate, took measures to implicate) Themistocles also in the Medism 
of Pausanias. - — «s, as. The temporal and causal meanings of as are both 
frequent. Either makes sense here. The same ambiguity lies in the Eng. 
as. Perhaps the causal force is more prominent here. — evpio-icov : no obj. 
expressed : note the force of the imperf. here, continued or repeated action : 
they made discoveries one after another (a sufficiently long expression for the 
idea contained in one Greek word !). — irepl Ila/uo-avCav : cf. -rrcpl avrdv, 
ch. 131, 2. — IXiyyjav: proofs. These are said to have been certain letters 
which were discovered. Plut. Them. 23. — tois avTots, in the same manner 
(as Pausanias), i. e. with death. — avTov (i. e. 0€|ucrr-) : emphat. posit.: 
subj. of Ko\d£-. — 3. 'irvyji -yap ktI.: yap introduces the reason, not for 
tt€io-0€vt€s, but for irejxirovo-i kt|., since he happened, etc. Such a position 
of the causal sentence (before that for which it assigns the cause or reason) 
is frequent in Herod., and not unfrequent in Thucyd. '4rv\€ belongs with 
each of the participles in the parenthesis. For the nature of ostracism, 
see Smith's Hist., ch. xi. § 12. — Slou/rav: Lex. I., 2. Observe that 8iai- 
tciv and €m<|>oiTa>v are made antithetical by p.€V and 8e : a residence . . . . , 
but making frequent journeys, etc. — avSpas: obj. of irep/irovcru — cl'piyro : cf. 
129, 2. — &7€iv, sc. avTov : bring (him, i. e. Them.). 

Chap. 136. avTa>v : rav KepKvpatwv. In what way Th. had been & 
benefactor of the Corcyraeans is not known with certainty. The scholiast 
says he had shielded them from punishment for not aiding the Greeks 
against the Persians : I%it. Th. 24, that he had settled some dispute be- 
tween them and the Corinthians to their advantage. — ^X €IV civtov, to keep 

108 NOTES. - 

him (implying protection) : depends on ScSiivcu. (Sc'Sia). — <a<rr€ with the 
infin. result : H. 770 ; S. Gr. 531, b ; G. § 266. Notice the accentuation 
of cureX0€o-Oat (as pres., not aor.). — 2. viro twv •jrpocrreTa-yp.evwv (irpocr- 
TaTT<o), by those appointed (for the purpose). — ij x<opott] : indef. frequency 
of past action. H. 729, b ; S. Gr. 498, fine print ; G. § 233 : depends on 
Ka/r& ttvcttiv : on (their) learning by inquiry (repeatedly), where he was going. 

— Kara ti diropov, in a certain emergency. What this was Th. does not 
think it necessary to relate. — irapa "ASp/rjTov .... KttTaXvo-at, to take 
refuge with, etc. — 3. 6 p,€ v, Admetus : 6 84, Themist. — ttjs 7waiKos, of 
the wife (of Admetus). — Ka0££6<r0at (Kriig. and CI. write Ka0€£€<r0cu) cirl 
T-fjv io-TCav, to take refuge upon (lit. to sit down vpon) the hearth (which was 
probably elevated and used also for an altar). — 4. 8-qXot (indie.) t€ os 
€<tti, he both shows who he is, etc. — ouk djjioi (after the analogy of ov with 
<|>T>fj,i and with Idco) .... fyevyovra Tip.a>p€i<r0ai, he declares that it is not a 
worthy act to punish him while a fugitive, — a direct appeal to the generosity 
of Admetus : cl' ti . . . , Scope v&>, if in something perhaps he spoke against 
him (Admetus) while making a request of the Athenians. What this request 
was is only a matter of conjecture. — d<r0€V€crr€pos (Boeh., Kriig.) : pred. 
nom. with the infin. : for, being far weaker at the present time (than Admetus), 
he would suffer harm at his hands {ytr' eKetvov, i. e, Admetus). Poppo and 
CI. retain the reading d<r0€veo-T€pov (found in all the best MSS.) and ren- 
der, for he might suffer harm at present from one far weaker than he (Admetus). 
Though the order of the Greek words is unusual (with dcrOcvecrrcpov), yet 
it appears to me better to follow here the authority of the MSS. This and 
the following sentences depend on d£io£ above, or the idea implied in d|ioc, 
he declared. — toi»s 6p,olcvs : obj. of Tip,o>p€i<r0ai : dirb tov Zarov, with the 
subj. of Tip.-, that one from the position of equality punish, etc. — clvtos : pred. 
nom. again, with infin. €vavTi»0T]vai (cf. dcr0€V€<rr€pos above) : €K€lvu>, to 
him (Admetus) : ypctas tivos, Krtig. says "gen. of relation" and trans- 
lates it, in respect to a certain request (so Boeh., CL, and others) ; German, 
in Bezug avf wegen. It may be referred to H. 577 ; S. Gr. 420; G. § 173. 

— icat ovk €§ kt!., and not in respect to the saving of his life : same general 
idea with the gen. just before it. — to belongs with crw£€cr0<u : <rcop,a with- 
out the article, H. 530, c ; S. Gr. 379, a. — ckcIvov, subj. of diroo-Tcpfjorcu, 
but that he (Ad.) would deprive (him, Them.), etc.: &v expressed twice in 
this apodosis. H. .873, a ; G. § 212, 2. — clirwv v<j>' <»v kt!., mentioning by 
whom, etc. dir<&v refers to the subj. of the remote verb d|iot, something 
like Seizes, ch. 87, 2, in its const. — Itj) 1 <S : cf. 134, 1. — o-amjpias, with 
Lttoo-t- : H. 580, a ; S. Gr. 422, a a ; G. § 174 : article omitted, cf. <rwp.a 
and references above : of the safety of his life : <r<5p,a, above rendered life, 
means strictly body, person : <f>v\^, life in the strictly spiritual sense. 

Chap. 137. vUos : H. 202, 17 ; S. Gr. 112, aa ; Lex. mds. — wtrircp 
.... €ko.0^€to, just as also he was sitting with him : ical indicates the iden- 
tity of his present situation with that named above, ch. 136, 3. — \Uy- .... 
tovto, this as a form of supplication was most powerful: i. e. among the 
Molossians. Themist. had been taught this fact by the wife of Admetus, 


ch. 136, 3. Observe iK^rcvfjia has no article, hence we render, this as a, 
etc., not this form of supplication. — v<rT€pov ov iroXXco : this order (instead 
of ov iroXXco vcrr') occurs several times in Th. : not long afterwards. — ovk 
IscStScocriv : the connection is, 6 81 ... . dvUrrqcri T€ . . . . ical .... 
ovk €k8C8o)(tiv (sc. avTov, i. e. Th.). — cos PaouXia, to the king, i. e. of Per- 
sia : article omitted as with a proper name. — 4irl t^v €T€pav 0dX-, to the 
other sea, i. e. the Aegean. — ire^, i. e. Kara yijv. — tVjv, sc.\^rdXtv, a rare 
ellipsis. — 2. dvaYop.£vi]s : cf. 29, 4 : eiri with gen., towards, for. — Kal rjv 
•yap kt€.: cf. 31, 2 : and since he (Them.) was, etc. — Setcras, fearing, i. e. 
that he may be discovered and fall into the hands of the Athenians, — a 
most pitiable situation for the man who had commanded in the battle of 
Salamis, and been the chief means of rescuing his country from the despo- 
tism of the Persians. — <f>pd£€i ... 8cms IcttC : cf. StjXoi 8s Ioti, 136, 
4. — tyt\ Ipeiv, he (Th.) said he would declare, etc. : thus the life of the cap- 
tain would be in no less peril than that of Them., — another instance of 
the wonderful, but unscrupulous, astuteness of Themistocles. — xp^jxacri 
TT€ur0€ts,~-lit. persuaded by money, i. e. bribed, — the coram, phrase for this 
idea. — t?|v 8£ &cr<j>d\- kt4.: depends on %$t\ • lit. and that it was their safety 
that no one go forth, etc., or more freely, and that their safety required that no 
one, etc. CI. makes t*|v 84 subj. and d<r<|>dX- pred., the subj. conforming 
in gender to the pred., — an exegesis which does not seem to me probable. 
— (jblxpi and subj anc. without tXv. G. § 239, Note : lit. until a sailing begin, 
i. e. until the voyage be resumed, or until a favorable wind arise. — ireiOojxevco : 
particip. denoting condition, in case he should be persuaded. — dirojAVT)<reo-0cu 
(dirop,ijj.v^ : same subj. as &j>T), on which it depends. Notice the 
emphatic position of d£tav. — Observe that o-Tpo/roireSo-u and above <rrpa- 
T<Sir€8ov is spoken of an army or squadron with ships, i. e. a fleet — 3. fjX0€ 
• . . . d (>ir€|€K€iTo ({rn-€KK€i[ieH, as pass, of {jtt€Kti0t]|ji.i), for there came to 
him .... funds which had been deposited: avrto, dat. of interest, not of 
motion : notice 4k with the name of a place, irapd with gen. of person ; the 
usual distinction. — p.€Ta .... tivos, with a certain one of, etc. (compare 
the arrangement with the usual reading -Err' Ikcivov iroXXw. do-0€V€O"T€pov, 
136, 4, note) : KaTco, on the coast ; &va>, towards the interior, with a verb of 
motion ; in the interior, with a verb of rest. Observe Thucyd. here uses 
Ilepcrcov, instead of his usual word MVjScov. Cf. MijSikov, 23, 1, note. — 
Icnrep/jm .... 4s pacriXea is explained as meaning, sends .... into {the 
palace of) the king: 4s or els with the name of a person is very rare : hence 
Bekker, Kriiger, and some others change 4s to «s. — 4. 48^Xov 8' tj 7pdcj>^ : 
cf. TotravTa p.ev rj "ypa<j> , ?| 48tjXov, 129, 1 : note the variation in the arrange- 
ment. The object of 48fjXov here is the letter introduced by 8tl Eecol- 
lect that 8ti before, the oratio recta is not rendered into English, unless we 
throw the whole into the oblique narration : made plain (the following) , I 
Themistocles, etc. The letter of Pausanias (128, 7) begins with the 3d pers., 
but changes to the 1st pers. — os, 1st pers. relating to the subj. of fJK« : 
'EXX^vtov limits 6s, as *gen. of the whole : (being a man) of the Greeks who 
have inflicted, etc. : icaicd and oIkov, two aces, with one verb. — 4p.cC, with 

110 NOTES. 

the comp. verb 4-iriovTcu TL 605 ; S. Gr. 439 ; G. § 187. — -avcryKTi, with 
•fjfi.vvop.Tjv (&|j.vya>), / through necessity guarded myself against, repelled, etc. — 
iroXv 8* &ri trkdta ayaBd, sc. eipyao-pai rbv vpirepov oIkov, but (I have con- 
ferred) still greater benefits by far, etc. — lirciS'fj .... k\ioi, sc. eylYvcTo 
with indeterminate subject. H. 494 ; S. Gr. 347 ; G. §cJ34, Note 1, (c) : 
when (it was) in safety to me, or more freely, when all was safe for me. — 
ctceCvtp, to him (Xerxes). — Ypd\|fa$ : introduced like 8€i£as, 87, 2 : ctirwv, 
136, 4 ; but with less exact grammatical connection, after IS^jXov rj 7pa<f>T|. 
The clause in parenthesis is not a part of the letter, but gives the substance of 
what the letter here contained. — ttjv .... irpoayyeXo-iv (obj. of 7pdt|ias), 
the previous announcement of the withdrawal from Salamis. See Smith's Hist, 
ch. xix. § 6. — ttjv . . . . ov 8idXu<riv : note the neg. ov with a substan- 
tive having a verbal force : the not destroying, etc. : freely rendered, the fact 
that through himself the bridges were not at that time destroyed. See Smith's 
Hist. ch. xix. § 10. — i^v . . . . eiroi-fjo-aTO, which he falsely claimed to him- 
srlf. It seems almost incredible that Themistocles should have counted so 
much on the simplicity or the ignorance of the Persian monarch. — %X<*Vj 
having the ability, being able : SpcUrcu, depends on ?X WV > takes two aces. (<r4 t 
uva0d). — Sid tt|v cttjv 4>iXictv : notice onrjv in the sense of an objective 
gen. H. 677 ; S. Gr. 460, b ; G. § 147, Note 1 : on account of friendship for 
you. — Iviavrbv etn<r\<av (€tt€X<»), having waited a year. The reason for this 
delay may be inferred from 138, 1. — avros (agrees with the subj. of p<n>- 
Xo|xat) <rot . . . • 8t]Xc3crai, in person to unfold to you, etc. : irepl <Sv, (those 
things) about which, or, for which, etc. 

Chap. 138. 6V €tri(r\e: cf. kviavrbv 4mo*)(«v, 137, 4: #v, ace. of ex- 
tent. Observe that the regular attraction of the relative to the case of the 
antecedent is here omitted, as the dat. <S would not express clearly the 
idea of extent. — 2. rbv eviav- : article expressed, because tviavrov has 
been previously mentioned. — imp' civtw, i. e. t» pacriXeu — ical 6<ros kt€., 
even as no one of the Greeks up to that time (irw) : more literalty, even as much 
as, even as great (or, as influential) as, etc. — tov 'EXXtjvikov, by prolepsis 
put first for emphasis, depends on IXiriSa : must be supplied with 8o-uX<o<r€tv 
as obj. (in the ace.) : and (on account of the) hope which he (Them.) held out 
to him (the king) in respect to the Grecian power that he (Them.) would subju- 
gate (it). "We may render it thus, and on account of the hope which he held 
out to the king that he would subjugate for him the Grecian power : vttctiOci, lit. 
put under, suggested : SovXwtreiv, explanatory of IXiriSa. — rov belongs to 
the sentence following : 8iSovs, {vvctos, predicate with the infin. H. 775 
(fine print) : S. Gr. 536, b ; G. § 136, Note 2 : and especially from the fact 
that he appeared (to be) a man of sagacity by giving proof (of ii): SiSovs, pres. 
particip. denoting the repeated exhibitions of his sagacity. — 3. fjv: placed 
first for emphasis : For Themist. was in fact, etc. : mark the force of 8tj after 
a superlative, H. 851 ; S. Gr. 580, d ; Lex. : 8t]Xc&<ras, particip. denoting 
means, by exhibiting most conclusively native force (lit. force of nature) : Kai, 
in tens, even somewhat remarkably : 4s avT<$, in respect to it, referring to the 
idea of the preceding clause : p.dXXov eripov, more than any other (man) ; 


ttftos 9avfi,dtrttt, pred. with ^v, was in fact worthy of admiration, infin. with 
an adj. and the act, where we use a pass. H. 767, a (end) : S. Gr. 530, c ; 
G. § 261, 2. — olK€ta .... fuv&rei : da.t. of means with kp&tuttos yv&- 
[jlcov, sc. fjv : for through (his) own sagacity . ... (he was) a very excellent 
judge (lit. knower). — ko.1, in tens. : irpo-, previous to his entrance into pub- 
lic life ; iiri-, subsequent to it : Is avT^jv, i. e. |vv€<riv, a construction imply- 
ing motion with a verb of rest. H. 618, a ; S. Gr. 448. b ; G. § 191, Note 
6 : even not having added anything to it by previous learning (from any teacher), 
nor by subsequent learning. — tcov imp-, witli "yvcap.cov, judge of etc. — 8i* .... 
(BovXijs, with (lit. through) very brief deliberation. — tcov |A€XXgvtcov seems 
most naturally connected with cUac-T^s ; and tov y€vr\a-c\t.4vov with irXeTtr- 
tov : a very superior diviner of those things about to take place extending over a 
very long period of the future. Such seems to be the most generally received 
interpretation of this sentence. Kruger, however, joins twv jwX- as limit- 
ing gen. with eirl irXefcr-, and tov y€vr\<r- with cckcio-t^s, a very superior di- 
viner of that which was about to happen during a very long period in the- future. 
Other interpretations have been given, but need not be repeated here. — cl 
.... ^x 01 : optat. denoting indefinite frequency of past action : whatever 
he had {at any time) in hand: iced .... otos T€, he was able also to explain 
(or to develop in discourse). — <ov: the anteced. understood is obj. of Kptvai: 
&irf|X\aKTO, cnraXXao-<ra> : and those things in which he ivas inexperieuced, he 
was not at a loss to estimate satisfactorily — to re &p.avcv ^ X € *P 0V > 0D J- °f 
irpoewpa (irpoop&co) : 2ti, with &<f>avei, in that which was still obscure. — 
€lir€tv : const.? H. 772 ; S. Gr. 532,; G. § 268 : to speak the whole together, 
to sum up the whole — Kpano-Tos, pred.: ovtos, subj.: note again the force 
of St| with a superlative. — avToa-xeSi&^etv (depends on Kp&T-) t& Scovto,, 
to execute off-hand whatever was necessary (either in words or acts). — 4. vocnrj- 
<ras : spoken in distinction from the idea of a violent death. — <j)apfj.a.Ka> : 
dat. of means. According to a story widely circulated in ancient times, 
he took curdled ox-blood. — 5. p.vrj|i.€tov .... uvto€ : observe there is 
no article : hence we render it, certain it is (y.\v o€v) there is a monument of 
him, etc. If to were expressed before p-vij-, we should render it, his monu- 
ment, etc. For jjl^v o«v, see Lex. piv, II., 5; H. 866, 852, 13 ; S. Gr. 580, 
m : has a confirmative force, introducing a fact, in opposition to the report 
Xe-yovcrt Tives ktI. — dpTOv .... olvov .... 6\|/ov, for bread .... for 
wine, etc., i. e. to furnish bread, etc. In Plut. Them, els &pTov, etc. Cf. 
Xen. Anab. 1, 4, 9, €is %&w\v* — iroXvoivoTaTdv : neut. although the subj. 
of 4So'K€i (sc. AdfMJ/aicos) is fem. : H. 522 ; S. Gr. 372 ; G. § 138, Note 1, 
(c) : for, of the (cities) at that time, it seemed to be most abundant in wine. — 
6. T60f]vai : riQr\\iu — Kpv«|>a with the gen. H. 589 ; S. Gr. 427, be; G. 
§ 182, 2. To those who now visit Piraeus, a grave is pointed out as that 
of Them., a short distance southeast of the entrance of the principal har- 
bor, just at the edge of the water. — cos ... . 4>€vyovtos, as if he were in 
exile on account of, etc. Notice here again the gen. abs. after cos, where the 
ace. would be admissible. H. 793 ; S. Gr. 544, a ; G. § 278, Note. — t& 
kclto. kt€., those things relating to, or as we may say, the fortunes of etc. : subj. 
of ItcXcvttjo-sv. To the thoughtful mind, an impressive sentence. 

112 NOTES. 

Chap. 139* TOiavra lir£rafav (ktnr6.ara-o>), cli. 126, 2: dvT€X€\€vo-0iq- 
crav (dvTtK€X€t>a>), ch. 128, 1. — rr\s 4Xd<r- with irepC : concerning the expul- 
sion of, etc. — HonSatas diravloracrOai, to withdraw from, etc. Cf. ch. 64, 
3. — Afyivav .... d«|>i€vdi, to leave Aegina autonomous. Cf. ch. 67, 2. — 
*n , potf\€*yov (TrpoXeya)) : not here in the sense to declare beforehand, but, to 
announce, to declare solemnly. — KaGeXovcri (KctGaipew), after having rescinded, 
or in case they should rescind, sc. avTOts limiting uf| dv yevcorGcw irdX.6p.ov, 
thnt a war would not arise (to them). — w, relates to 4nf|<|>Mrp.a. — c?pi)To avi-ovs 
p.^1 xpTJ<r0ai : "verbs of declaring may take either the ace' or the dat. with 
the infin." Kriig. : it had been said to them not to use, or, they were told not to 
use. Ch. 67, 4. — 2. eiriKdXovvTcs, charging upon (in the sense accusing of). 
— t^s Upas, that which was sacred, i. e. to Demeter and Persephone the 
Eleusinian goddesses : ttjs dopurrov (made. distinct from ttjs Upas by the 
repetition of the article), that which was not marked off with boundaries, hence 
in dispute, — lying probably between the territory of Megara and that of 
Athens. — vTroSoxTiv : connected by Kal to eirep-yao-lav : obj. of erriicaXovv- 
Tes. — 3. tIXos : adv. ace, finally. — <»v .... €i«0e<rav, sc. Xryciv, [of 
those things) which they were previously wont (to say) : aviTot 8£ rdSe, but just 
these things, or only these things: bVi before the oratio recta, not rendered 
into English, cf. 137, 4, introduces the sentence explaining Td8e. — ftvai, 
€i't} .... d<f>eiT€, to continue, and it would continue, if you would, etc. (d^etrjrc 
or d<j>€iT€, optat.). To this point, the sentence is dependent. When all 
this had been done, then the Athenians having called an assembly, etc. — 
airaj : mark the emphatic force of this word, once for all : PouXcvcrapivovs 
agrees with the subj. of diroKplv-, it seemed expedient that they, etc. — 4. cir' 
d|A<j>oT€pa, towards both (sides), i. e. for and against concession to the de- 
mands of the Lacedaemonians : yiyv6\Levoi rats Tvt&p-ats, lit. becoming in 
their opinions,- or as we say, inclining, leaning in their opinions: Kal .... Kal, 
both .... and, presenting two things of equal weight and importance : not 
• like rk . . . . Kal, the less, and then the more important. — With clvai 
and with KaGeXeuv understand \pi\ : that it is necessary that the decree (con- 
cerning the Megarians) be not in the way of, etc. — Kal before irapcXOwv* 
correl. with t4 after &XX01, introduces the second and more important 
thought : and especially. — iraprjva : Trapaiycco. 

Chap. 140 - 144. Speech of Pericles. For an excellent outline of 
this discourse, see Grote's Hist. ch. 48 ; also Wilkins's Speeches from 
Thucydides, p. 51. 

Chap. 145* dpicrra : adj. neut. plur.: obj. of irapaivetv, avrdv subj., 
that he advised what was best. — ttj . . . . "yvwpT) : cf. 93, 5. — m &|>pao-€ : 
connected in thought only with Ka0' ^Kacrra : both in particulars, as he told 
them, and in general. — K€X€vdp,€VOi, erotp.01 (note the accent, see Lex.) : pred. 
nora. with infin. H. 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b; G. § 136, Note 2: that they would 
do nothing being bidden, but that they were ready, etc. — &rl i'o-rj Kal ouota : 
cf. ch. 27, 1. 

Chap. 146* avrai, subj. : atrial, 8ia<f>opal, pred. (since they are with- 
out the article). — kyivovro apfyoripois, arose to both (parties). In ch. 23, 


6, we have the const. -?j<rav €KaT€pa>v, were of, etc. "We have here avTcu, 
referring to what precedes, in 23, 6, aft>€ denoting what follows. — 8u«s 
should not be confounded with opws. — ky avTais : referring to ai/riai and 
8icu|>opai : in the midst of them, i. e. during the time of these accusations 
and differences. — &Ki]pvKTcos, without a herald. After the war, had actually 
commenced they could not thus approach each other. For the staff or 
mace carried by heralds, see Die. Antiqq. p. 218, a. — |v*yxv<ris, irpd<j>a<ris : 
pred. — t& *yi"yvd(Ji€va : subj. : the events (which were) happening were, etc. 


The student is referred to the chapter on " Socrates," in the eighth 
volume of G-rote's History. For the life and writings of Xenophon, 
see Class. Diet. ; also " Ancient Classics for English Headers," Yol. 

BOOK I. — Chapter I. 

The refutation of the charge (§ 1), that Socrates did not reverence the 
gods of the Athenians, but introduced new deities. 

1. Socrates sacrificed, like the other Athenians, to the gods of the state 
(§ 2). 

2. He made use of divination (§ 2 - 9). 

3. His teachings no less than his actions showed him to be a man pre- 
eminently pious (§ 10-20). 

1. €0ai5p.acra : aor. for perf. H. 706 ; S. Gr. 481 : I have of en, etc. — 
Ticrt ttotI X.d"Yois, by what possible arguments. Ttcrt st. otsrun. H. 682 ; 
S. Gr. 565 ; G. 149, 2. When the indirect question takes the character 
of the direct, the direct interrog. pronouns take the place of the indefinite 
relatives, irori = Lat. tandem, denoting in interrogations impatience for 
an answer, or astonishment. Accent? H. 105, b, and 111, d ; S. Gr. 65, 
b ; 69, a ; G. 27, 2 ; 28, 3. — ot -ypa\J/dfj.€Voi 2a>Kpa,TT)v, the accusers of Soc- 
rates, viz.: Meletus, a third-rate poet, Anytus, a tanner, and Lycon, an 
orator. (Cf. Smith's History of Greece, ch. xxxv. § 14, 15.) — <os &£ios 
€i'r], that he was worthy. H. 731 and a ; S. Gr. 500 ; G. 243. The opt. 
showing that the writer is not responsible for the thought, since he gives 
it only as what might be. — rfj irdXei, from the state. . H. 601 ; S. Gr. 437 ; 
G. 184, 5. — piv solitarium. H. 862, a ; S. Gr. 585, a a. — 7pa.<H, indict- 
ment. — toicLSc tis, about as follows, haec fere. tIs gives indefiniteness to 
the statement. — ovs p.£v .... &r€pa 8« : correlative. — 0€oi>s ov vojil£cov, 
in not believing in the gods. Circumstan. part, of manner or cause. Oeovs. 

114 NOTES. 

Incorporation. H. 809, 3, and a ; S. Gr. 553; G. 154. — dSiicet : repeated 
in imitation of the formality of legal documents. — 8e, and; kci£, also. 

2. ovv : differs how fr. dpa ? H. 866 ; S. Gr. 586, b. It here denotes 
a transition from the general statement to an examination of particulars ; 
Lat. igitur, then. — 0€ovs. Cf. § 1. — iror' : see note run. ttot€, § 1. — 0v«v. 
H. 797, 1 ; S. Gr. 546, a. — ri: correl. with Kal before uavuKfj. — cjxxve- 
pds, evidently. H. 488, R. c ; S. Gr. 340, c ; G. 138, N. 7. — iroXXaKis \ 
.... iroXXaKis 8& H. 862, a; S. Gr. 585, a a. — ofccoi : adv. Differs 
how in form fr. the Norn. PI. of oTkos? — xP < fy J,6V °S ; const, like 0vwv above. 

— 8t€T€0pv\r]TO (8ia0pv\€a>). Plup. denoting the completeness of the ac- 
tion : it was very commonly reported — <J>afrq. Why opt.? H. 735, 736 ; S. 
Gr. 503, 504 ; G. 243. — 8atp.6viov : an adj. used as a substantive. - — 60€v 
8^ Kal jidXicTTa, from which very thing they seem to me most especially. 8^ 
gives force to #0ev (H. 851, 4, and a; S. Gr. 580, d), Kal to p.d\urra. H. 
856, b ; S. Gr. 583, c. Kal comm. stands before the word on which its 
force falls. — Kcuva Saip-ovia : the assertion of Soc. to 8aip.dvi.ov 4avT(J 
o-rjuaiveiv meant, in the mind of the accusers, introducing new divinities. 
Kcuvd, new in kind ; diff. fr. veos, new, but not in kind. 

3. f O 8*. H. 525 (7) ; S. Gr. 375 ; G. 143, K 2. — t<Sv dXXcov, gen. 
of Derson. A brief expression for V\ TavTa, a 01 &XX01 &irotow. — olwvols, 
omens from the flight and songs of birds, <j>^p,ais, from the sayings of men, 
<ru|j.(3dXois, from unforeseen occurrences, like thunder, lightning, the acci- 
dental meeting of men, etc., 0vcrlais, from the entrails of victims. — ri, 
correl. with kcU in KcUeivos, and contrasts ovtoi with ckcivos. — ov . . . . 
ovBe, not that the birds, nor even that the persons, etc. ov stands regularly be- 
fore the clause on which its force falls. — tovs diravnovTas. H. 786, 509, 
bf S. Gr. 538, a; 359, b; G. 276, 2 ; 139, 1. — tovs 0eovs .... o-T)jxa£- 
veiv : same const, as tovs 6pvi0as .... elSevai. — avrd, i. e. Ta o-vp.<|>€- 
povTa. — tcdicctvos. H. 68 ; S. Gr. 39 ; G. 11. Position of Kai ? See note 
Kal jidXio-ra, § 2. — ovtcos. When written ovtw ? H. 80, c ; S. Gr. 45 ; 
G. 13, 2. 

4» *AXX\ H. 863 ; S. Gr. 585, b. — ot ttXcIotoi,, the many, the major- 
ity : seems to differ little in meaning from 01 iroXXoi. Comparison ? H. 
223, 5 ; S. Gr. 130, e ; G. 73, 8. — fycuriv. Why unaccented in the text ? 
H. 105, c ; S. Gr. 65, c ; G. 27, 3. — viro tc. ri regularly follows the 
word it connects. But if the word has the art., an attrib. gen., or a prep., 
t^ comm. stands between these and the word it connects. — diroTpenw&u 
.... <irpoTp€ir€o-0ai. Subj. omitted. Why? H. 775; S. Gr. 536, b; 
G. 134, 2. — SancpdTTjs: deck H. 176, 179; S. Gr. 101, c, 108, a; G. 52, 
K 1, 60, 1. — oisirep. Diners how fr. «s? H. 850, 3 ; S. Gr. 580, c. Why 
not properispomenon ace. to H. 94 c ? See H. 110 ; S. Gr. 68 ; G. 28, N. 3. 

— eyiyvGHTKev : see L. and Sc. sub voce II. — ovtws. Cf. note, § 3. — rb 
Saipdviov .... o-rjjiatv€iv. What verbs take inf. with subject ace.?; H. 
764 ; S. Gr. 527 ; G. 260, 1. — £vvdvT<ov, lit. of those who were with (him), 
hence of his associates, followers. A common designation of the pupils of 
Soc. They were not called [kaQr\rai, because he refused to be addressed 


as teacher, SiSdcricaXos. Jvv, old form of crvv. — irpor\y6p€ve, H. 701 ; S. 
Gr. 476, b ; G. 200. Past action frequently repeated : was accustomed to, 
etc. — t& jxev . . . . to. 8€. What use of art. ? H. 525, a ; S. Gr. 375, a ; 
G. 143, 1 : to do some tilings and not to do others, (irj. Why not ov ? H. 832, 
837 ; S. Gr. 569, 571 ; G. 283, 3. — cos. Force with a participle ? H. 795, 
e ; S. Gr. 540, c ; G. 277, N. 2 : because, or, on the ground that (as he thought). 
■ — <ruv€c|>€p€, p.£T€jxe\€ : impers. — pfj. When does the part, take jj,tj ? H. 
839 ; S. Gr. 571 ; G. 283, 4 : to those not obeying (him), (if any did not obey). 
The part, with jatj after the art. is equivalent to a hypothetical relative 
sentence : tovtois, ot &v p/f) irelGcovTau It is frequently difficult to give 
the force of |A^j in English. 

5. KatTOi : denoting transition and slight contrast, and yet. — tis. 
Why orthotone ? H. 244, a ; S. Gr. 141, a ;■ G. 84. tis (interrog.) always 
has the acute on the iota. — &v 6^0X07^ <r€i€V. Pot. opt. expressing a firmly 
established opinion with reserve and moderation. H. 722, b ; S. Gr. 491, 
b ; G. 226, 2. Notice the irreg. form -€i€V. Differs how fr. the reg. form? 
Which is more comm.? H. 349, b ; S. Gr. 236 ; G. 116, N. 1. — 48ok 6 w 
av .... el 4<|>alv€To. Supposition with contrary reality. H. 746 ; S. Gr. 
514; G. 222. May be transl. as plup., as also irpoeXeyev .... lirCcrrevev 
below. — d|Atj>oTepa rcuiTa, he would have seemed (to be) both of these, i. e. 
tjXiOios Kal dXa£cov. ravra : neut. for masc. by H. 522 ; S. Gr. 372 ; G. 
138, N. 2, (c). — cos. Cf. note on cos § 4. — <|>atvd[i,eva, (things) manifested 
(to him) : obj. of irpoaYOp. — Kara, Kal cItcu H. 68, a ; S. Gr. 39, a ; G. 
11 : and then, after all. etra, Iitci/to, and Sjacos are often added to the pred- 
icate of a sentence with emphat. force. — \|/€v8dp.€vos. H. 797, 1 ; 802 ; 
S. Gr. 546, a ; 547. — : el utj, unless. — dXrjOevcrav, (Ms predictions) would 
prove true. — ravTa. The Greek very often uses the pi. to express an idea 
in its whole extent, and bring before the mind all the particulars involved. 
Ace. of specif. H. 549 ; S. Gr. 394 ; G. 160, 1. In these matters. — &v 
irio-Tevo-€i€v. See note on av ouoX. above. — Tncrrevcov. Notice the use 
of the part., since he believed in. H. 788, c ; S. Gr. 540, c ; G. 277, 2. Obj. 
of €VojAi,£ev ? 0eovs etveu. 

6. 'AXXd |xt)v, sed vero, but truly or besides, ji^v denotes confirmation. 
Notice the imps. 4-iroCet, cruvePovXevc, and eTreuTrev, denoting customary ac- 
tion. — Kal tcLSc, the following things also. Demonstratives in 8e (#8€, TotdsSe, 
TOcrdsSe, ttjXikosSc, adv. coSe) regularly refer to what follows : while ovtos, 
toiovtos, toctovtos, thXikovtos, adv. ovtco refer to what precedes. — tovs 
liriTTjSelo'us, lit. the serviceable (persons), i. e. his friends: frequently used in 
Mem. in this signification, tovs equivalent to a poss. pron., his. H. 527, 
d ; S. Gr. 377, d ; G. 141, N. 2. — Td . . . . dva-yKaia, the things necessary 
(to be done). — *ydp : here epexegetic, i. e. used after a general assertion to 
introduce a statement of particulars. Eng. namely. It need not always be 
transl. into Eng. — Koi contrasts irpdTT€iv with Ivdui^v, to do also, as he 
thought. — dv. H. 783, a ; S. Gr. 519, a ; G. 211. — Sircos. Comparative 
use, in what way. — av diropV]croi.To, they would result (if they should be 
done). Condition omit. H. 752 ; S. Gr. 520, b ; G. 226, 2. Notice par- 

116 NOTES. 

ticularly here av with the fat. optat. Some grammars in common use* say 
&v is " never " used with the flit, optat. Yet the above reading is found in 
the edit, of Breit. (1854), in the edition published by Engelmann (1863), 
in that of Bobbins, and in that of Kith., which we reprint. Kiih. writes 
a note upon it, explaining its force here. It also occurs with the fut. optat. 
in most editions of Plato, Rep. -X. 615, d ; and is cited thus by Pape. 
Sophocles, in his recently published Lexicon, cites not less than nine ex- 
amples of this usage ; among them one from Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 
There is certainly nothing in the nature of the particle av or of the fut. 
optat. which forbids this use ; and the fact is established beyond contro- 
versy. — (xavTeuo-ojJievovs, oraculum consulturos. H. 788, d ; S. Gr. 540, 
d ; G. 277,' 3. — cl, whether. — troir\r4a : in agreement with Tavra, i. e. to. 
aSnXa. Meaning of the verbal in t € o$. H. 398 ; S. Gr. 265 ; G. 281. 

*7* Kal sometimes introduces an explanation (so for example) so, accord- 
ingly. — oI'kcvs t€ Kal irdXeis, (lit. both houses and cities) : those who would 
manage not only domestic, but also public affairs. oiK^cmv, Lat. administrare. 
When T6 and Kai connect two members, the latter member is usually more 
important, and hence receives KaC, the stronger word. --- pavTiKTjs .... 
irposSetorOai. Notice the force of irpds in comp. : have additional need of 
divination. — tcktovucov and fol. adjectives (used as nouns) in pred. with 
Y€V€o-0ai. Meaning of the termination -ikos ? H. 469, a ; S. Gr. 321, a : 
for to become skilled as a carpenter, etc. — cleTcurrucdv, critic, connoisseur: 
governs 2pY«v. H. 587, b ; S. Gr. 426, b ; G. 180, 2 : in such pursuits (as 
precede). See note r&Se, § 6. — Kal dvOptforov *yv<&p.Y|, even, or, simply in. 
accordance with human judgment, in distinction from 0€<5v "yvwjxTj. 

£• to. $k p-fyio-Ta .... tovtois (lit. the most important of the [things], 
partitive gen.), the most important things in these pursuits. $4 correl. with 
piv in t€jctov .... piv, § 7. — cSv ovSiv, no one of which. — <J>VT€vcrau£v<». 
Notice the force of the middle voice in this and the fol. verbs. What use 
of mid.? H. 689 ; S. Gr. 467 ; G. 199, 2. — SrjXov. ecrri om. as often else- 
where. — el. In the first two instances, whether : in the last two, whether 
or not. The connection alone can decide whether the sentence has an 
affirmative (nonne) or a negative (num) signification. — dvidcrcTai .... 
CTTepVjercTai. Fut. mid., usually rendered as passive. H. 412, b; S. Gr. 
282 ; G. 199, K 4. Will be troubled .... will be banished. May they 
not equally well be regarded as mid. ? Will get to himself annoyance .... 
deprive himself of. 

9. prfiiv. Why not oiSe'v ? H. 837 ; S. Gr. 571 ; G. 283, 3. The 
inf. takes p/fj and its compounds, because it comm. denotes, not a fact, but 
a conception. — Scupdviov, adj. in pred., divine, dependent on the divinity. — 
irdvTa (etvai) t^s . . . . , all things belong to the province of human judgment. 
H. 572, c ; S. Gr. 415, (c), d; G. 169, 1. — 8ai[Jiovav has for subj. tovs 
oiopivovs. For the contraction, see H. 371, a ; S. Gr. 251, a. The student 
will notice the play upon words in Saip.dviov .... 8aip.ovdv. — 8atp.ovdv. 
8£ Kal tovs .... and mad were those also who. — a . . . . , (in respect to 
those thii-gs) which the gods gave to men to decide by (having learned) learning. 


Anteced. om. H. 810 ; S. Gr. 554 ; G. 152. — 8iaKp£v€iv. Subj. om. H. 
776 ; S. Gr. 536, c ; G. 134, 2. When this is the case, a modifier (p.a0oticri) 
of the subject of the inf. takes the case of the preceding object (dvGpwTrois). 

— otov, adv. as, for instance. — cttio-t&jjisvov (obj. of Xafetv) r\vio\eiv } one 
knowing how to drive. H. 764, b ; S. Gr. 527, b ; G. 260. — l-irl ^efryos. 
Art. omit., as in many common expressions; eirl Selirvov, to supper ; €irl 
0T)pav, to the chase; &(]>' fanrov, on horseback. H. 530, b ; S. Gr. 379, c. 
Xapciv errior. kt!., subj. of KpctTTov (eUt|). Transl. as if in fol. order; iroTe- 

pOV (€ttj) Kp€tTTOV Xap€tV €7rl £€VY<>S €iri<TTd(J.6VOV T)VlO)(tfy § KTC. TT|V VdW. 

Art. as possess, pron.. H. 527, d ; S. Gr. 377, d ; G. 141, N. 2. — ^ &, or 
(if any one should ask those things) which. — dpi0|i^<ravTas .... p,erp. 
.... (rHjo\ Particip. of means. H. 789, b; S. Gr. 540, b; G. 277, 2. 

— tovs to, ToiavTa. Asyndeton. Frequently so when roiavTa, &XXa or 
&XX01 include a summary of what has been and is to be named. — d0€jjwora : 
obj. of iroielv. — &, relates to the obj. (sc. ravrd) of p.av0dv€iv. — ir€ipd<r0ai, 
(sc. <£$n\ 8e), depends on Seiv. — tovs 0eovs .... crt]|iaiv€iv: sc. ttyt\. Inf. 
st. finite mood. H. 773, b ; S. Gr. 527, a ; G. 260,- 2, N. 1. — ots dv wo-tv 
VXeo>, to whomever they may be propitious. Hypoth. rel. sent. H. 757 ; S. Gr. 
523, c ; G. 233. tXew. Att. sec. decl. H. 209 ; S. Gr. 117 ; G. 64. 

10. 'AXXd |jtf)v : see note, § 6. — -y*. H. 850, 1 ; S. Gr. 580, a. — del 
piv .... <j>av€po>, was always in public. \Uv correl. with 8e in § 11, con- 
trasting del .... 4>avepo> with oiSels ktI. — irpwt t€ yap .... , for both 
in the morning he was accustomed to go to the public walks, etc. ri correl. with 
KaC in Kal tr\r\Q .... Kal to Xomt. — -ircplTraTOS. 1. a walking; 2. a place 
for walking: especially in the public buildings, protected from the heat 
of the sun and storms. Cf. oi 4k tov ircptirdTov, the peripatetic school of 
Aristotle, because he taught walking in a portico of the Lyceum at Athens. 
■yuji.vd<ria : places for exercise and instruction, much frequented by the 
rhetors and sophists and their pupils. For a description, see Smith's Diet. 
Antiq., Becker's Charicles, Excurs. V. ffct : H. 701; S. Gr. 476, b; G. 
200.— irXti0ov<rti$ d^opds. Gen. of time. H. 591 ; S. Gr. 428 ; G. 179. 
The day wa*s comm. divided into four parts ; irpcrt, morning ; irX^0ovo-a 
dyopd, full market ; p,€<rr]p,|3pia, noon ; SeiXt], afternoon ; after which came 
€<nr€pa, evening. — cj>avepbs fjv, was to be seen. — p.eXXoi <rvve<r€<r0ai. Peri- 
phrastic Put. H. 711 ; S. Gr. 484. The opt. represents the thought as 
the intention of Socrates. H. 731 ; S. Gr. 500 ; G. 241. — <£X€Y€: see %&. 
above : was conversing. — cas to irokv, for the most part, usually. — c£»]V. 
Impers. Subj. aKoveiv. H. 494, a ; S. Gr. 348 ; G. 134, Note 2. 

11* ScoKpaTovS/. . . . 7rpdTTovTos ctSev. ctSev here takes the gen. 
instead of its usual construction with the ace. in imitation of the const, of 
the fol. clause, XeyovTos fJKOiicrcv. No one ever saw or heard Socrates either 
doing or saying anything .... irpdrTOVTOS, Xcyovtos : supp. part. H. 796, 
799 ; S. Gr. 545, 546, c ; G. 280. When do two negatives strengthen the 
negation? How many can be used in Eng.? H. 843 ; S. Gr. 577 ; G. 283, 
8. — OvBk .... dXXd K<xi, not only not ... . but even. — ^rap : dat. of 
manner (fr. 6s : anteced. omitted), irep : intensive. H. 850, 3 ; S. Gr. 

118 NOTES. 

580, c : in the very way in which, even as. — twv aXXwv, of the other teachers, 
philosophers. — 8teXe-y€To. N otice the force of the imp.. — oV«s : as interrog. , 
in what manner. — 6 KaXovuevos .... kqo-[xo$, the universe so called by the 
sophists. <ro$i<rHjs, originally in a good sense, a wise man, afterwards as a 
term of reproach for those teachers who taught for the sake of gain. The 
latter use of the word sprung up in the time of Socrates. See Grote, Vol. 
VIII. ch. 67, 68. ~ ri<riv, in indirect quest. H. 682; S. Gr. 565 ; G. 149, 
2. — dvd-yKcus, necessary larvs. H. 518, c ; S. Gr. 369, b. 

12. irpwTov jjl€V, correl. with Io-kottci Sc, § 15. — avrwv Io-kottci, he used 
to ask them. at»T<Sv (i. e. tovs <|>povTi£ovTas rd. Totavra) : gen. of person. 
IJ. 582 ;' S. Gr. 422, c ; G. 171, 2, Note 1. Instead of the ace. of the 
thing we have here the sentence, Trorepa k. t. X. — ttotc. Cf. note, § 1. — 
vojxl<ravT€s : cause. H. 789, c ; S. Gr. 540, c ; G. 277, 2. — Tav9pwmva. 
dvGpt&iriva and, later, dv0pwir€ia, appear to be used without difference of 
meaning, human affairs. — to .... <|>povT^€iv, as subst. H. 779, 780; 
S. Gr. 533; G. 262, 1. — iraplvTes : irapiTjp.. H. 367, d; S. Gr. 248, d; 
G. 26, (2). — to, Saifiovia, res divinae. Here referring to physics, which, 
as then taught by the sophists, were founded upon mere conjectures, the 
discussion of which was opposed by Socrates as of no practical benefit to 
men ; and the whole subject, so little understood, was regarded by him as 
belonging rather to divine beings than to men. 

13* cl, he wondered whether, nearly equivalent to he. wondered that. 
Perhaps el is preferred to dVi, to avoid the repetition of tfTt^which occurs 
at the beginning of the next clause. The employment of the indie, (co-tiv) 
in orat. obi. instead of the opt. makes the past event appear as present, 
and gives spirit to the narration. — tovs p-cyio-tov ^povovvras. Cf. jifya 
<j>pov€iv : those priding themselves most upon their speaking concerning .... — 
rain-d. Diff. bet. TaiiTa and Tavrd ? H. 234, 239 ; S. Gr. 134,' a ; G. 79, 
2, Note. — 8o|d|€iv. Inf. in orat. obi. st. finite mood. H. 734, c ; S. Gr. 
502, c ; G. 260, 2. — dXX^jXots, dependent on Tavrd. H. 603 ; S. Gr. 438, 
b ; G. 186. — rots |j.aivo pivots. Dat. of likeness with o^ouos : are dis- 
posed towards each other (as far as regards agreement in their opinions) like 

1J:« Proof of the last assertion. — t«v t€ "yap puvopivcov, correl. with 

TtoV T€ . . . . [XeplJJLV^VTWV. T^ .... T€, OS .... SO. TOVS \&V .... 

tovs 8c, some . . . others. ov84, not even. 81 gives emphasis to Ta Scivd : 
may be separated from ov in transl. ; do not fear even the things that are fear- 
ful. — \ki\ : attrib. of 4>o|8€pd. H. 534, a ; S. Gr. 380, d. — <J>oj3€to-8at, 
differs fr. SeSiivcu in denoting a more transient emotion ; are frightened. — 
ovS* 4v ox.X<p. Cf. ovhk Ta Seivd. 4v oyXto, dependent on \4yav i] iroieiv. 

— e|iTT]T€Ov .... elvai, subj. of Sokciv. Transl., it does not seem good that 
one should even go forth among men. — Updv. Cf. L. and Sc. sub voce, II. 2. 

— XiOovs Kal £vXa m ruxovra, quoslibet lapides et quaelibet ligna. Kiih. 
to tvx.ov, any chance thing: hence Ta rvyovra ktI. } common, ivorthless stones 
and pieces of wood (stocks). — to #v, that which exists, the universe. Subj. of 
the fol. word. That the universe is one thing only was the opinion of 


Thales, Pythagoras, Xenophanes, and other philosophers. — diretpa. Se. 
tol ovtci clvai. The view of Leucippus and J^emocritus, defender^ of 
the atomic theory. — to irXfjGos : ace. of specif. — del KiveurGcu ircLvra. 
The theory of Heraclitus of Ephesus, that all things are subject to a per- 
petual change (tjtwv irdvnov pot]). — ovhev dv ttotc KivrjOfjvai, nothing can 
ever be moved The opinion of Zeno Eleates. — irdvTa "yl-yveorSal t€ Kal 
dirdXXvo-0ai belongs to the view of Heraclitus : and otir' dv Y€v«r0ai ttot^ 
ovSev oi>T* diroXctorGai to the view of Zeno. Notice the force of the pres- 
ent tense in yiyvea-Qai and dirdXXvo-0ai. For the use of dv with KiVT]0f}vai 
and Y€V€V0cu see H. 722, b ; S. Gr. 491, b ; G. 211. Can ever, etc. — diro- 
XacrGcu : diroXXv|ii. Note the tense, also the distinction bet. the act. and. 
mid. In this section observe the cliff, bet. eljjti and "yt-yvojxtu : eifxt denot- 
ing existence ; ", coming into existence. 

15. Kal t&Sc, the following also icat comm. stands before the word on 
which its force falls. — dp', whether, here introducing an indirect question. 
Differs how fr. dpa inferential ? H. 828, b ; 865 ; S. Gr. 566, b ; 586, a. 
— casircp, just as. irep intens. Why not properispomenon ? H. 110 ; S. 
Gr. 68; G. 28, Note 3. — tovG 1 , obj. of irot^jo-siv. — 6ti dv p.d0a>o-iv: subst. 
clause in apposition with to€to : they will do that, whatever they have learned, 
more lit. shall have learned. H. 760 ; S. Gr. 523, c ; G. 232, 3. — Icurrots 
. - - . ot<o (Sstis) : dat. of advantage. H. 597 ; S. Gr. 433 ; G. 184, 2. 
— oi>TO) corresponds to wsirep above: so those also. — dvaYKcas : see note 
§ 11. — iroi^o"€tev, will make, produce. — vSa/rci, rain. — wpas, seasons. — dXXov. 
Incorporation. H. 809, 1 ; S. Gr. 553, b ; G. 154, Note. We may ren- 
der,, and whatever else of such (lit. things) a nature they may desire. For the 
nses of the subjunctive in this section see H. 757 ; S. Gr. 523 ; G. 232, 3. 

1H* TavTd irpa'yp.aTsvopivwv, busying themselves with these things. — 
Toiafira gXsYev, he used to say such things (as above). H. 679 ; S. Gr. 461, b ; 
O. 148, Note 1. — dv .... EieXe-yeTo, would converse (if opportunity oc- 
curred). H. 704 ; S. Gr. 479 ; G. 206. — o-kottwv ti €vo-€p€s, ti dole's, 
considering what (was) pious, what impious. Was need not be supplied in 
rendering into Eng. after the first expression. Translate the Greek as it 
stands. — irdXis . . . . ttoXitikos, state .... statesman. This section show 7 s 
that ttae teaching of Socrates was of a character eminently practical. — Kal 
(se. *tko7t<»v) ircpl t<3v dXXcov. — d rovs p-ev elSoVas kt4., those persons who 
knew which, he deemed were . ... but those, who were ignorant (of which) ought 
rightly to be called slavish. KaXoi»s (Kal a7~) Ka7a0ors, — words frequently 
in the -mouth of Socrates, and denoting persons distinguished by birth, 
•education, physical strength, and moral excellence : used by Socrates with 
special emphasis on the last three- qualities. For dv with K€KXijo-0ai, see 
H. 783, a ; S. Gr. 519, a ; G. 211. 

ly. jr/j st. ov, because of an implied condition, if it was not evident 
liow he judged some things. — <j>av€pds. Pers. construction. In an Eng. 
Tendering the impersonal is preferred. Obj. of eytyveoo-Kev, 6o*a : but pre- 
sprvmg: the Greek order, we may render : In regard to as many things as it 
was not evident how he judged. — virep ; in the sense of irepu H. 633, b, 

120 NOTES. 

end. Employed to avoid repetition of ircpt. — tovtwv, i. e. 6Va .... 

iyCyVQMTKW. o 

18, BovXcvo-as, having been a member of the council: see L. & Sc. Bov- 
Xeveo, II. Participles standing in the same relation to the pred. are joined 
by a connective (PovXcvVas .... Kal .... ofxoVas). But a part, de- 
noting a diff. relation fyevcucvos) is unconnected with the preceding. — 
eirtcrTdT'rjs. The povXrj of the Athenians consisted of 500 senators, who 
w T ere divided according to the ten tribes into ten irpVTavetai : each of which 
in turn presided over the state'for 35 or 36 days. Each Prytany (50 mem- 
bers) was divided into five bodies of ten irpdcSpoi, who presided for a weelc. 
F^m these irpocSpoi was daily chosen by lot an Imo-TdTTjs, princeps sena- 
tus, president. — irapd tovs vdffcovs. The illegality consisted in condemn- 
ing the whole nine together (p-io. \|/^<f><«>), instead of separately. -Notice the 
prominence given to this idea by the position of p.ia xfxV]c|>cp immediately 
after evvea o-vpaT-q^ovs. — tovs dp.<|>l ©pdo-vXXov. H. 639. Phrases. 
For the incident, which followed the battle of the Arginusae Islands, b. c. 
406, see Smith's Hist. Greece, ch. xxxii. §§ 17, 18. — diroKTetvai, to con- 
demn to death. — irdvTas* Emphat. posit. , in agreement with tovs dp.<j>l 
kt|. — 6p7i£o|j.€Vov .... 8t|(xod, SvvaTwv dirctXovvTwv. H. 790, e ; S. Gr. 
541, 540, f; G. 278, 277, 5. — irepl irXcCovos lirouio-aTO . . . . % he con- 
sidered it of greater' importance .... than. — Trap a to $Ik. Cf. Trap a tovs 
vop-ovs above : contrary to. irapd with ace. often in this sense. — <|>vXd- 
|ao-0at, to ward off for himself to guard himself against. Ind. mid. H. 689, 
a ; S. Gr. 467 ; G. 199, 2. 

.19. Kal 7dp. Usually explained ace. to H. 870, d ; S. Gr. 588, a. 
— 0€ovs : without the art., as gods, divine beings in general, are meant. In 
the fol. line tovs Geovs, the (well known) gods (of the Athenians). H. 527, 
a ; S. Gr. 377, b. — 8v Tpdirov. Adv. ace. H. 552 ; S. Gr. 397 ; G. 160, 
2. Tpoirov. Incorporation. H. 809, and 3, and a; S. Gr. 553; G. 154. 
Not in the way in which. — Ta [ikv .... Td 84, some things .... others. 
H. 525, a ; S.' Gr. 375, a ; G. 143. — ovk cl&voi. H. 837, 837, b ; S. Gr. 
571, 571, a ; G. 283, 3. — rd T€ X€7op,€va Kal irpaTToueva. When several 
connected substantives are regarded as forming a single conception, the 
art. is not repeated ; but when the ideas are contrasted (t& ovyfj povXevo- 
p.€va), the art. is expressed. Td Key. Kal irpaT. are matters cognizable by 
men, but Td crt-yfj (SovXcvdp^va by the gods only. It is to be observed that 
Soc. here asserts the doctrines of omniscience, omnipresence, and divine 
assistance for men. 

SO. ®avjid£o> ovv. See § 1. o3v introducing a conclusion.- — 8tt<os 
ttot€. Cf. § 1. — Trcpl tovs Geovs. Cf. TT€pl 0€<3v below. TTcpt seems to be 

used with ace. and gen. with little difference of meaning. — tov |iiv, 

the one who, or he who. — ttotc : in its comm. signif., ever. We may connect 
the negative with it in transl., never said or did anything impious- — 8e : ad- 
versative, but. — XfyovTa and fol. partt. Notice the force of the pres. sys- 
tem contrasted with the aor. €iTrdvTa, Trpd£avTa; H. 714 ; S. Gr. 486 ; 
G. 204, 200. Who habitually said and did such things . . . as. — dv. Con- 



nect with efoj and vojii^oito. — \iycav ko.1 irp&TTwv. H. 789, e, 75l ; S. 
Gr. 540, e, 519 ; G. 277, 4, 226, 1. Here stand st. a cond. of what form ? 
H. 748; S. Gr. 516; G. 224. 

Cliapter IV. 

A conversation of Socrates with Aristodenms, in which is shown from the 
evidences of design in creation, 

1. That there are gods (§ 1 - 9) ; 

2. That they care for men (10 - 18). 

The natural effect of such conversations on his hearers (§ 19). 

1. T£Kp.aipojAevoi, conjecturing, on mere conjecture, without examining his 
method of teaching or his precepts ; or perhaps judging him by those men 
who, after being under his instruction, fell into vice, e. g. Critias and Alci- 
biades. — irpoTpenj/acrOai. depends on kp&tuttov, as vpoayixyziv on Ikcivov. 
Ii. 767 ; S. Gr. 530 ; G. 261. Most excellent to exhort men to virtue. — crKe- 
\[/djxevoL may be rendered as imperative connected with fol. SoKipalovrcav, 
let them consider .... and judge. — pfj, on account of fol. imp. 8oKip.a|. 
H. 832, 833 ; S. Gr. 569, 570 ; G. 283, 2. — a ... . Iponw (lit. ashing 
what). Circ. part, means. By what questions .... he refuted those, etc. — 
KoXao-TTjptoi; 'ivtKa, 'for the sake of (lit. chastisement) bridling, checking (them). 

— tox>s v&vr olojiivous dhivai, i. e. the sophists, whose arrogance and con- 
ceit Soc. especially withstood. — a Xiywv, with what conversations. 

S. a ttot€ avTov ^Kovo-a : gen. of person ; ace. of thing. H. 576, a ; S. 
Gr. 419, a; G. 171, 2, N. 1. What I once heard from him. — toS Soujio- 
viov. Not the ScujAoviov of Soc, but in general the deity. — SiaXe-yoji.e'vo-u : 
circ. part, time. H. 788, a; S. Gr. 539, a; G. 277, 1. — 'Apio-roS^ov: 
at a later period an earnest follower of Soc. — KaTap.a0Miv. ko.t& in corap. 
intensive. Having thoroughly learned, understood. ■ — ©vovra and fol. partt. 
H. 799 ; S. Gr. 546, c ; G. 280. — o(It* zwyopevov : probably an interpola- 
tion. — t<5v iroiovvTov : governed by icara in comp. H. 583 (middle of 
paragraph); S. Gr. 423, a; G. 177. — dvi : exc. in accent. What other 
imps, like civil H. 366, b; S. Gr. 247, b; G. 26, N. 3, (2). — fcrriv 
ovsTivas. H. 812 ; S. Gr. 556 ; G. 152, 1ST. 2. Transl. as one word, any. 

— T€0a-u{AaKos. The perfect, as often elsewhere, directing attention not so 
much to the completion of the action as to its present result, and hence 
may be rendered by the pres., do you admire. — 4-iri, denoting a reason, for. 

— fyorye. The pron., as often, denoting an affirm, reply. — Kat 6s : 6s as 
demonst. H. 243, a ; S. Gr. 140, a ; G. 151, N. 3. 

S. toivw, introducing a direct reply, then. — einSv ironware?, epic poetry. 

— MeXaviinriS^v. A contemporary of Soc. , living at the court of Mace- 
don. Some refer it to a grandfather of the last mentioned, of Melos, 520 
B. c. — 2oc{*oKX6a.. The celebrated tragic poet, of Athens, 495 - 406 b. c. 

— UqXt3kX£itov, Zev^iv. Polycletus of Argos and Zeuxis of Heraclea, con- 
temporaries of Soc, nourishing at about 430 b. o. 

4. ndrepa. H. 831 ; S. Gr. 568 ; G. 282, 5. Not to be transl. in 


122 NOTES. 

direct quest. — d|io0ai>fi.cicrTdT€pou H. 775 (middle of paragraph) ; S. Gr. 
536, b; G. 136, IN. 2. — *i oi (dircp-ya^o^evoi) £c3a. Notice the contrast of 
&Jjpova with gjjwjjpova, and d;<lv?]Ta with '4vepya. — el'irep y€, if indeed, pro- 
vided that. — |j.ifj : not ov on acct. of the cond. sent. H. 835 ; S. Gr. 570 ; 
G. 283, 2. Observe the change of const, (ttjxti rwt, dat. of instrument, 
and viro -yvciSjju^s, the usual form for the personal agent) and the idea con- 
veyed thereby. — TcGv 8e . . . . Ixovtcov. %x<& with an adv. frequently = 
€ijjll : and of those things which are without indication (of the purpose) for which 
they exist, &rri. When so accented ? H. 406, b ; S. Gr. 277, c ; G. 28, 
]ST. 1. — irorepa. Interrog. pron., ircmpos: which do you decide (to be) works 
of, etc. — = jx-^jv. 

5. Ov'icow, not therefore. For distinction bet. o&covv and ovkovv, see 
L. & Sc. — k^' wifseXeia depends on irpcs0€tvca. — Si' cav . . . . &a<rTa, 
{those things) through which they perceive different objects. — c©st€ .... ccstc. 
Purpose. H. 770; S. Gr. 531, b; G. 266, 2.— cStou Declens.? H. 202, 
13 ; S. Gr. 112, t ; G. 60, 5. o£s.— "ye |xtjv, further. Employed, says Brei- 
tenbach, to avoid the monotony of an oft-repeated 8e. — €i jj-tj, unless. — tI 
.... Tis. Why not grave? H. 244, a; S. Gr. 141, a; G. 84. — 8ia 
o-TOfxaros. Art. omit, on acct. of the verbal force of the noun : the pleasures 
(perceived) by tasting. — tqiitcdv "yvt&iiuv, a judge of these. 

@. IIpos, in addition to. — Sotcei .... loiKevcu, videtur .... putari, 
does it not seem to you that thefol. also is to be considered a work of forethought? 
Similarly 8ok€iv <jsa(,V€<r0ai, II. 1, 22. — to ... . ©vpcSoreu, t^va-ai, diro- 
"y€ur<3crai. Inf. as subst. H. 780 ; S. Gr. 533 ; G. 264. In apposition 
with ToSe preceding, to ... . 0upt3o-cu, the closing it with eyelids like doors. 
— r\for any purpose, or, \pri<rBai n, to make any use. H. 547, c ; S. Gr. 
393, c ; G. 159, N. 2. — a>s 8' &v. av denotes the attainment of the pur- 
pose as contingent. H. 741 ; S. Gr. 507, b ; G. 207, 2. —i\®\Lhv pXe^apl- 
8as, eyelashes as a screen. — 6$pv<ri T€ . . . . oji-fiaT., and the making the parts 
above the eyes jut out like eaves. — 4sc ttjs K€«(>aX^s. Notice attrib. position. 
— to .... Sex€0"0cu and fol. infs. are the subjects of the verb of the last 
clause, where they are repeated and summed up by tclvtol. — ?rpoa-0€V. 
Used like an adj. H. 492, f ; S. Gr. 345, f ; G. 141, N. 3. — iracri £cSois : 
dat. of possessor may be transl. as subject ; and the fact that all animals have 
the front teeth suitable for cutting. — ol'ous Tejivciv. H. 767, 814 ; S. Gr. 
530 ; G. 261, N. — Sefajj.evo'us Xeaiveiv. The reg. Gk. idiom, a part, and 
an inf. instead of two infs.: to receive (food) from these and grind (it). — 
o-Top.a : obj. of 6caTa0€ivai. — eVel t& d^rox^po^VTa : sc. IcttI. 

f • ovtco -ye c-KQirovfjivcp. H. 601 and a ; S. Gr. 437 ; G. 184, 5. — 
rexyf\pa.ri. H. 603 ; S. Gr. 438, b ; G. 186. — to Ipjmrcu. In same const, 
as 8e'xe0"0cu, and fol. infs. in § 6 ; toivtci ovtco .... Icttiv implied. — tciis 
•yeivapivais. Notice the gender : in mothers. — £fjv : fr. £dco : irreg. contract. 
H. 371, c ; S. Gr. 251, c ; G. 123, N. 2. — ' Afxe'Xci, surely. See L. & Sc. — 
Zcoa elvcu, obj. of povX€ucrap.evov ; of some one who has designed that animals 

§• cra/uTov : expressed for emphasis. H. 775, b ; S. Gr. 536, b. — So- 


K6i$, do you think. — *Epwra .... dVoKpivovjxai. Arist., not wishing to 
reply boldly in the affirmative, requests Soe. to continue his questions, and j> 
(it is implied) judge by the replies he makes. — "AXXoGi. Force of the end- 
ing 0t? H. 203, a ; S. Gr. 114 ; G. 61. — ofei. H. 363; E, a ; S. Gr. 245, 
b. — Kal ravTa, and that too. H. 508, b ; S. Gr. 358, b. — iroXXijs ovcrr\<$, 
agreeing with yqs, which is vast. circ. part. — to <ra>p.a, your body. H. 527, 
d; S. Gr. 377, d ; G. 141, N. 2. Transl. as if, crw^pjxoo-Tai crot XafJovTi 
jjiLKpov p.epos €Ka<rTov twv dXXwv S^ttov ^"ydXtav OVT6JV. — vo€v 8£ . . . . 
<rvvapTrd<rai, and do you think that you alone by some good fortune .... exist- 
ing nowhere else? ere. Why accented? H. Ill, b; S. Gr. 69, b; G. 28, 
1ST. 1, (3). Cf. Cicero, N. D. II. 6. Unde enim hanc (mentem) homo arri- 
puit ? ut ait apud Xenophontem Socrates. — Kal TcLSe .... direipa, and 
that these immensely great and innumerable (lit. countless in number) (bodies). — 
a>s o'lei, belongs to 8i' d<f»pQcnGvqv Tivd only. — ^x €LV '• see k. & Sc. IV. *• 
maintain themselves in order. 

9. Ma At 1 : always, neg., unless vat precedes. H. 545 ; S. Gr. 391. 
Here in answer to the quest., &XX081 8e ovSajxoi) o^Sev ol'ei <|>povip.ov ctvai ; 
wsirep : sc. bpta. — (K8e «ydp. -yap often refers to a thought to be sup- 
plied. Here, ovx opas tovs Ki>p£ovs * o^8e *ydp ktI. — lauTOv : st. creauTov, 
your own. H. 672, a'; S. Gr. 459, c; G. 146, N. 2. — -fj. How distin- 
guished fr. the art.? H. 103, a; S. Gr. 64, a; G. 29. — ye : belongs to 
what ? H. 850, 1, a ; S. Gr. 580, a. — tovto, this (reasoning). 

10. Oinroi, certainly not. roi strengthens. — eKeivo: more expressive 
than avrd. — ^ a>s, for i^ g>st€ ; too magnificent to nerd my service in addition. 
H. 768 ; S. Gr. 531, a. — oV<o, too-qijtoj. H. 610 ; S. Gr. 444 ; G. 188, 2. 
— [LsyaKoTrpetria'Tepov : sc. ov : the more magnificent he is while he deigns to 
take care of you, is he not so much the more to be honored ? 

11. "E-n-eiTa, without 81, used in questions to indicate astonishment at 
something unexpected. — ol', they, who. 8s after a question = o-utos *ydp. — 
dv€crrri<rav. 1 aor. trans. — irXeiov belongs to irpoopdv, which depends on 
8wa<r8ai : makes them able to look forward a greater distance. — 01s : anteced. 
om. (in those parts) in which. — epirerois : a poetic word for £<£ois. — to tto- 
peveo-Gai. H. 780 ; S. Gr. 533 ; G. 264. — irpose'Geo-av. Force of irpos in 
comp.? — ols, through which. Dat. of means. — €Ketva>v. Gen. after comp. 
H. 585 ; S. Gr. 425 ; G. 175. 

19* Kal p/?jv .... Ixovtwv, and while .... yet. H. 790, e ; S. Gr. 
541 ; G. 278, 277, 5. — ol'av .... dpQpovv. Cf. ol'ous, § 6. — dXXoTC 
dXXaxii, now here, now there. — Kal (o?av TJp-ds) crquaiveiv, and (such that we) 
signify. — Tb 8e . . . . Sovvai .... Trapexeiv : sc. ov so-Ttv ; 

13. Ov toCvvv .... TJpKecre, moreover it was not sufficient, roivvv, de- 
noting transition to something which naturally follows. — o^ep., which very 
thing, i. e. the fol. sent., ttjv \Jn>x , n v .... hifyvzrz. — ri\v tyvyy\v KpaTi- 
o-t*]v. Why not ttjv KpaTicrnjv tyvyj\v1 H. 535, b; S. Gr. 381, b; G. 
142, 3. — tU/qs .... ^vx(\. Art. om. H. 530 ; S. Gr. 379, a; G. 141, 
b. What other animal's soul. — 0€<ov .... TJcrGTjTai otl. Prolepsis. H. 726; 
S. Gr. 495. — twv o-vvTa£dvT<ov. Circ. part, denoting an additional idea; 

124 NOTES. 

who have arranged. — ©epairgvo-uon : attracted to the no. of ftvOpwrrot : espe- 
cially since <|>vXov is a collective noun. — ttjs dvOpwrrtvTjs : gen. with comp. 
H. 585 ; S. Gr. 425 ; G. 175. —tyvxr\ $ Q6\in\. PI. of abstract nouns to 
express repeated instances of the quality. H. 518, c ; S. Gr. 369, b. — 
pwp/qv do-jdjc-ai (lit. to practise strength), to acquire strength by exercise. — • 
€K7rovi]<rai : intrans. : to strive. — ocra av dKovo-rj ktI. H. 757; S. Gr. 523; 
G. 233. Whatever it may, etc. —<r6ai. Perf. with pres. meaning, 
H. 712 ; S. Gr. 475, b ; G. 200, N. 6. 

14. 7«xp. Ace. to Kuh. yap in this situation is conclusive, then. — 
kcit&8t]\ov. Force of KO/rd in comp.? — irapd, in comparison with. H. 648. 

— fyvtrei. Dat. of manner : crwjxaTL, 4™xfj» respect. — poos av. av gives 
emphasis to the preceding word ; frequently so when repeated in the same 
sentence. H. 873, a ; G. 212, 2. — With 2x wv understand &v0pwiros, a 
person, fr. the foregoing dvOpwiroi. — ISvvar' av. H. 746 ; S. Gr. 514 ; G. 
220, (a), 2. Cond. expressed by i?x<ov. H. 751 ; S. Gr. 519 ; G. 226, 1. 

— ovQ s 8cra ktI., nor do as many (animals) as have hands, but are, etc. Pres. 
indie, because the discourse is concerning animals which really exist. — 
ir\iov ovSev, any advantage. "Apes have hands resembling those of men, 
but are not on that account equal to men in ability." Schneider. — dp.<j>o- 
T€pcov, i. e. <r<a\La.ros kciI vjrux'nS' H. 574, c ; S. Gr. 417, e ; G. 171, 1. — 
irXelcrrov dj-twv, most valuable. H. 584, e ; S. Gr. 424, e ; G. 178, K — 
dVav .... avTOvs, whenever they do what, will you believe that they . . . . ? 

15. <rv o-oi. Why accented ? H. Ill, b ; S. Gr. 69, b ; G. 28* K 1, 
(3). DiflL bet. the dat. of person with verb of motion (<ro\ ,iri\kirav) and 
the ace. with a prep, (irapd crk irep/ireiv) ? The ace. denotes a passive ob- 
ject, an obj. merely acted upon. The dat., an active obj., one not merely 
aimed at, but also sharing in the action. H. 595, 617 ; S. Gr. 431 ; G. 
184 (and Rem. preceding). — cru[jt.|3oXovs, omens (to show). — ov .... 8ok€is, 
do you not think? ov . . . . oijS' .... ovS', not .... nor even .... 
nor yet. — dXXd .... KaTa.Ti0€VTai. Transition to direct discourse : on 
the contrary selecting you alone do they (lit. place you in neglect) utterly neg- 
lect you ? 

16. &v Ificjnio-ai. H. 783, b ; S. Gr. 519, b ; G. 211. What verbs 
take the inf. as obj.? H. 764 ; S. Gr. 527 ; G. 260.— <■$ ical kcikws iroietv. 
Transitive : to benefit and injure [men). — Swcitou Sc. €i5 kciI kcikws iroietv. 

— Xpovov. H. 550, a; S. Gr. 395, a; G. 161. — iroX-uxpovicoTara kch cro- 
4>wTaTa. What words make comp. and superl. in -oarcpos, -toTo/ros? — ird- 
Xets, 26vt] : part, appos. with to. iroXuxpov. ko,\ o-o^wTara. H. 500, b ; S. 
Gr. 353, a ; G. 137. — at «|>pov- tjXuc(cu, the most prudent periods of life, i. e. 
the years of maturity. — %mv : gen. depending on a word of mental action : 
most attentive to the gods. 

17. 'ayadi. Crasis. H. 68 ; S. Gr. 39 ; G. 11. A friendly form of* 
address, frequently used when one wishes to convey a gentle reproof. — 
&f>i] : thrown in, although there is no change of speaker ; so often. Cf. 
the use of inquit in Lat. — Ivwv. When a part, and a verb, closely con- 
nected, have the same obj., it is comm. expressed but once. In Eng. we 


naturally render it with the part. : which is in your body manages (it) as it 
pleases. — ri\v 4v ttcivtI <j>povr|criv : subj. of ti0€o-0cu. — to, iravTO, : obj. of 
Tt©€o-0ai : disposes all things. — ko.1 (xtj : sc. ol'€<r0ai xpi\, which is likewise 
to be understood with p]8€ below. — p.ev . . . . 8e : here connect two sen- 
tences of which the second only is really required in the connection, the 
first being inserted for the sake of contrast. — irepl t»v kv Atyvirno ko.1 4v 
2. Why not tea! irepl t&v ev 2.? Because 4v 2. forms one idea with the 
preceding, hence the prep, and art. are not repeated. The student will not 
fail to be impressed with the thoughts in this section and the following one. 

18. M Hv jxevToi, if truly. — Gepcwrevtov and fol. partt., X a P L £°fS °" V F'- 
PovXevofi.., Gepa-rrev., denoting means : by paying court to men you discover who 
are willing, etc. — eGeXovTas .... ©eXTJcrouo-i. GeXca infrequent in Xen. 
We notice here 40eX- after a cons., 0g'X- after a vowel. — oirro> .... 0gpa- 
irevcov, so you make a trial of the gods also by worshipping them. — el, tvhether. 
— to 0€iov 6ti. Prolepsis. Cf. note § 13. — toctovtov ko.1 toiovtov, so great 
and of such a nature. — o/utoijs, i. e. toijs 0€Oi>s, implied in to 0eiov. avrovs 
is grammatically superfluous. But often the meaning of a subst. is repeated 
by a fol. demonst. pron., partly for perspicuity and partly for emphasis. 

10. ravra \iywv, by saying these things. — birore 6p<SvTO .... €iev. 
Opt. denoting indef. frequency of past action. H. 729; S. Gr. 498; G. 
233. — direx€o-0aL, has for subj. tovs cwovTas ; and with its subj. is obj. 
of iroieiv, to cause his associates to refrain from. — dvocriov, wicked (in the 
sight of God). olSIkwv, unlawful (in the sight of men). — liretarep ^yrjo-atv- 
to, since indeed they deemed. Attracted to opt. fr. indie. Tjy/jtravTO. Kuh. 
— ji.t]S€v dv . . . . SiaXaGetv, none (of the things) which they did could ever 
escape the knowledge of the gods. 

Chapter VI, 

Three conversations of Socrates with Antiphon. 

1. Concerning the poverty and frugality of Socrates, and his refusal to 
receive pay for his instructions (§ 1-10). 

2. Concerning his refusal to accept pay (§ 11 - 14). 

3. Concerning his failure to engage in public affairs (§ 15). 

1* "AJiov. Sc. ka-rL It is worth while. — 8e connects this chapter with 
a previous one. — a-uroS depends on the clause d . . . . SicXe'x©^, which is 
equivalent to Xo-yovs : not to pass by his conversations with Ant. (lit. his [con- 
versations] also which he, etc.). — 'Avrufwy, a sophist from Crete. — ttotc, 
once, once upon a time. — rtu EcoKparei. One would expect cwt<*> here, after 
the preceding o/utov .... a^Toi)-; but the repetition of a subst. after a 
pron. or noun is not unfrequent. — irapdvTcov avrwv. Time : when, etc. 
What relations are denoted by the gen. abs.? 

2. wfi/qv : otjxai. — eaJSaip.. xp*l vai Yfyv€<r0cu, must needs be more pros- 
perous (than other men). — Tdvavrta .... diroXeXavKcvai, to have derived 
the reverse from your philosophy. Ace. of thing : gen. of source of enjoy- 
ment. H. 582; G. 176, 1. — £fjs. For peculiarity of contraction, see H. 

126 NOTES. 

371, c; S. Gr. 251, c; G. 123, N. 2. — 70W : oSv with particles has em- 
phatic force, surely, certainly. — ovS' &v eh. More emphatic than ovSels 
dv. — vird with dat. under, — SiaiTwjjievos |xeiv€i€, would continue to live. — 
o-iTta. Asyndeton, in explan. sent. H. 854 ; S. Gr. 582. cri/rta, ttoto,, 
cogn. ace. H. 547, a; S. Gr. 393, a; G. 159. — fjp.«j>i6<rai : perf. pass, of 
djxtj)t€vvv}ii. The pass, retains ace. of thing. H. 553, a ; S. Gr. 398, a ; 
G. 164. Aug. before prep. H. 314; S. Gr. 202, c; G. 105, N. 3. — ov 
jxovov .... dXXd, non solum .... sed. — &xitwv. Not without a tu- 
nic, but without the outer (eirevSvrTjs) tunic, called the tunic par excellence. 
He wore the \ir, SirfcvSiirns and over it the Ipdriov, mantle. — SioraXeis : 
without wv. 

«*• XP^l Mm * 7 € « Y«> as usual, giving emphasis to the word which it 
follows. — KeKTTjjj.evovs : perf. as pres., persons who (have acquired) possess. 

— ekevQepi&Tepov .... ijSiov. Advs. limiting £f)v. H. 228 ; S. Gr. 132, 
b ; G. 75. — oisirep koL .... ovtco k<u. Kai often stands in both clauses 
of a comparison. In Eng. we render it with the latter only. — tovs p.a8r)- 
rds nijJW]Tds. Obj. and pred. ace. The latter distinguished by the ab- 
sence of the art. H. 556, a ; S. Gr. 400 ; G. 166, N. 2.— 8ia0T|tr€is. No- 
tice the fut. in the cond., more vivid than the subjunct. — elvai : subj. 
om. Why? . 

4* dire .... &jrn. So often. Cf. Lat. respondit, in quit. — •n-eireLO'- Perf. denoting the completeness of the action. / am thoroughly per- 
suaded. — dv : connect with IXecrGcu : you would choose to die rather than, 
etc. — €irwTK€^I/wp.€0a : subjunct. as imperat. — ri . . . . tovjjlov piov. H. 
576, a ; S. Gr. 419, a ; K. 273, E. 20. For rt cf. note I. 1. Tpfyoi), toi) 
cp.ov, crasis. 

5. ndTcpov : in direct question not to be transl. Sc. x^ 671 *^ H<rQi\- 
<rai tovto tov k\i.ov (3un>, or simply to-uto earn : Is it this, that, etc. — tois 
|j.€V .... Ijiol 8e. One would expect the first clause, if introduced at all, 
to be subordinate ; while it is necessary for those rec. pay, etc. ; but it is 
made co-ord. for the sake of contrast with the second. See note I. 4, 17. 

— €«j> <S dv . . . . Xap.pdv., a> &v . . . . pov\ Hypoth. rel. sents. 
H. 757 ; S. Gr. 523 ; G. 231. A const, very frequent in the Memorabilia. 

— ij. Distinguish from the art. rj and rel. pron. i\. — «s . . . . IctGiovtos 
Ijaoi). For force of ws cf. note I. 1, 4. 4{j.ov : longer form of pron. em- 
ployed on ace. of contrast. H. 232 ; S. Gr. 133, c ; G. 144, 1. On the 
ground that I eat less healthful {food) than you. — Trapexovra. Same const, 
as xryieivd : or (that which) furnishes. — \a\eTT(aT<Epa. Sc. Svra, as in the 
fol. clause, t)8lw .... 6vtcu Acc. abs. H. 793 ; S. Gr. 544, a ; G. 278, 
N. TropUracrGcu. depends on xaXeirwrepa : or because my articles of diet are 
more difficult to procure than yours on acc. of their being both more, etc. — ovto. 
has for subj. the om. anteced. of d. We may imitate the Greek in render- 
ing : or because what you provide is sweeter to you than what I (provide is) to 
me. — jjSurTa, with a relish. — Sfyov, sauce. E[. 575 ; S. Gr. 418 ; G. 172. 
— - p,^ irapovTOs .... tto'tov, drink (which is) not at hand, i. e. hard to be 
procured, - 


©» To. .... !jj.&Tia : placed first for emphasis. We may imitate the 
order by rend, as ace. of specif. : as to clothes indeed, you know that those who 
change them,, etc. yL H. 850, a ; S. Gr. 580, a. p^v, further. — oitojs- 
Final. — {ctoXuWTcn iropajscrOcu, be hindered from going, walking. H. 764, b ; 
S. Gr. 527, b ; G. 260, 1. — ■SjS'q oiSv ttot€ ? before this then have you ever. 
ljcr9ov: alcr0dvop,ai. — -5] .... ^either .... or. — pdXXov tov, more than 
any (other person, who wears them). Gen. after comp. H. 585 ; S. Gr. 
425 ; G. 175. rov and fol. t<3 differ how fr. corresponding forms of the 
art? H. 105, 1); S. Gr. 65, b; G. 27, 2. — 8id . . . . iroSas, on ace. of 
suffering pain in my feet. H. 549, a ; S. Gr. 394 ; G. 160, 1. 

f • <j>vcrei, o-«p,cm. Cf. note I. 4, 14. — p.eXe-nqcravTes : obj. to cnSixa 
understood. Means. H. 789 ; S. Gr. 540, b ; G. 277, 2. — twv lcrxi>poTd- 
tcov. Cf. tov, § 6. — dji.£XT)crdvTo>v, neglecting (it). — KpeiTTO-us : nom. pi. 
— dv : d dv. H. 68, R. 6 ; S. Gr. 39, b ; G. 11, 2. — a*rd : i. e. those 
things which they practise. — ra : rend, with KapT€p€iv ; p-eXerJavTa 
with 'Epi : that I, who am always training myself to endure with my body the 
things which happen (to it), more easily bear all things than you, etc. — (rov : 
emphat., therefore retaining its accent. — prj. Why not ov. H. 839 ; S. 
Gr. .571 ; G. 283, 4. An implied condition : if you do not practise. 

8. tov .... 8ovXevav. Inf. with art. as subst. : in gen. depending 
on aiTitorepov : do you think anything else is more the cause of my not being a 
slave to appetite, etc. p.^ : H. 837 ; S. Gr. 571 ; G. 283, 3. — *r\ to". . . . 
%yj&v, than my having other things. — tovt<wv: gen. with comp. — i\di(a : neut. 
pi. H. 174 ; S. Gr. 100 ; G. 72, 2. Comparison ? H. 222 ; S. Gr. 129 ; 
G. 72, 1. — ovtu. Time. H. 788, a; S. Gr. 539, a; G. 277, 1. — Trape- 
Xovtci, by furnishing hopes. Connect with €v«j>paiva like ovra. — yl : cf. note 
§ 3. — ol pev .... oi SI: cf. note piv . . . . 8e, I. 4, 17. — p^Sev. B. 
549; S. Gr. 394; G..160. — €$ Trparrav : intrans. : are successful. — lav- 
tois : dat. of advant. H. 597 ; S. Gr. 433 ; G. 184, 3, K 4. — «>s & irpdr- 
tovtss, on the ground that, or thinking that they are successful. A play upon 

f>. ca-UTov: subj. of ylyvetrBai : that one's self is becoming better. — <(s(Xovs 
dp.el.VGus Krdcr9at, acquiring better friends, i. e. friends who thereby are be- 
coming better. Notice Socrates's two chief sources of satisfaction : .that he 
was becoming better himself, and making his friends better. — Ta-Ora vop.i- 
£gdv : i. e. that I am becoming better and making my friends better. vopi£. 
supp. part. H. 798 ; S. Gr. 546, b ; G.. 279, 1. — lav 8e 8^ : of something 
well known and certain. In Attic, el and edv are sometimes nearly equiva- 
lent to liraSt], since. — aryjoki\ : sc. dv cforj : would there be more leisure to care 
for, etc. — to impdv : cf. rov ■srapovros ttotov, § 5. — iKTroXioptcrjSei'i], be 
taken, overcome by siege. For this meaning of the word cf. Thuc. I. 131. — • 
€$p€iv depends on yakzTrQ&TaTav, as !vTtryxdi>€iv upon pao-Tois. 

10. olopeva). With gouea the supp. part, may be either in the nom. 
or dat. as here. For dat. see H. 603 ; S. Gr. 438, b; G. 18(5. — Tpwfrfjv, 
iroX-uTeXetav : pred. nouns, therefore without the art. H. 535, a ; S. Gr. 
381, a. — p/^Sevos. H. 575 ; S. Gr. 418 ; G. 172, 1. — Seeo-Gai : with ra 

128 NOTES. 

as subst., subj. of «tvai. Xen. frequently uses the uu contracted form "of 
this word. — a>$ ekayio-Twv : sc. Seto-Oat. — tov Geiov : gen. with adv. of 
place. H. 589 ; S. Gr. 427, b ; G. 182, 2. 

11. Scares. Deelens.? H. 179, 198; S. Gr. 101, c; 108, a ; G: 
52, N. 1, 60, 1. — toc : intens., indeed, surely, for my part. — \l\v SiKaiov. 
fiiv before its word, contrary to the prin. that p-e'v and Se eomm. stand af- . 
ter the words contrasted. — ov$* o'n-wsnoiJv (lit. not even in any way what- 
ever). — 8ok€i$. Pers. The impers. const, is more in accordance with the 
Eng. idiom. It seems to me that you yourself also, etc. — avrds. H. 777 ; 
S. Gr. 537. — yovv : cf. note § 2. — orvvowias, H. 578, R. c ; S. Gr. 420. 
dp-yvpiov •n-pdTT€<r0ai, to exact pay. What verbs take double obj.? H. 553 ; 
S. Gr. 398 ; G. 164. — KaiTot, although. — <av : attracted to case of omit, 
anteced. (rovroiv &). — K€KT^crai : perf. as pres. in the sense possess. — p x j 
on: i. e. p/fj Xe"ye dVi, (say) not that you would (jive. : — ttjs dglas, its value. 

12. Ai]Xov : ka-rl om. as often. — kat : connect with ttjv o-uvovo-iav, 
which -it. contrasts with to tp.driov, etc. above. — <oov : ol' €t wou, dv 
^trpdTTo-u. Force of this form of cond. proposition? H. 746; S. Gr. 514; 
G. 222. — tcmjttjs. For const, see cruvowtas, § 11. — ttjs dgias : gen. af- 
ter comp. — eirl irXeovelta, for (your own) advantage. — o-otj>o$ 8e ovk dv : sc. 
€'£rjs. — jit|8€vos "y€ d|ia, worth nothing at all. A keen criticism, but met by 
Soc . with a reply as keen. 

13. irap* Tjp,iv kt4. Render as if, imp' ^pttv voat£eTat op-oiws p.ev ica- 
Xov, op-ofoos 81 alcrxpbv elvai ri\v aipav Kat ri\v <rofylav StaTiGeirSat, among 
us it is considered equally honorable and equally base to set out for sale, etc. 
There is a way of disposing of beauty honorably and a way of disposing of 
it dishonorably, and the same is true of wisdom. — apyvp(ov,for money. 
H. 578, a; S. Gr. 421; G. 178. — 6Vra : supp. part. H. 799; S. Gr. 
546, c ; G. 280. — eavrw. A reflex, pron. may be used with the mid. voice 
for the sake of clearness or emphasis. — ri\v <ro$lav : emphat. posit. Or- 
dinary posit, after tovs. — tov$ .... ircoXowras .... diroKaXova-iv, 
those .... selling .... they stigmatize as sophists, as prostitutors (of wis- 
dom), oisirep iropvovs: lit. just as (they stigmatize sellers of beauty) prosti- 
tutes. -~ ev^va. H. 178 ; S. Gr. 101, b; G. 52, N". 2. In pred. with ovra, 
agreeing with 8v : of good natural ability, like the French d'un bon naturel. 
But whoever makes a friend (of a person) whom he knows to be of good nat. abil. 
by teaching (him) whatever good, etc. 'i\r\ : nere *° ^ ave mentally, to know. 
With iroifjTou, subjune. in hypoth. rel. sent, we should expect &v, but see 
H. 759 ; S. Gr. 523, f ; G. 239, K 

14l« J E^o) 8* oSv Kal avros, and I accordingly myself Kat, also, con- 
trasts a-uros with aXXos tis, and may be rendered by transl. Kal avrds after 
aiiro). — forTrw and fol. datt. H. 611, a ; S. Gr.. 445 ; G. 188, 1. — Kal £rt 
adXXov, eveni still more. — &XXot$ 0-uvto-r^p.t, I recommend (them) to others. — 
irap* «>v . . . . dpeTTjv, from whom I think they may receive some benefit in 
respect to virtue. «<j>€X^or€O"0at : see L. & Sc. sub voce, B. — irdXai : adv. 
as attrib. of old. — KareXurov. Aor. as perf. H. 706 ; S. Gr. 481. — dve- 
Xfrrrcov, lit. unrolling, spoken of the scrolls of papyrus. — dv . . . opoijxev, 


4kX€7c>. Force? H. 747; S. Gr. 515; G. 225. —lav .... $L\oi 71- 
7vt6jxe8a, if we become (lit. friends) dearer or more attached to each other. If 
we, already friends, become, by these common studies, endeared to each 
other. St. <^(\oi, Ernesti, following one manuscript, writes <ojj>€X.ip.oi, which 
simplifies- and removes all difficulty from the passage ; but I have followed 
Kiihner's explanation, which has the weight of authority. — p,aKapios. 
Happy, indeed, the man who is the centre of the group in the pleasant pic- 
ture given in the last sentence; toiis 07jcraupoiJS .... clvcXittcov ktI. — 
ayav : connected by ko.1 to dvax : both to be happy himself and to lead, etc. 

15. irws. Cf. this usage with tutu I. 1, 1. — Tj"yeiTCU, irpdrra, 47rt<rTa- 
tcu. Tense of orat. recta. H. 735 ; S. Gr. 503, a ; G. 242, 1. Our Eng. 
sequence of tenses requires the past after the past epcjxevov, asked how he 
thought he teas making others skilled in state affairs, statesmen. — 8e, while. — 
ov 7rpd,TT€i, was taking no part in. — efcrcp cTrio-raTou, if indeed he understood 
[them at all). Added in scorn by Antiphon. — Uoripas 8e. 8e has refer- 
ence to an om. clause : you allege that I do not take part in state affairs, 
but in which of the two ways could I more effectually take part in the government. 
— tov .... ctvai : H. 781 ; S. Gr. 533; G. 264: that as many as possible 
be competent. A sound principle. 

BOOK II. — Chapter I. 

Socrates shows Aristippus, founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophers, 
who thought pleasure the greatest good and pain the greatest evil, that • 
temperance is an essential qualification for a statesman ; the difficulties 
which arise from .making ease and pleasure the chief objects of pursuit 
(§ 1-19) ; that there is no excellence without labor (§ 20) ; in illustration 
of which he relates the fable, the Choice of Hercules (§ 21-34). 

20. "Eti, moreover, alluding to the preceding argument. — paSiovp-yt&i, 
indolence, habits of indolence. PL of abstract noun denoting repetition. H. 
51 S, c ; S. Gr. 369, b. — 4k tov Trapaxp^H-o- ifiovai, pleasures (lit. from the 
instant) enjoyed, at the moment of desire, i. e. without labor : explained by 
the fol. antithetic expression, cu 81a, KapTepias iTripAeiai, the cares (borne) 
with patient endurance. — vJgiokoyov : properly added, for it cannot be said 
that al Ik rov irapa\pfj[jia TjSovat convey no knowledge to the mind. For 
who can deny that from listening to music, contemplating pictures, and 
other pleasures of that kind some knowledge may be gained. Kiih. — 'ipyav. 
H. 574, c; S. Gr. 417, e; G. 171, 1. — 'Hca'oScs : in mVEpva Kal'HfU- 
paw, 287, ff. — Kal IXaSov, even in abundance — Zcrnv. When so accented ? 
H. 406, R. b; S. Gr. 277, c; G. 28, E". 1 (3).— IXeVOai, to obtain.— vaUi: 
sc. tj KaKOTiqs. — t'ia]Ttu : sc. otp,os. — p^ tSttj : sc. tj dperVj. — xaXeirtf] irep 
€Ovo-a, although very difficult {at first). — 'Eirixapp-os. A comic poet, native 

. of Cos, but flourished at the court of Syracuse about 500 b. c. — twv ttqvcov : 
gen. price. H. 578; S. Gr. 421; G. 178. — fu&eo : Att. 

21. Kal . . . 8e } and .... also, as often. H..856, b ; S. Gr. 583, 
c. IIpcSiKos . a sophist of Ceos, one of the Cyclades, a contemporary of 


130 NOTES. 

Soc. Sturz and others consider <ro<|>os in this passage to be the same as 
<ro<|>io-'H]s ; hut there seems to he no good reason why it should not be ren- 
dered in its ordinary sense, the wise. — tw orvyypd[J.|xaTi, his written speech, 
composition. — oVep 8t], which very one, it is well known. H. 851. — ko.1 : 
connect with irXcto-Tois. — emSeiKvuTai, is accustomed to recite as a specimen 
of his skill. The declamations of the sophists were called 4?ri8€i£€is. Ger. 
Prunkstiicke. — '6<ra : adv. ace. as far as. — 7dpi epexegetic, hence om. 
in rend, into Eng. — Ik iraiSwv, from childhood. — kv fj, (a period) at which. 

— €iT€ .... €lt€, whether . ... or. — rfjv .... 68dv : adv. ace. : by 
the way of (lit. through) virtue. — k&XQovra ktI. Cf. Cic. Off. I. 32, 118. 
Herculem exisse in solitudinem atque ibi sedentem diu secum multumque 
dubitasse, etc. — TpdirT]Tau What use of subjunc? H. 720, c; S. Gr. 
488, c ; G. 253. 

22. <$>avi\vai. Inf. as obj. of tjnjo-t above. H. 764, a; S. Gr. 527, a; 
G. 260, 2. — [i£, large (in stature). — ISeiv. Inf. depending on adj. 
H. 767 ; S. Gr. 530 ; G. 261, 2. — to <r<3jxa : ace. of specif. — Io-G^ti 8£ 
Xcvktj : same const, as preced. datt. dependent on K€KO<rjjLT][xevT]v. — T-fjv 
8' Irepav : like ri\v p.ev Irep. above, in part, appos. with yuvcuKas. — reOpap.- 
\l4vx\v : Tp&jxo. — «<tt€ .... 8oK€tv : purpose. H. 770 ; S. Gr. 531 ; G. 
266, 2. 8oK€tv <j>aLV€o-0ai : at first sight tautological ; but Sokciv (subjec- 
tive), <(>alv€o-0ai (objective), so as to seem apparently fairer and ruddier than 
she really was. — opOorepav rfjs <j>ve*€G)s, taller than her natural height. — to, 
8e ojJLjxara tyjew. Notice the change of const., and she kept her eyes wide 
open. In contrast with tcl cJp,. alSot above. — eg fls ktI. : from which her 
youthful beauty could best shine forth. <opa often, like proper nouns, with- 
out the art. H. 530 ; S. Gr. 379. — cavrijv. Keflex, pron. even with 
mid. voice. — " emcricoireiv 8£ kcu, and she was looking around also (to see) 
if, etc. 

23, tot) 'HpaicXeovs : gen. with adv. of place. H. 589 ; S. Gr. 427, 
b ; G. 182, 2. — ptjOetcrav : lpa>. — Uvea : inf. with subj. ace. in orat. obi. 
depending on <h<rl, § 21. — Tpoirov. H. 552 ; S. Gr. 397 ; G. 160, 2. — 
<|>0do-(H pov\op.evT]v, wishing to get before, anticipate (her). irpos8pap.av : 
irposTpexco.— 'HpdKXeis. Declens.? H. 180; S. Gr. 101, c, d ; G. 52, 
N. 3. — diropowTa : supp. part. H. 799 ; S. Gr. 546, c ; G. 280 : that 
you are at a loss. — iroiav 68ov. Cf. § 21. diropoxivTa, oiroTe'pav t«v 68w>. 
For direct interrog. iroiav, see note I. 1, 1. — irotT]0'dp.€Vos. Various read- 
ings have been suggested. The const, is clear upon supplying ri\v cirl tov 
fitov 686v TpaTTTj. 

24, Trpa-yp.dT«a>v. Cf. L. & Sc. sub voc. II. : public business. — <|>pov- 
Tiets : Att. fut. H. 376 ; S. Gr. 252, f ; G. 120, 3. — crKo-jrofyevos Sieo-Tj. 
Prin. verb as adv. You shall continually consider. — Tjo-0€to]s : sc. av. — 
dirovwTaTa, with the least labor. 

25. <nrdv€G>s d<j>' wv, i. e. crirdvews tovtgjv, d<}>' <ov, of a lack of those 
things from which these (pleasures) shall be (derived). — ov <|>opos : sc. Io-tL 

— eirl to ... . iropi^6o-0at. Inf. as subst. in ace. : to procuring these things. 

— irovo-uvTa, TaXatTTwpovvTa : manner or means : agreeing with subj. of 


•jropit€G-0<u. — ols. Attract, ace. to dat. H. 808, 2 ; S. Gr. 552 ; G. 153. 

— cbcpeXeurGcu depends on l£ov<riav, power to receive benefit from every 

26. 6'vop.a 84. 8e in replies often refers to a concessive member omitted. 
This is very well, but, etc. It may be om. in transl. — v?roKOpi£ojX€voi : 
see L. & S. sub voc. 3 : disparaging. 

%¥• kv toxjto), in the mean time. — 4jko> : perf. in meaning. — tjmriv, 
nature, disposition. ■ — ev, during. — KaTap,a0o9o-a : Ka/ra intens. — el ... • 
Tp&iroio, av . . . . "y^vecrOat. Force ? Cond. assumed as possible. — t?jv 
.... 6Sov : adv. ace. (lit. if you should turn yourself by the way towards me). 

— e'pYCLTTjv : in pred. — lir' <rya0ois StaTrpg-irecrTepav, more illustrious on ac- 
count of the good (J confer upon you). The glory which you attain to through 
my assistance will be reflected upon me. — <j>avfjvai : sc. av fr. the fore- 
going. — irpooipioi-s. Properly an overture in music by which one seeks to 
interest and please the listener. With overtures, prefaces, promises of pleas- 
ure, — alluding to the delusive promises just uttered by Kcucla. — ^irep 
ktI. : in the very way in which the gods have disposed (them). — t& 6Wa (the 
things which are), things as they really are. 

28. a-yaQwv kcu ko-Xwv : in pred. More fully expressed, viz.: a ■yap 
co-tlv &Ya0a kg,! KaXa, tovtcov ovftkv avev irovov .... 0€ol SiSoao-iv. — 
i'Xeoas : ace. pi. H. 209, B,. a ; S. Gr. 117 ; G. 64. — ©cpo/nwre'ov and fol. 
verbals. Const H. 804, b: S. Gr. 549; G. 281, 2. — airb Poo-ktj [ao/jw. 
dire denoting means. — Te^vas avras tc. From the position of tc it is 
evident the author had in mind to write tcls iroXefUK&s Texvas awds T€ Kal 
^ttws a^Tats Set xpr\frQai p.a0T]T€ov (non solum ipsae artes, sed etiam earum 
exercitatio perdiscenda est). But to the words 6ito)s .... XP'H "® 011 ) a 
new predicate dcrtcTjTeov was appended. The words Sttws .... XP'H "®* 
are equiv. to a subst. rfjv \pi\a-w avrwv. — el 8e Kal : after several mem- 
bers with efcre, €iT6, a concluding memb. is introduced by the more emphat. 
el Se Kai. 

2f£. <os : as exclamation : how difficult and long a road. — €v<f>pocrvvas. 
Force of the pi.? H. 518, c ; S. Gr. 369, b. — avrr\ : distinguish fr. avr/j. 

— eifSaifJiovlav. Notice that KatcCa appropriates to herself a nobler word 
for happiness than €i^pocrvvr\ 9 which she assigns to her opponent. 

30* t( 81 : cf. note 6'vop.a 8e, § 26. ■ — -fJTts : not for 'fj merely, but has 
reference to the nature or quality of the person : you are of the sort, who. — 
p.Tjxavttp.ev't]. We should expect the indie, p < nx av $7 as ^ n waptto-Keuajfti 
below ; but we have the part, instead by attraction to the preced. const. 
€or0tov0-aj irlvov<ra. — oiVous. Names of materials are properly used in the 
sing, only, but here the pi. with reference to different kinds of wine. — rov 
©epo-us : gen. time. — \iova : for cooling the wine. x i(i * v was a common 
article of traffic at Athens as at Naples at the present day. See Becker's 
Char., p. 337. — xnrcj3a0pa : comm. translated carpets under the couches, 
but Schneid., Kiih., et al., with more reason, render rockers. — fi.?|8£v, 6 n 
•rroifjs, nothing to do. Subjunc. deliberat. — to 8« . . . . avayKd^is, you 
force sensual inclinations before they demand gratification. For S&cGai uncon- 

132 NOTES. 

tracted, see note 1. 6,. 10. — iain-^s : st. o-g/uttjs : see note I. 4, 9 ; also § 31 
below. — KaTaKoijii£€tv : lit. to fall asleep, here to sleep through, sleep out. 

31. o$cra : coneess. : although . . . . — toS tt&vtov tjSuttou &KOiio-p.a- 
tos. Cie. pro Arch, poet, 9, 32. Themistoclem dixisse aiunt, quum ex 
eo quaereretur, quod acroama ant cujus voeem libentissime ancliret : Ejus, 
a quo sua virtus optime praedicaretur. — av^JKoos el (lit. you are not hear- 
ing) you never hear. — t\ : connect with Trio-Tevb-eie, as tivos with eirapKeVeiev. 
Kiih. Cogn. ace. H. 547, c; S. Gr. 393, c; G. 159, N. 2.— € S <j>povc3v, 
well minded, in his senses. — 0ido-ov : in pred. with ctvai. H. 572, a ; S. Gr. 
415, a; G. 169, 1: to be one of your band of revellers. — ot, i. e. GicurwTai, 
implied in Oido-ov. Constructio ad sensum. — veoi bWcs, while they are 
young. — Xnrapoi, in fatness, ease, opulence. — tois p.ev 7T€Trpcry|Ji,€V0is . *. . . 
irpciTTojxevois, the tilings they have done . . . . are doing. 

32. irapa dv0pwirois, ots : i. e. irap' ots. Kiih. Is it not simpler and 
more natural to regard ots as depending directly on irposif|K€t ? among men 
whom it behooves {to honor me). 

33* to is |A€v €[wsts <j>iXois. jieV solitarium. A contrast bet. rots €|i.ots 
<j>CXois and rots orois tfciXois is implied. — TjSeta p.ev. piv contrasts TjSeta 
.... <rir<av .... diroXa/uo-is with virvos 8e. — ovre aTroXeiTrovTes avrbv 
&)^0ovTai, neither are they depressed when deprived of it (virvos). — tovtov, 
i. e. i)7rvos. This passage, 8id .... irpaTTeiv, is in strong contrast with 
the habits of KciKia and her followers, § 30 ; rfjs 8* Tjp.€pas .... kclto 
ieoi)i.C£ov<ra. — t<Sv iraXaicav irpd|€<ov, their former deeds. — eS. Emphat. 
posit, like TjSews above : and take delight in performing their present (occupa- 
tions) with success. irpaTTovrcs : supp. part. H. 800 ; S. Gr. 546, d ; G. 
279, 1. — to 'ireirptDjjLevov tc'Xos, the fated end, i. e. death. — &tl{jloi. : render 
by the primary meaning, unhonored. — jxeTd jj,v^jxt]s ktI. : celebrated in song 
they flourish forever in memory. ©dXXovca like Lat. vigeo. Cic. Tusc. Disp. 
I. 49. Harmodius in ore et Aristogito, Lacedaemonius Leonidas, Thebanus 
Epaminondas vigent. — Toiavra .... Siairovqcrafjieva), having accomplished 
such labors. Eor the asyndeton, see note toxjs to, touuStci, I. 1, 9. 

34. vjt *Ap€Tf|s : a passive const, on ace. of the verbal noun ira£8evo-iv. 
— 2ol .... &|iov, it is meet for you, worth while for you. oiSv, confirma- 
tive, surely. — ^jpovT^eiv depends on ir€ip&o-0ai. t! : adv. ace. Accord, 
to Kiih. = aliquo modo. — Kal twv els ktI. : the things also which pertain 
to, etc. 

/ BOOK IV. — Chapter II. 

The insufficiency of natural abilities without education. 

Socrates shows a self-conceited young man that in every art it is proper 
to have recourse to instructors (§ 1, 2). 

The folly of a man who claims to have learned nothing from instructors 

The necessity of instruction in the art of government (§ 6, 7). 

Socrates, by a series of questions, leads Euthydemus to acknowledge his 
ignorance (§ 8 - 23). 


The value of self-knowledge (§ 24-30). 

Euthydemus is more deeply convinced of his ignorance and incompetence 

Conclusion (§ 40). 

1. This chapter is a good example of the manner in which Soc. was ac- 
customed to combat the ignorance and self-conceit of his day. Tots vo}i.l£. 
teal 4>povovcriv depend on -nposetf^'p. jxe-ya <fypovov<riv liri, priding them- 
selves on the ground of. a>$ irposetj^p., how he was accustomed to conduct him- 
self. — rbv KaXdv. A form of Attic courtesy, quite often appended to the 
names of the learned. — Ypd|xp.aTa, books, treatises. — cto<jhq-t<ov : in its 
orig..signif. ivise men, plulosoplters : the early prose writers of Greece. — 8ta- 
<j>€p€iv twv tjXik. hri. Usually 8iouf>epeiv tivos tivi without erri. — irpwTov 
[lev : correl. with 'Ettci 81, §6. — Sid vcottjto.. Pie was not yet twenty 
years of age. See Diet. Antiq. Ephebus. — Ka0l^ovra el's- H. 618 and a; 
S. Gr. 448, b ; G. 191, N. 6. — t<5v: subst. (fjVioiroieUov) omit. H. 509, 
a ; S. Gr. 359, a. — toov p$' Io/utov, of his followers. 

S# Kal irpwTOv jj.Iv : correl. with XXdXiv 84, § 3. — <rwo-ucriav tivos, 
intercourse with some one. — airo^Xiireiv, to look to some one in expectation 
of assistance : as in § 30 below, irpbs <re diropXeiro). — cnro'uSato'u dvSpos, a 
man of ability. — Kivav, to set a going, stir up, bring into conversation. — t<xs 
T€'x.vas : ace. specif, depending on o-Trovdaiovs, which is in pred. with 
yiyvea-Qai. — yiyv. subj. om., because an indef. word, persons. — to 8£ 
irpoeo-rdvai irdXeos : in contrast with oXLyov d|tas ri-^yas : the sense of 
crirovSaiovs seems to be implied ; but ability to govern a state. — diro TaiwTO- 
(Aarov : nearly equiv. in sense to the foregoing fyvva : naturally, by the un- 
assisted efforts of nature. 

§»• ttjs o-vveSptas, the council (at the saddler's shop). — jj.^ 8o|t|. H. 
743 ; S. Gr. 510 ; G. 218. — oirrovL H. 242 ; S. Gr. 139, c ; G. 83, 1ST. 2. 
— cv tjXikIci *y6vdji.€Vos, when lie becomes of age. — rqs irdX .... irpori- 
0€ictt]s, the state giving opportunity to speak concerning any matter. This was 
the business of the irpdcSpot, who, when the assembly had convened, pro- 
claimed by a herald, tls d-yopeueiv pauXeTcu ; cf. Demosth. de Cor. 53. — ■ 
•jrapacrKevdcrcurGai. Two uses of aor. infin.? 1. Indef. action without re- 
gard to time. 2. Indef. act. prior to the time of the prin. verb. 

4L fyiaOov and fol. aorists, for perf. H. 706 ; S. Gr. 481. — dvai. 
Other constructions after dtcovta are, supp. part, when the certainty is to be 
strongly marked ; 6tl or ccs with finite mode: cf. § 33 below. — tov .... 
■yeveo-Ocu. H. 781 ; S. Gr. 533 ; G. 262, 2. — nvd, rwv Ittiq-t., any of the 
learned. emo-raji.. intrans. — Tavavrta : sc. €7rou]o-a, to be understood fr. 
the foregoing. — SiaTereXeKci .... $eCy<ov 9 1 have constantly avoided. II. 
798 ; S. Gr. 546, b ; G. 279, N. — to 8c|ai : sc. p.ep.a0T]K€vai n 7rapd tlvos. 
Cf. a similar expression in the fol. sect. 

5. 'ApjJidcreie = irperroi. — larpiicov Zpycv, the office of physician. Some 
of the physicians were appointed by the government, and received a salary 
from the state, like the surgeons in our army and navy. — ovSsva : subj. 

134 NOTES. 

of yzvicrB. — jxaOeuv, jx£p.a0T]K€vai. The aor. denotes the simple fact of 
learning, the perf. the additional idea of retaining in mind to the pres. 
time. — 4v xip.LV cVirojavSweucov, by trying experiments, running risks upon you. 
Pliny, H. N. 29, 1. (Medici) discunt periculis nostris et experimenta per 
mortes agunt. 

@. 'Eral Se introduces a conversation at a subsequent time. Eutli. is 
now attentive to what Soc. says. — ots. Attract. H. 810; S. Gr. 5,54; 
G. 153, N". 1. — irpose'x<«>v> <j)vXaTTojj.€vos, vojx^tov : supp. part. H. 797; 
S. Gr. 546, a ; G. 280. — awos : connect with fyBiyyecrdai, saying anything 
himself. H. 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b. — ©a^jxao-Tov -yap. -y&p denotes confir- 
mation or assurance, indeed, certainly. It is certainly wonderful. — t£ ttotc : 
cf. I.-l, 1. — dXXoTi : depend, on IkcivoI : to become expert in any other such 
thing. — cas u-wexeoraTci, as constantly as possible. — Ka0' Io/utovs, by them- 
selves, alone, in contrast with irapa tois apic-Tois. apurr. in pred. with elvai : 
attract, to case of tois preceding. — exdvav -yvtop^s, their sanction, approval. 
— cos ... . *y€vd{X£voi. ws with part. H. 795, e ; S. Gr. 540, c ; G. 277, 
1ST. 2. — tc5v 8e (3oi»\ .... rives in contrast with oi f$ov\. Ki0api£€i.v kt|. 
Usually in such a case jjlcv occurs with the first clause : oi p.ev povXdp.. — 
&vev Trapa<rK6v»]s Kal ImjAisXelas avTopa-roi €|a(^>vrrs. Not widely different 
from the habits of aspirants for political office in our day. 

K* Kalroi *ye, although indeed. — toctoijtio .... o<rcj>. H. 610 ; S. Gr. 
444 ; G. 188, 2. — Tawa (i. e. m itoXitik&), kvL&vmv (i. e. Ki0apl'£€iv, avXetv, 
kt4.). H. 678 ; S. Gr. 461 ; G. 148. — irXadvcDV .... ylyvovr^i, those 
really accomplishing something in, them are fewer than the many busying them- 
selves, etc. 

§• (Jiovos : in distinction fr. tcov [asO* lavrov rivas <ix < " }V ^ as heretofore. 
— tw ovtl : dat. of manner (lit. according to that which is), in reality. — -ypajJi- 
jjiara : cf. § 1. — tcw .... yeyovivai, the men said to have become ivise. — 
<rw«rya>. Pres. for fut. H. 699, a ; S. Gr. 477. 

@» JSTtj t$\v "Hpav. A coram, form of asseveration among Athenian 
matrons ; not used by men, with the exception of Soc, who often employed 
it, sometimes with humorous effect. — o-ov : gen. of pers. depend, on &"ya- 
jjuu, verb of ment. act. Instead of ace. of thing, we have the clause, Sioti 
.... o-o«j>(as. — K€tcTf](r0ai : perf. as pres. {to have acquired), to possess. — 
jxeneVai .... <ro<J>tav (to go for) to seek wisdom. 

-14>. Tt he. Cf. II. 1, 26. ti : ace. specif, depend, on &"ya0os. — 'Apa 
p.T| : implying neg. ans. H. 829; S. Gr. 566; G. 282, 2. — 'AXXci. p4 
Well .... not. — Kal tovto, in this respect also, in this (art) also. ©edSco- 
pos : of Gyrene : a teacher of Soc. — dcrrpoXoYOs = ao-Tpovdp.os, an astrono- 
mer. Both words had this signif. until after the time of Soc. — pou|m>8o{>s 
.... f|Xi0tovs. This judgment of the rhapsodists has reference to the 
period of Soc, and not to preceding times, in which they were held in 
great honor. See Grote II., Part I., c. 21. Wolf, Prolegom. in Horn. 

11. Sfyiro-u. H. 852; S. Gr. 580. — cum] : emphat. posit, for this is 
(the art) of kings. — (3acriXiK*rj, the kingly art. — €l, whether. — (avGpwirov) 
{at} ovto. 8[kouov : sulvj. of yevicrQ. — Kal p.dXa .... Kal oiJ)^. Certainly 
(I have) .... and it is not. 


12» toOto : i. e. Sikcuov ylyveirdcLi.— o^Sevos .... ^ttov . . . . St- 
kchos (lit. less just than no one), i. e. as just as any other. &v tjmvfjvai. H. 
722, b ; S. Gr. 491, b ; G. 211. — *Ap ovv. An affirmative ans. is, in this 
instance, expected. H. 829 ; S. Gr. 566 ; G. 282. — \Uvroi expresses con- 
tinuation : certainly. — ^ovori .... fypiev &v, are able .... would be able. 
— ov Swajmi, unable, ov belongs to Swap-cu alone. / am not then unable, 
ami. — ^ywye : sc. Svvajxat kfcvpfqcrcurdai. — opdv, decoueiv. Act., where 
in Eng. we usually employ the pass., to be seen and heard. 

IS. BovXei .... Ypdi|ra>fJi£v. The subjunctive is used without a conj. 
after povXei in interrogations. Matthiae 516, 3. — IvtouOo? = IvTaiJQa, 
here. Rarely used in Attic. — Se'Xra .... &X«jja. A stands for Siicaio- 
«rvvr| and A for dSiicla. — irpbs to 8eXra TiGcojigv, we add to A, i. e. place 
under A. — ti, in any respect. — ?rpbs 8etv to^tgjv, to be need of these (letters) 
in addition: i. e. any need in addition to the other means you possess for 
investigating the subject before us. 

14. 'ia-ny .... i|/€v0ar0ai, does falsehood exist, gcrriv. Why so ac- 
cented ? H. 406, R. b; S. Gr. 277, c; G. 28, N. 1, (3). — [icVroi : con- 
firmative: cf. § 12. — IXoT€pooo-€ .... Q&\Lev 9 on which side .... shall we 
place. Subjunc. deliberat. — rjp.iv, in our judgment. H. 601, 5 (end of 
paragraph) ; S. Gr. 437 ; G. 184, 5. — Aeivov "yap &v ei't]. (No), for that 
would be terrible: "yap, as often in replies, referring to a thought omitted. 

15a CTTpaTTj-yds : in pred., having been chosen general. — €£av8pairc8t<rr]- 
Tcitj shall have reduced to slavery. A or. subj. in a cond. denoting probabil- 
ity, nearly equiv. to Lat. fut. perf. — iroXejxwv o.vrols, while making war 
upon them, airois, const. Kam cruvcouv, with ref. to iroXiv above. — irpbs 
tqv<$ <j>LX., with reference to, etc. — irpbs Trj d8iKia eGifJKa^ev. Pregnant 
const. : verb of motion with prep, and case denoting rest : equiv. to irpbs 
T'fjv dSiKiav IGTJKajJigv oJcrre KeurGai irpbs aiTrj. H. 618, a ; S. Gr. 448, b ; 
compare G. 191, N. 6. 40fjKap,£v : comm. SfGejiev. H. 402 ; S. Gr. 271 ; 
G. 121, "K. 2. 

!@« Siopio-wjxeGa .... given, toe again make a distinction, that it is right, 
etc. — a>s dirXovo-TaTov, as guileless as possible. Subject of etvca ? crrpaTTj- 
70V. Kiih. Tivd. Breit. I concur with the latter. 

17 • dGvjxws ^x ov > dispirited (lit. having itself without spirit), 'ex<o with 
an adv. of manner is often equiv. in signif. to eljxL — ^evcrdjxevos .... 
irftasievai, having invented a falsehood say that allies are approaching. — «s 
avriov . . . . 8a>, give {him) the drug as food. — {ryid : iryMrjs. ■ — els to avro, 
wider the same (head). — Siaxp^cn^TCH Icujtgv. xp^°"^ at re §- takes the dat., 
but SiaxprjcrGat and KO/raxp^o-Gox in the sense, to hill, take the ace. — 
kXchJ/t) tj dp7rdo-Tj, take away secretly or forcibly. 

!§• cliravTa, in all respects. — Md AC ov Stjtol, certainly, by Zeus (we 
must) not (be guileless even in regard to friends). — rd elprjpiva 
(I change for myself the things spoken) I retract what I have said. — -ye tol : 
employed to denote strong emphasis. 

19. In this section and the fol. (if reported correctly by Xen.) Socrates, 
in his eagerness to convince Euth. of folly, does not adhere to his principles, 

136 NOTES. 

but conducts the argument like a sophist. Soc. believed that virtue con- 
sists in knowledge ; that he who knows what is right always does right. 
But in this passage he speaks of one who knows what is right doing wrong, 
which is contrary to his real opinion. The student will observe the soph- 
istry of the passage, and also the falsity of the view of Soc, that he who 
knows the right always does it. — lirl pXajBrj. errt denoting the aim of an 
action, for, in order to. — ots : for 8. : attracted to case of om. anteced. — 
clpTJo-0cj) jjtoi, let it be said by me. With what parts of the verb can the dat. 
of agent be used ? H. 600 ; S. Gr. 435 ; G. 188, 3. 

2®. tot) 8ikcuod, of what is just. — Xlorepov: interrog. adj. fr. *nroT€pos, 
and which of the two. — 6irdT€ (JcwXoito : opt. in rel. sent, denoting indef. 
freq. of past action. H. 729, b ; S. Gr. 498 ; G. 232, 4. — avrd, i. e. -ypd- 
<|>€iv Kal avayiyv&<rKew. — IX<3s yap oti ; (he would), for how (could it be) 
otherwise. — Td Stscata 8£ iroTcpov. Notice the position. The interrog. 
particle irdrepov usually stands first ; but here to. 81k. is placed first for 
emphasis. — #atvo[j<ai : sc. tovto Xe-ycov. I appear to say so: in contrast 
with fol. 8okw pot, but I think I say, etc. 

21* Ti 8e 8^, but what then, but what, I pray. — TaX-qO-q : to, dX-r^T]. — ■ 
p/qSeiroTe Td avTd .... Xc'ytj. This is what Euth. has. done in the fore- 
going discussion. — 4>pd£G>v .... ^P^tl)' Observe that by a peculiar 
idiom there is joined to the verb of the sent, a part. fr. the same verb. 
When describing the same road, says at one time (rore piv) that it leads 
towards the east, and at another time (totc Se). irpds with ace. introdu- 
cing the idea of motion, leading. • — Xo7icrp.6v .... ciutov, stating the result 
of the same calculation. — AfjXos .... clvai: sc. Sokci (he seems to be evident, 
that). Pers. const, where the Eng. idiom prefers the impers., it seems to be 
evident, that. 

22, dvSpairoSwSeis, servile. — KaXonjjievous : supp. part, with verb of 
knowledge. Do you know that some persons are called. — rod xaXiceveiv : as 
subst. of brass-working. — 'AXX" &pa. But then, but perhaps. — OvSe 81' ev 
tovtwv. Euth., somewhat irritated at Soc.'s captious questions, cuts them 
off by a rather crusty reply. — to ovojxa tovt* €«tt£v. Is this the name ? 
Pred. noun with the art. H. 535, end of paragraph ; S. Gr. 381, a, end. «. 

23, Sttws .... cS|X6V. Mixed purpose : a sent, denoting purpose and 
at the same time partaking of the character of a direct object of fcvyeiv : 
to avoid being slaves. — cJhXoo-qcJ^iv <|>iXocroc|>lav. L. & Sc. <j>iXocro4>€a>, IT. 
— &v : connect with irai8€v0f]vai. When does the inf. take &v ? — ircu- 
Sa>0. Td irpos^KovTcu The ace. of the thing retained with the passive 
voice. H. 553, a ; S. Gr. 398, a ; G. 164. / should be taught the things be- 
fitting. — ttws .... ^X €LV j h° w dispirited do you think I am? Cf. note, § 17. 

■ — irpoireirovrujilva. His previous efforts have been in the wrong direction. 
ovSe .... eiSevai, unable to answer even that which is asked concerning (those 
things) which I ought most of all to know, imep st. more comm. irept. — $v : 
cogn. ace. , by pursuing which, I can. 

24, els AgX<f>oi>s 8e : in reply to dXXrjv 686v ovSejAiav '4\ovra. — irpos 
.... irov, somewhere on the front of — to TvwOt <ravTov. The art. pointing 


out its subj. as well known. — Xlorepov. "When untranslated ? — IjieXfjo-ev : 
takes dat. of pers. and gen. of thing (gen. on ace. of idea of ment. action). 
Did you give no heed to the inscription? — irposea"X€S (sc. voiiv), give attention to. 
— 8stis: not who,h\\twhatsortofapenon. The rel. here denotes, indeii*- 
niteness in regard to the character of the obj. H. 683 ; S. Gr. 463. — kclI 
7&p 8rj, and (I did not), for indeed, rovro ye, this at least, i. e. my own 
character. — &v fjSeiv, €i . . . . eylyvai&izov. When the imp. aor. and plup. 
in this form of condit. proposition ? H. 746 ; S. Gr. 514 ; G. 222. — elye 
fi/r^S', if indeed not even. jju]8€ is often to be separated in transl., did not 
know even myself. < 

Sel. irpdrepov .... irpiv, before. 8v &v has for anteced. the obj. of 
yiyv&o-K&v ; tov tVirov understood. — r&XXa .... Sttojs 2x € S an d h° w ^ e 
is in respect to other points, those serviceable and, etc. irpds, in regard to. — 
6 . . . . lirio-Ke^H-evos. Repetition of the subj. (8stis) on acct. of the 
long parenthetical sent. (cisirep .... tfmos 'ixei). 

2®. e<p€$<r0ai lavrwv, = \l$\ tiSevcu lavroiis. lawcov, gen. depending 
on the idea of separation in the verb. Being cheated of Render, being de- 
ceived in.— Si p4 Why ji/fj ? H. 761 ; S. Gr. 523, a ; G. 231. —€« irpaT- 
toiktiv, kcikws iTp&TTeiv. Cf. note, I. 6, 8. — kou rovs aXXovs .... Kal 
8id. The repetition of Kai, ace. to Kiih., denotes a sort of comparison, and 
is similar to its use in comparative sentences ; oSs'n-ep Kal .... outgjs kclI. 
Cf. I. 6, 3. The idea is, being able both to form a proper estimate of other 
men, and also to use them. 

2 V. elSoTcs : sc. lavTovs or rfjv eauTW 8vvap.iv. — 8i€*|/€ua* .... 8wd- 
p.€ws : cf. note, § 26. — r&XXa .... irpd"yp.aTa : connect with irpds. — 
op-oicos 8iaK€ivTcu : i. e. they are ignorant of them. — ots : masc. 

28. eTrirvyyj&,vovre% attaining to, succeeding in. — ot re 8jxoioi, those who 
are like (them), in discernment and ' discretion. — tovtois : depends on 
XpwvTai. — twv TrpaYjJidTtov, their affairs, business. — tovtovs .... fiovkev. 
obj. of €Tri0vp,oi)oru — vue'p, in behalf of — Kal irpo'i<rTao-0ai re. Anacolu- 
thon for Kal irpoto-Taa-Oat re exri0up,oiic-iv eavr .... Kal rds cXtt .... 

2&« KaK^s 81 atpo'up.evoi : in regard to what is to be undertaken and 
what not. — tftiuovvrai re Kal KoXd£., are both fined and punished, incur both 
losses and sufferings. — t<3v irdXewv : before 6ti, emphat. posit, for the sake 
of contrast bet. states and single individuals. — KpeiTTOci : sc. inSXeo-i. 

3®. e 0s .... Sokovv : obj. of c<r0i : know that it seems. The gen. 
abs. is more coram, in this const. Cf. Xen. Anab. I. 3, 6. a>s epov oSv 
Iovtos .... o-uto) r$\v "yvtop,T]v ^X 6T€ > oe assured that I shall go, etc. — -ircpl 
ttqXXov iroLTjTeov. H. 650, b. Compare orepl irXeuovos, I. 1, 18. — tovto : 
obj. of lift 7Tjo-a<r9ai. — IGeX^jcrais av : to be regarded as a conclusion with 
cond. omit. Whether you would be willing. H. 748, 752; S. Gr. 516, 520, 
b ; G. 226, 2, 227, Note. Notice-the form -ais st. of the more comm. -€ias. 

31. irov, indef., denotes doubt, uncertainty, and hence is used to 
qualify an expression : perhaps, I suppose. — N*fj : always affirmative. — €i 
.... oT8a, av d'lrjv. Cond. assumed as real, conelus. as poss. H. 750 ; S. 

138 NOTES. 

Gr. 518; G. 2*27, 1. — irpcoTOv jiiv, eVeiTtt. The usual Be omitted. — ttotu,, 
ppcoTd, kTTirrfiev. in appos. with ai'na. — irpbs .... <j>€povTa, conducive 
to. — d"ya0&, Kaicd : in pred. with etvat understood. 

B2o dv ct'?j : opt. st. indie. A reality is modestly expressed as a pos- 
sibility. — XIot€ 8\ The quest, of Euth. — a-rpardas, voumXias : gen. 
dependent on fxeracrxoVTcs, verb of sharing. H. 574, a ; S. Gr. 417, a ; 
G. 170, 2. — ot p,€v . ... oi 84. Cf. note to, jjlcv. I. 1, 19. — teal t£v 
a><j>€Xi[Jia>v. Kat contrasts twv a>4»eX. with CTpaT. aia^pds and vav-r. pXa- 
pepds : successful (enterprises) also, as well as disastrous ones. — ttot6 jxev 
..... ttot€ 81, at one time . ... at another time. — p,dXXov .... Kcucd, rather 
blessings than evils. — O-vSev : ace. specif. 

33. ^ 76 tol o-o<j>ia, wisdom at least .... certainly. Euth. confidently 
adduces o-o4>ta as an example for a good thing, for Soc. elsewhere declares 
it to be the summum bonum, and says that every virtue is cro«J>la. But 
Soe., to carry his point, here uses o-ocj>ia in a sense diff. from that in which 
he ordinarily uses it. This passage is frequently instanced as an example 
of Socratic irony. Is not irony a rather mild word to characterize such a 
mode of argumentation ? — ayaBoy. Eor the gend., see H. 522 ; S. Gr. 
372 ; G. 138, (c). ■ — Tt Sat, what now, how so: with surprise. — rbv AaiSa- 
Xov .... 6ti. * Emphat. posit. Prolepsis. H. 726 ; S. Gr. 495. For 
the legend, see Class, Diet. Also Grote, V. 1. Force of the art.? H. 527, 
a ; S. Gr. 377, b. The well known, the celebrated. — Mtvw. Att. sec. " 
decl. — 4k€lvo», i. e. Mtvas. H. 679, b; S. Gr. 461 ; G. 148. Thought 
of as remote, although mentioned immediately before. — IIaXa[i.Tj8ovs. 
For the story of Palamedes and his death by the treacherous device of 
Ulysses, see Class. Diet, or Grote, I. p. 400. — djivovo-iv, sing of, tell of — 
<os, how that. — dirdXXvTCH : pres. tense in allusion to the telling of the 
story in existing poems. — dvapirdo-TO-us .... yzyovevai (lit. have been 
carried off), seized and sold as slaves. — pcuriXea : as prop, name, the king 
of Persia, regularly without the art. 

34. Kiv8we-u€L Impers. It is probable. The omission of the usual 
conclusive particle (ofiv or dpa) renders the sent, more emphatic. — t<3v 
€v8ai[J.. depend, on tL — d'-ye p/?j irpcsG^crojiev, unless indeed we shall attach 
to it (as its elements). 

35. virb t<Sv .... irapaKCKiv, by those passionately excited for their youth- 
ful attractions. For signif. of eirl, see H. 640, c. — p.a'£e<riv, too great. 

3©. p.t]8€ 8 ti. 8 ti, obj. of €t>'x€cr0ai : do not know even what I ought to 
pray to the gods for. — 8id to .... irurre-foiv elSevai, on account of excessive 
confidence that you knew. H. 775 ; S. Gr. 536, b. — 8*{[AOKpaTiav. Pro- 
lepsis. Notice the force of "y«, at least, at any rate. 

&7, etSe'vcu {for one) to know. — (xtj elSdra. When does the participle 
take ji/rfj ? H. 839. ; S. Gr. 571 ; G. 283, 4. If he does not know. — Sfjjjtov : 
without the art. like a proper name. It was the regular term among the 
Grecian democracies for the commons, the people.' — Ilotovs, ire'vTjTas: obj. 
and pred. ace. H. 556 ; S. Gr. 400 ; G. 166. — els d 8ei TsXgcv, to pay for 
the necessaries of life. In full, to expend (upon those things) upon which it is 


necessary (to expend one's means). — irevTjTas : in pred. with, dvai under- 
stood : are poor. 

38. Kal Wj AC : understand KaTap.ep.a9*)Ka. I have, by Zeus. — 6p0ws 
•ydp .... dvajj.i(jiv^o-K€is. A parenthetical where we should expect a 
principal sent. Cf. Anab. II. 5, 12, III. 2, 11. — ol dwroptoTaToi : see L. 
& Sc. III. 3, the very poorest. 

39. e'fye .... 2x €l > Qr\<ro\y.€v. Force of this form of cond. prop. H. 
745 ; S. Gr. 511, a, 512 ; G. 221. —'AvayKd^i .... ^avXd-njs. The 
subject and verb have exchanged places. Notice the emphatic force thereby 
given. 4scujXot., ward of knowledge. — jjlt] : as interrog., whether not. L. & 
Sc., C. 2; Kiih. 318, R. 6. I am reflecting whether it be not best. — onrXoos 
o-fi8e'v, simply nothing, nothing at all. — KaTa<jspovT]<ras, vo{Ai<ra$. Is the aor. 
part, ever to be trans] . by a pres.? H.. 717, a ; S. Gr. 486, a ; G. 204, 1ST. 2. 

"40. oxitw 8iaTi0€VTajv, thus disposed, i. e. brought to recognize their 
own ignorance. — #XXg>s, €i p.^ : like Lat. non aliter nisi for non aliter 
quam si. — »v. Attracted from ace. to case of om. anteced., some of [the 
things) which.— (L : obj. of elSevcu and eiriTTjSeveiv. 


For full information, the student is referred to G-rote's Plato, Jow- 
ett's Plato, and also to Grrote's History, Ch. LXVIII. 

"After an interval of some months or years, at Phlius, a town of Sicyon, 
the tale of the last hours of Socrates is narrated to Echecrates and other 
Phliasians by Phaedo, the 'beloved disciple.' .... During the voyage 
of the sacred ship to and from Delos, which has occupied thirty days, 
the execution of Socrates has been deferred. The time has been passed in 
conversation with a select company of disciples. But now the holy season 
is over, and the disciples meet earlier than usual in order that they may 
converse with Socrates for the last time." — Jowett. 

57. (The figures on the margin denote the pages in the edition of 
Stephanus.) — dXXo-u tod (fr. tIs) : perhaps gen. of source. H. 576, a; 
S. Gr. 419, a ; G. § 171, Note 1 : or did you hear (the story) from some one 
else. — a-uTos, sc. 4]Koa><ra. — &TTa„= & Tiva (Scttls). — to3v .... $kiaxrt<av : 
H. 500, a ; lit. of the citizens, Phliasians, more freely rendered, of the Phlia- 
sian citizens. — iravv tl, at all ... . ra vvv, at present — 6<rris &v . . . . 
otos t 3|V, who would be able, ivho could. — dirofidvoi : orat. obliq. , only that 
he died, etc. 

5§. Trepl tt|s SIktjs, concerning the trial. — o/uttjs, i. e.jri}s 8iKr ( s. — ti, 
adv. ace, why. — 'irvyji .... e«TT€p,p,€VTj (o-recjxo), happened to have been 
crowned. — tovs 81s sirra €Keivoi>s .... &7<av, with (lit. leading) those well- 

140 NOTES. 

known twice seven. For the story, see Class. Die, Theseus. — B. Gecoptav, 
an embassy. — !£ exdvov, from that (time). — T^xoxriv .... diroXapdvTes 
avTovs, lit. happen taking them away, i. e. happen to detain them. — C. Zrvytv 
"ye-yovos, chanced to have taken place. — 6 .... GavcLrou, that (time) interven- 
ing between, etc. — Tt : adv. aec. And how (were) those things relating to, etc. 

— elW^ (law) sc. tows linn] Seiovs. — D. irpoGvprjO^Ti (irpQ0a;p.6OfJuu) .... 
dirayyeiXai, please relate, etc. (lit. be forward, or zealous to, etc.) — to p.€|Jivfj- 
O-0CH .... teal avrov Xe-yovTa Kal .... dicovovTa (sc. Ipc, subj. of the 
intin.), to call to mind Socrates, both in speaking myself, and in listening, etc. 
•fjSio-Tov, sc. Io-tiv. — roiovrovs kripovs : appos. with tons okovo--: we should 
perhaps invert the order : you have others such (as yourself) (in) those also 
who will, etc. — E. Note the use of Kal (jltjv, 'AXXd, 'AXXd p/rjv, in dia- 
logue. The ordinary copulative, adversative, or intensive meaning of these 
words is perceptible, but not easily expressed in Eng. Jowett does not 
generally render them. — dvS. €irtTt|8- limits Oavdrw. — dWjp, crasis, = 6 
dv^jp. — Tpoirov, X07WV : gen. of cause with €v8alp.cov (in the same way as 
with €v8aip.ovC£<0. H. 584 ; S. Gr. 424 ; G. § 173, 1), — <*><rre . . . . ira- 
picrracrGai kt!., so that it occurred to me that he, even in going into Hades, did 
not go without a divme destiny. — eS irpd|€iv, would fare well, would be happy. 

«59. A. Note here elo-tjei with dat. : nothing at all like pity entered my 
heart (lit. entered me). The dat. here depends on the general meaning of 
the comp. verb. Usually cfcreijii takes the ace. depending on the prep. 
Of. 58, E. — irapovTi, indef. , with €ikgs, natural to one present ivith suffering. 

— otfre afi Tj8ov*i, sc. eUrrjei p.01. — "m with the particip., represents its 
meaning as subjective," ~H.,from the reflection that we were (engaged) in phil- 
osophical discourse. — Kpdons .... cn)YK€Kpa[A€VT] («nryKepdvvviu) 6p.ov : 
mingling of . . . . united together. — IvOvjJioupiva) refers to p.oi above, while 1 
considered. — otc (note the accent distinguishing it fr. oVg, when) \t.\v .... 
4vtOT€ 84, at one time, and at another, or, sometimes .... sometimes. — ets, 
appos. with irdvTes ou irapdvres, all (of us) who were present .... and one 
of us especially. It is not necessary to express any verb with this last clause. 

— ttov : used here, as often, to modify the positiveness of an assertion. 
May be rendered, perhaps, I suppose. — B. €T€TapdY|j.t]v : Tapdo-arw. — twv 
4irix»pfa>v, of the native (Athenians). — Ato-xtv^s. Not the orator Aeschines, 
who was not born till ten years later. — 6 IXatavie^s, the Paeanian, denot- 
ing the Attic township or deme from which he came. — C. Ti : adv. ace. 
And how (was it) ? — ExeSov ri . . . . 7rapa*yeveo-0ai. "I think that these 
were about all." Jowett. (Lit. I think that about these (persons) were pres- 
ent). — (jr/js, or 4>"0 S » w ^ n or without the iota subscript, and with acute 
accent; — D. ayoi\diir\ (avoCyvvpi) : indef."" frequency of past action. ££. 
729, b; S. Gr. 524; G. § 239, 2.— SiarpipovTes, conversing. — tcl TroXXdji. 
adv. ace. generally. — E. els to elwOds, to the accustomed (place of meeting). — 
&»>s &v avTos KeXswo-Tj : note here the subjunc. instead of the optat. after a 
principal verb in past time, denoting "'possibility with present expecta- 
tion," H., until he himself should bid (us enter). — Auovon, i. e. from his 
chains. — 01 eVSeica, the eleven, the magistrates who had charge of the prison 


and every tiling pertaining to it. Cf. Die. Antiqq., p. 593. — irapayyeX- 
Xoixriv, frinos : "are giving orders, that," etc. (Jowett. )— Notice here av 
after 6ircos. H. 741 ; S. Gr. 507, b ; G. § 216, Note 2. 

6®, A. on, before the oratio recta. — atrayiro> .... ofrcaSe. This 
apparently unfeeling treatment of Xanthippe, however weak and unami- 
able she may have been, is truly painful. No Christian man could have 
done thus. — twv rov Kp-, of the attendants of Crito. — B. t! . . . . tovto 
.... 6 : lit. this something, which. — <a avSpcs : a respectful and at the 
same time familiar address. We have nothing in English corresponding 
very well to it, and hence Jowett omits it in his version. It is sometimes 
rendered, sirs. — «os Oaupao-ijos kt!., how curiously it is related in its nature to 
that which seems its opposite to pain. — to with the infinitives lOeXeiv and 
dvayKdlecrQai, dat. of cause : for they will not come to a man (lit. to the human 
being) together. — to erepcv .... ical to &repov : one of the two .... the 
other also. — cr^Sov ti dvcry-, he is almost compelled, etc. — aio-irep .... 
• <ruvT)|A|i€va> (<rvvdirra>) Stf' 6Vt€ : aec. abs. H. 793 ; S. Gr. 544, a ; G. 
§ 278, Note : just as iffiom one point (or at one end) they were fastened to- 
gether, though they are two. — 0. jxvGov &v o-vv0€ivai (depends on Sokci) = in 
a finite const. p/O0ov &v o-vve'0rjK€v : he would have composed a fable. — cog 
kt€. explanatory of p.€0ov. — 8ia\Xd|ai, to reconcile. — rfivvaro. Note the 
double augment. — o-wfjt|/ev .... Kopwjjds, he tied the ends together : (els 
ravrbv avrols, lit. into the same with themselves). Jowett renders it, he fas- 
tened their heads together. — «o-irep .... eoucev, just as I find in my own case 
also (lit. just as, accordingly, seems to me myself also). — lireiS^, after: inro, 
occasioned by. 

We have not space to follow the dialogue through. It contains the cele- 
brated argument of Plato for the immortality of the soul. This argument 
is well presented in Jowett's introduction. We now turn to the closing 

113. D. Socrates is the speaker ; and he has just given, in the pas- 
sage preceding this, a description of "the nature and conformation of the 
earth." — SieSiKdo-avTo : gnomic aor. H. 707 ; S. Gr. 474, c ; G. § 205, 
2 : they are judged. — (Aeo-ios Pe|3-, to have led a medium life: "to have lived 
neither well nor ill." Jowett. — d .... ox^F-aTa : anteced. in relat. 
clause: the conveyances which, etc. — tyipovrai : mid., receive: eKacrros, 
appos. with the subj. of <f>ep-. — E. dvt&Tcos ^X €lv » the comm. use of ?x €lv 
with an adv., to be incurable. — psyiQi] : abstract subst. in the plur., denot- 
ing repeated instances of the quality. — toijtovs Se : "After a conditional 
or relative sentence, the apodosis is sometimes introduced by 8e." H. May 
we not understand Si here as a shortened form of 8rj, in the same way as 
|X€V is used for jx^v ? these, I say, their fitting destiny hurls, etc. — l&o-ap.a 
fjiv .... ap.apTTjp.aTa : cognate ace. : to have committed pardonable, but 
great crimes. — olov, as for example — p.eTap.eXov avTois: ace. abs. H. 792; 
S. Gr. 544 ; G. § 278, 2 : and who live the rest of their lives in penitence (lit. 
it repenting them). 

142. NOTES. 

1I4I. A. TOtovTw . . ... Tpoirw, in some similar way (lit. in some other 
such manner), i. e. .similar to the instance just named. — tovtous Se : of. 
note above. — <|>€po[j.€voi .... Kara, being borne along they arrive at, etc. 
-— ol [xlv . . . . o£ 8e kt4., appos. with the subj. of po<So-i .... koKovo-iv : 
some (call) on those whom they have slain; others, on those whom they have 
wronged. — erects (in Att. an indirect reflexive), obj. of Idcrai, refers to the 
subj. of the principal verbs. — eKp-fjvat, to go forth (i. e. from the river Co- 
cytus or Pyrophlegethon) into, etc. The learner should not fail to notice 
the derivation and meaning of the names Kwkvtcs, XlupufjXe-yeOttv, 3 A\4- 
pcav. — €ts T-f^v XifivTjv : i. e. the Acherusian lake. Just above they are 
spoken of as having only arrived at (Kara) the lake. — B. t<wv kcikcov, 
from their troubles. — vtto twv Sucao-TtSv, by the judges, i. e. those in the 
under- world, Aeacus, Minos, and Rhadamanthus. In the Apology of Soc. 
the name Triptolemus is added. — ot . . . . 86|cdo-i 8ia<|>€povTc«>s irpos kt4. : 
a rare const., yet the meaning is plain, ichoever seem (to have been) eminent 
in respect to, etc. — ev Trj yrj, in (the interior of) the earth, where the places ' 
of torment were supposed to be. — C. toijtov avnov : masc, of these very 
persons, i. e. those just mentioned : limits 01 . . . . Ka0t]pd^evot (KaOaipo). 

— pa8iov, sc. ktrriv : 87]X:3crai, to make plain, i. e. to describe. — dXXd .... 
8i€X-r]Xv0ap.£v ; but, for those things which we have rehearsed (lit. through which 
we have passed) : \p-{\ with irdv iroutv. — KaXov .... fAeydX-r] : emphat. 
posit. "Fairjs the prize, and the hope is great." Jowett. — D. To with 
SucrxypLo-ao-Q ai : Tavra, subj. of 'ixav. — dGdvaTOV : H. 522 ; S. Gr. 372 ; 
G. § 138, Note 1, (c). — 4>a£veTai ofara : H. 802 ; S. Gr. 547,: is plainly. 

— toSto, i. e. the entire statement above. — 8ti . v .' • -oiicfjtras : this seems 
to me fitting (to be believed). — olopivco kt4.: indef. : on the part of one thinking 
it is so. — Kal x.p'H .... la-ura) : and it is necessary as it were to charm one's 
self with such things : an allusion to the use of charms or incantations : see 
Lex. erniEcD. — &v8pa, subj. of. 0app€iv. — E. tcis Trepl .... Koo-fxous, 
those pertaining to the body and its ornaments. — efawre yaipeiv, has allowed the 
other pleasures .... to take their leave (to say farewell). — «s .... 6'vtcis 
(agrees with koctjxo-us), as being foreign (to himself). — Kal .... direpYa- 
£€a-0ai : and thinking they do more harm, (than good), lit. that they do more the 
other of the two things (darepov — to ^repov). — Tas, sc. rjSovds, obj. of kanrov- 
8ao-£ (trans, has eagerly pursued). 

JLi.5. A. €ijxap{j.£vyj : [igipojiai. — «{>auT| .... Tpayucos : (as) a tragic 
popt would say . — Xovo-djj.evov, sc. 4{X€, subj. of irieiv (mvco) : after bathing. — 
Tats 7wa:£t : in allusion to the custom among the Greeks of having a 
corpse washed by the women of the family to which the deceased belonged. 
Die. Antiqcp, p. 554, Funus. — Xoveiv, with the subst. irpd'yjxaTa : trouble to 
wash. — Elsv : see Lex. sub voce. — B. av with irototjxev. — TroioiivTes : de- 
noting means : by doing which, etc. — 4v x«<piTi .... iroioifJiev, ice might par- 
ticularly serve you (lit. we might do (it) especially in favor to you). — SVi : explan- 
atory of direp : the very things which .... that you, etc. — k&v (Kai av) .... 
6ji.oXoY'i]cn]T€ •: even if you do not now make any promises (or, as Jowett ren- 
ders, make any professions). — wo-rrep KaT s 'i\vr\ .... X,t\v : to live as it 


were step by step according to, etc. — C. o£8* .... o£8ev irXeov iroiTJcreTe : 

not even if etc., will you (by your professions) do any good at all. Notice 
irXeov iroi€LV in the sense to profit, to do some good. — &|xa with particip. EL 
795, c ; S. Gr. 539, a ; G. § 277, Note 1. — Notice the repetition in etirev, 
.... '£§r\: he said, .... said he. Lex. (("IF^ II. 2. — 'i^ao-rov t&v Key- : 
- neut. — D. cos introduces the exj)lanation of koyov : argument, to the effect 
that, etc. — Tcurra sums up all the preceding beginning with oVi. — aww 
Xeyeiv, to speak to him in vain (aXXos, otherwise, irrelevantly ; hence, in vain). 
— fie, bfyvrpr : two aces, with one verb. H. 555 ; S. Gr. 399 ; G. § 159, 
Note 4: give therefore to Crito (for) me the opposite security. — ^ fjv . . . . rjvy-, 
other than that in which he, etc. Socrates before his judges had proposed, as 
a commutation for the penalty of death, a certain fine ; and Crito became 
security with others for the payment. — ovtos .... Trapa^evetv (fut. ), 
sc. YjyyuaTO : for this man became security that I should surely stay (and pay 
the line imposed, not running away to escape it). — E. olxrjcreo-Sai dmovTa, 
sc. [xd. — [xtj with aYavaicrTJ. — i] kcuojacvov i] KaTOpvTTOjxgvov. Both were 
common among the Greeks. For this whole subject, see Die. Antiqq. 
Funus.— ^ 8* 6s : H. 404, 1 ; S. Gr. 274, a ; G. § 151, Note 3. — ov \lovov 
.... irXr L [jip.eX€S, sc. ecrrtv, is not only in itself (lit. in respect to this itself ) 
faculty. — dXXd .... XP^I Kr *- The words are still addressed to Crito : 
it is necessary (for you) .... and to say that, (you), etc. — kcu Gdirreiv (con- 
nected to KaVcjmvai), and to bury (it) just as, etc. 

IIU. A. avurraTO ds ot'scqjjui ti, rose up (and went) into a room. H. 
618, a ; S. Gr. 448, b. — irepl .... 8i€£u>vt£s, speaking (lit. going through) 
about our misfortune. — ocrr] (sc. i\ crujjwfjopa) ..... dr\ : orat. v obliq. : how 
great it was (lit. how great (a misfortune) had happened to us). — drexveos kt!., 
sincerely thinking, just as if etc., that we should live as orphans, eta. — B. 
? i v€x8'5] : <j>€p<o. — Kal at oIkcicli yvv- dcf>- : bear in mind i-jreiSt] above: and 
the women of the family had arrived. — escewHS (Hermann includes this word 
in brackets ; but it is retained in other editions) .... 4j3ouXeTO : in the 
presence of Crito, talking with them, and giving whatever directions he wished. — 
Tas \t&v • • • • €kc\€vot€v. Not one expression of conjugal or parental 
love! — aTTa : Lex. tis IV.: imparts indefiniteness to iroXXd : not many 
things on any subject (or of any sort). — SieXe'xOtj (8taX€* : usu. under- 
stood as deponent here, he spoke; but Jowett translates it as pass. — C. <rov : 
accented ; hence emphatic. — ere : first word in the sentence and accented; 
emphatic. — Kal aXXojs, on other occasions also. — 4v . . . . Xpovo?, i* e * ^he 
time that he had been in the prison. — x a ^ e7ra ^ V€t S" Bekker and Stallbanm 
read here \a\eircLveis (fut.), which seems more natural. Jowett renders it 
as fut. : you will not be angry with me. Schl. translates it as fut. ; Cousin as 
pres. — envois : i- e. tois alriois : same const, as £\loL — imp<3 (iretpdop.dL), 
imperat. — D. '12s do-T€io$, how courteous. Jowett, how charming, a ques- 
tionable rendering. Schl., wie fein. Cousin, quelle hotnetete. — lv€"yKaTco: 
<j>€pw. — TeTpiirmt (TpLfta), indicating the manner in which, the hemlock 
(k<ov€iov) was prepared. — E. fjXiov, the sun: article omitted, as "in many 
common designations of place and time." H. — irlvoi/Tas (sc. to 4>dpfAaicov) 

144 NOTES. 

supplement, particip. : drink, etc. — irapayy^KQ^ : impers., after the an- 
nouncement has been made to them. — Sewr- .... p.dXa: both having' supped 
and drunk freely. 

1. i 7% A. otJSIv .... &XXo *y€ $\ ktc., anything else than to incur ridicule 
in my own eyes (lit. with myself). — o£8ev6s .... Ivovtos : gen. abs., when 
nothing (of it) longer remains. — TCTpijx-, with to <jjdp-; — <rv, sc. ct — f| .... 
ir€pii€vai ; than, after drinking (it), to walk about, etc. — B. crov witb c-KeXec-i : 
Pdpos, a heaviness. — avrb iroiTjcrei : it (the poison) will take effect (or, as 
we often say, will work). — Ka\ '6s: H. 525, b; S. Gr. 375, b; G. § 151, 
Note 3. — o£8£ Sia^0£ipas kt!., nor changing either in color or in countenance 
(perhaps more lit. nor marring (anything) of etc.). These genitives may be 
viewed as partit. — T«rupi]8dv, adv., steadfastly. L. & Sc. give no defini- 
tion suited to this connection. Jowett says, "with all his eyes" : not a 
very happy rendering. — irpos to d-n-oo-imo-ai (ditwirevSco) tivi ; with re- 
spect to pouring out from (it) a libation to some one? — irtetv with jierpiov : a 
suitable quantity to drink — C. "yc'voiTO : optat. without &v, a wish : would 
that it might be thus (toajttj, lit. in this way). — iirio-xop-evcs (iiriyja) .... 
€|€iri€ (eKirivfc)) : holding (the cup to his lips), he drank it off "quite readily and 
cheerfully " (J.). — KaT^civ to p.£j 8aK- : on the use of (i/fj here, see H. 838 ; 
S. Gr. 572 ; G. § 263, 2 : to keep from weeping, to restrain our tears. — pia 
with the gen. in spite of: avroS with lp,ov, of myself even. — €K€tvov 76, t^jv 
.... tvx^v : sc. direicXcuov as trans., / bewailed. — ofou = oti toiovtov. 
H. 822 ; S. Gr. 562 ; G. § 238. — lo-TepTjpivos &t\v. orat. obliq., seeing that 
I was deprived of such, etc. — D. ical 8^ Kal totc : an intensive form of 
connective, not easily rendered into Eng. : "and at that moment." (J.) — 
ovSe'va '6vnva ov (H. 817, a ; S. Gr. 558 ; G. § 153, N. 4) : obj. of kcitI- 
kXoatc (Ka/raicXdci)) : moved (lit. broke down) every one of etc.: "made cow- 
ards of us all." (J.) — I'va .... ttXtji.- : that they might not commit such 
improprieties. — E. Iirecrxop^v tov 8o,k- : we refrained from, etc. JSTote here 
■4-tke absence of jj,^ with the in fin. Cf. kolt€X€«'V to \hi\ 8o,k-, above. — 6 
&V0-, i. e. the one who had administered the poison : = ovtos 6 8ovs to 
<|>dp-. — SiaXnrcdv XP° V0V (H. 788, a ; S. Gr. 539, a), after an interval of 
time ; with the imperf. Ittcctk-, which denotes continuance or repetition', we 
may render, now and then examined, etc. — ^pero : aor. of epoaTaco. — ovk 
'4$>v, said, No. 

!!§• A. l-nuvukv (M, o-vd, tlpi), going upwards. — \[/vx- .... iriJYVu- 
to (B. H. St. = mj'yviJoiTo) : was growing cold and stiff. — ovutos jjirTeTO, 
he felt {them) himself (J.) — 0V1 .... olx^|<r€Tai. For this form of orat. 
obliq., see H. 735, and a; S. Gr. 503, and a; G. § 247 : in orat. recta, oIxti- 
cro|xai : when it shoidd reach, etc., then he would be gone. — 4jj8fj .... \|n>x°- 
|A€va: already therefore the parts of his body (lit. of him, airov) about the groin, 
were growing nearly cold. — tw . . . . dXeKTpvova : we owe a cock to Aescula- 
pius: a common sacrifice on recovery from sickness. Socrates thus com- 
pares this life to a fit of sickness ; death, to a recovery. — Tavra, subj. of 
J-o-tch: 6 Kp-, of &J>t]. — opa .... Xe-yeis, consider, if you have anything else 
to say (lit. if you say, etc.). — oXi-yov .... SiaXwrtev, here with the aor. 


€Kiv/j0T] : after a short interval, he was convulsed, or he struggled. Cf. note on 
SioXunbv yjpovov above (117, E). — kcu 6s (refers to avrov) . . . gcrrqcrev: 
and his eyes were set (lit. and he (i. e. Soc.) set his eyes). — £vv€\apc, closed. 
— -fjSe .... eyeveTO : Eng. idiom, such was the end, etc. — wv (rel. attracted 
to the case of the anteced. twv totc) eireipdOijfJisv (ir€, of the men 
at that time whom we have known. — kciI &XX<os, and besides. 

A comparison, or rather contrast, of the above scene with the death of 
our Lord was drawn by J. J. Eousseau, and has often been referred to, 
especially the words, "If the life and death of Socrates are those of a Sage, 
the life and death of Jesus are those of a God." The passage in the original 
may be found in Magill's "Introductory French Reader," p. 168. Every 
French scholar will be well repaid by turning to it. 


To understand the circumstances which called forth this oration, 
the student is referred to Grote's History, Ch. LXXXVIII. (where 
he will find the fullest and best account in our language of the third 
Olynthiac, — " one of the most splendid harangues ever delivered," 
says G-rote), or, if this work is not accessible, to Smith's History, 
Ch. XLII. The chronological table, at the end of Smith's History, 
beginning with Book V., will be convenient, and of great service, if 
frequently consulted. 

§ 1* O^xt. Note the emphatic form of the. negative. — ravTcL (= t& 
avrd), obj. of *Yi"y v "°" K€lv > t0 know, decide, think, lit. not surely does it occur 
to me to think the same things: more freely rendered, the same thoughts do not 
occur to me. — HvSpes: used in respectful address. Cf. cU &v8p€s o-Tpanwr 
tou, so frequent in the Anab. — Ka\ <Jrav (&7ropX€\|/a>) irpbs tovs Xoyovs. —r- 
&KOVG), diropX&Iro). Note the difference between pres. and aor. subjunc. -r- 
tovs Xd-yovs .... ^i^vojxevovs : ace. with supplement, particip. depend- 
ing on op<3 : so also to. arpaYjxaTa with irpo^JKOVTa, sc. 6p<£. H. 799 ; S„ 
Or. 546, c ; G. § 280. — oJcrre ..... Seov, explanatory of tovto : to this, 
that it is necessary to consider how, etc. The const, of Seov is differently ex- 
plained. Some understand with it 4<ttIv or etvcw : others take it in the 
sense of wo-tc . . . Setv, the infin. being changed to the particip. by a sort 
of attraction, and the particip. made to depend on the principal verb, 6p4>* 
So West. — ovhlv .... &XXo .... dp.apTav€tv. Notice the artistic ar- 
rangement of the sentence, the emphatic words standing first and last, — 
an arrangement not easily adopted in Eng. : to err in nothing else, etc. — 
^ . . . . irapio-TdvTcs (pres. particip., trans.), than in setting before you the 
subject . , . . not as it is {not the real one). 

146 NOTES. 

§ 2. ey<&, subj. of oI8a. — Kal paXa aKpipws : an accumulation of inten- 
sive words ; even very accurately. Reh. , nur zu genau : only too well. — eirC 
with gen. often in the time of: kn efiov, in my time, or within my recollection. 
— rovto : obj. of -irpoXafJeiv. — iicavov, with rjfi.iv €tvcu, that it is enough 
for us, etc. — "tt^v irpwrnv : adv., in the first place, or as the first step. In 
form, ace. sing. fern. Of. tt|v Tax^Trjv, Anab. 1, 3, 14. — tfirws .... 
a--io-o(X£v explains tovto : to secure beforehand this object, (I mean) that we 
may rescue our allies: 6ira>s with fut. iudic. H. 756; S. Gr. 522, a; G. 
§ 217. Some editt. have here the aor. subjunc. o-iGcrwjxev. H. 739; S. Gr. 
507 ; G. § 217, Note 1. — tot€ with 4£e<rrai, then will it be permitted, etc. — 
tov with the sentence following, as far as rpoirov : concerning this also, whom 
one shall punish, and in what manner (it shall be done). — ovtivovv (ostisovv), 
with Xo-yov, any argument whatever. 

§ 3. etirep irori : not strictly logical, yet pointed and easily under- 
stood : the present crisis, if ever (any), etc. The sentence is true of many 
other times than those in which Demosthenes lived. — Itecivo : ace. of specif, 
with diropa : points to what follows : but I am at a loss on this (point), in 
what manmr, etc. — i| «v . . . . o-vvoiSa (sc. €|i.avTu>), from what I am con- 
scious of , from what I know, etc. — to. irXclw, subj. of €Kir€<|>€*,'y€vai : vp.ds, 
obj. — twv irpa'YiJ.dTODV in the sense of advantages, or opportunities. — to> p.r^ 
PovXeorOai . . . . fw jjf?| crvvUvai (crvvtT(|j.i) : dat. of manner or cause : from 
an unwillingness to do your duty, not from any lack in comprehending (it). — 
xnro[A€ v€iv, to bear with me. — ci . . . . \£y<a explains tovto, this, whether I, 
etc. — i'va .... yevrjTai explains the preceding tovto, on this account, that, 
etc. — 4k tov points out the sentence as far as eviovs, from the fact that 
some, etc. — irpos X&piv, for favor, for gratification. — «ls irdv p.Qx0r]pfa$ : lit. 
to everything of etc. ; or, as we say, to the last degree of wretchedness. — to. 
irapovTd, subj. of irpO€Xf}Xv0€. 

§ £• |XLKpd is usu. taken as adv., briefly. — viro\\o-ai (onroju|i.VTio-K<»>) : 
trans., to remind you of etc. — p.€jji.vT|o^0€ (p.€| : intrans. Notice the 
asyndeton (omission of the connective), this sentence introducing an ex- 
planation of the preceding. — VpiTov .... tovt£ : Wes. & Ch. supply 
ia-rij this is, etc. Reh. takes it as ace. of time, this third or fourth year, i. e. 
three or four years ago: tovti : H. 242 ; S. Gr. 139, c ; G. § 83, Note 2. — 
jitjv without the article: H. 530, b ; S. Gr. 379, c: it was the month Maimac- 
terion (30th Oct. to 27th Nov.). — yiyvopivov agrees with the nearest word; 
understood with the more remote (XoycDv), H. 511, h ; S. Gr. 361, h ; G. 
§ 135, Note 1 : lit. many words and (much) noise arising; in our idiom, after 
a long and stormy debate : imp' v\liv, among you, i. e. in the assembly. — p>€\pS 
lit. up to We should commonly say, under, etc. — cuutovS, themselves, i. e. 
in person, without being allowed to provide substitutes. 

§ «>• In this section the irresolute conduct of the Athenians is pictured 
in language quite noteworthy. — €KaTO|xpaicov, kt!.: the verb and all con- 
nectives are omitted for rhetorical effect : (it was) Hecatombaeon, Metageit- 
m'on, Boedromion, — names of Athenian months. They embraced a period 
from about the middle of July to about the middle of October. See Die. 


Antiqq., p. 223. — tovtov tov jJi-qvos : gen. of time within which : in this 
(last named) month. — [xctol tu. [avo-ttjpmx, after the mysteries, i. e. the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries, celebrated for nine days, from the 15th of Boedromion. 
No threatening danger, no motives of patriotism, could lead them to forego 
the pleasure of celebrating this festival. — Scko. vavs .... Kevds, obj. of 
^Xovra, which agrees with Xapt8^|j,6v. They sent out ten instead of fortv 
ships, the number voted, and empty vessels instead of manning them with 
citizens, and contributed five talents instead of sixty. — ct|X(f>oT€pa : subj. 
of fjXOev, both {reports) came, that he was sick and that he was dead. — ovkcti 
.... ovSeva: a negative followed by a compound negative of the same kind. 
H. 843 ; S. Gr. 577 ; G. § 283, 8 : supposing there was no longer any occasion 
for rendering assistance, i. e. to the Olynthians. — d<f>ier€ : imperf. : Hes., 
Reiske, & Ch. read dij>€tT€ : Dind. tj<j>i€T€. — ^v . . . . avros : but this was 
the critical moment itself. — €t . . . . €poi]0Vj<ra|i€v : el with aor. indie, in 
"condition, &v with imperf. indie, in conclusion. H. 746 ; S. Gr. 514 ; G. 
§. 222 : for if you had sent aid, etc., Philip would not now be troubling, etc. : 
. -f|v«x^ €t («vo)£_X€tt), double augment. — <ra>0€ts : emphat. position and in a 
double sense, having recovered (from his reported sickness) and having escaped 
(from the Athenians) : "genesen und gerettet." Reh. 

k § O. ovk &v &XXo)9 ^x° l : potential optat., could not be otherwise (now, 
even if we should attempt to change them), or, as we should more naturally 
speak, cannot be changed. — ircpl .... €jxvifj(r0T|v (|ujiWjcnca), I made men- 
tion of etc. — tva .... ira0t]T€ directs the mind distinctly to the fut., 
that you may not, etc. — rC . . . . tovtw ; how now shall we treat this ? i. e. 
the favorable opportunity in another war. — iravrl <r0€vei ica-rd to Swa-rov: 
a pleonasm for emphatic statement. So, in a similar way, we may say, 
with all the forces at your command: lit. with all strength according to your abil- 
ity. According to Reh., a formula used in the ratification of treaties, and 
hence a solemn form of expression. — ov Tpoirov : adv. ace, in what manner, 
how. — €<TTpaTTjyriic6T€S (o-TpaTTj-yea)) .... &r€O-0€ : has the force of a fut. 

§ "7. •&irqpx<>v .... KCKTTjjw'voi, were having acquired, i. e. had acquind: 
a stronger expression than Jk^kttjvto. Notice the asyndeton. — SicksiO' 
(= 8i€K€ito) : subj. to, irpdy- : ovr<a denotes here what immediately follows. 

— €0app€i tovtovs : H. 544, a ; S. Gr. 390, a ; G. § 158, Note 2 : was con- 
fident in respect to them, trusted them: ovtoi, sc. !0dppouv. — eirpdgafiev 
Tjiwts, sc. irpbs tovtovs. Notice the terseness of the language and the con- 
tinuation of the asyndeton. — €p,ir68i<r|xa, 8v<rx€p€S • notice the radical 
part of each of these words (irovs, y,elp). We might convey the same figure, 
rendering freely, thus : this bound Philip, as it were (oio-ircp), hand and foot. 

— iroXiv kt4. explains tovto : the fact that a large city, etc. — €<f>op{j,eiv, to lie 
at anchor over against, to he at anchor watching for, thus presenting the city 
under the figure of a ship. — eavrov : object, gen.: the opportunities against 
him. — cKiroXep/qo-ai : trans., to incite to war. — oiroxrSTJiroTe, somehow or 
other, suggesting that it was not due to any effort of the Athenians. A 
slight pause before this word, in the delivery, would make the sense clearer, 
and remove the hiatus. 

148 NOTES. 

§ 8. The careful student will not fail to perceive how intensely prac- 
tical, direct, and earnest the argument is. — eyw pev : emphatic. Observe 
that no corresponding sentence, introduced by 8e, follows. — irepio-Tdcnrjs 
(2 aor. particip.) dv : H. 803, a ; S. Gr. 519, a ; G. § 211. The protasis is 
€i Ka0v<J>€t[A€0a (ica/rd, viro, l'i]|w). The form €t'p€0.a can be found in four 
different. places, perf. or pluperf. ind. middle (pass.) : 2 aor. indie, or optat. 
mid. I take -^ to be optat. here : apart from the disgrace that would swround 
us, if ive should be remiss in any of our affairs. — tov t<Sv pe-rd Tavra, that 
which would follow these things : more lit. that (fear) of the (things) after these 
(things). — i\6vT<av .... ®t]P- : particip. denoting time or cause: while 
the Thebans, or since the Thebans, are affected towards us as they are. — diretpTj- 
kotcov (Lex. dirfiiirov, IV. 2) : also of time or cause : after the Phocians have 
failed in finances, have spent their money, For the historical allusion, see 
Smith's Hist., ch. xlii. § 15. — prjSevos .... ovtos: condition. H. 839; 
S. Gr. 571 ; G. § 283, 4 : if nothing is in the way, etc. — rd irapovTa Kara- 
<rr ( o€\|/ap.|ya>, after subjecting the present affairs (those at Olynthus) to himself. 
— eirucXtvcu : with €jjnro$<£v, in the way of Philip's turning (his attention) to 
the affairs here (at Athens). 

§ 9. iroi^<r€iv. H. 718 ; S. Gr. 486, c ; G. § 202, 3 : is putting off do- 
ing his duty till then, The fut. in fin. makes more emphatic the future idea 
in the context : is rendered as the pres. infin. here. — €|6v. H. 792 ; S, 
Gr. 544 , G, § 278, 2 : when it is permitted, etc. — fftTctv, sc. povX€Tcu. — 
The second € Jov is better rendered as concessive, though it is now permitted, 

etC. TTpO(0|i€da } ITpofajpi. 

§ 10. to 8fc oVa>s, but the manner (of doing it) ; lit. but the how, — p,^ 
with aor. subjunc. H. 723, a; S. Gr. 492, a; G. § 254.— irapdSogov .... 
tois iroXXots, unexpected to the many. — Ka0Ura.T<; : K<x0t£«. The adroitness 
with which Dem. approaches this delicate proposition is worthy of note. 

§11* Xeyw 8fc kt!., and I mean, (to speak) thus plainly, those concern- 
ing, etc. For the theorica, see Die. Antiqq., p. 1126. — ivtovs: restrictive 
a]3pos. with tovs. — «v ol plv, of which (laws), a part distribute, etc. — 0€«- 
pucd, appos. with to, o-rpctT-. — oil 8c, and others, i. e. other laws. — tovs 
dTdKTovvTcts, those who are disorderly, meaning here, those who evade the laws 
for military service. — ko.1 .... dcrc^ctX-r], and shall have rendered the way, to 
speak what is bpst, safe (tov with X€*y€iv). — & . . . . crvp(|>€p€i, those things 
which you all know that thpy are profitable, or, more freely, which you all know 
to be profitable. 

§ 12. irplv with infin. H. 769 ; S. Gr. 531 ; G. § 274: But before do- 
ing, etc. — tis clrrcov ktc., who, for speaking what is best for you, will consent, 
etc. Notice the arrangement virfcp vpwv v$> vpav. The Athenians had a 
law, that any one should be put to death who should move to divert 
the theoric funds (i. e. funds for the public festivals) to any other use. 
This law, said Dem. , must be repealed. — €vp^o-€T€, sc. rivet. — dXXcos t€ 
kcU, especially. H. 857; S. Gr. 583, c. — tovtov .... pe'XXovTos, when 
this alone is likely to be the result. — ircUfelv .... ypatyavra. explains tovtov : 
that the one having spoken these things, and having moved them in a written reso- 


lution suffer, etc. ■ — dx^eXfjcrat (afyekita) and irotfjorai, same const, with ira- 
dtlv. — jxdXXov is usu. taken here with <j>op€p»T€pov as strengthening the 
comparative. So Reh., Hes., Wes., et al. — to ... . Xiyav : obj. of ttoitj- 
<rat : but even for the future render the speaking of what is best, etc. — Xveiv : 
made emphatic between Kat and yi (enclit.) : also by standing out of its 
natural grammatical place, at the head of the sentence, antithetical to tc- 
GeiKaonv : and it is fitting to demand that these same {men) repeal, etc. 

§ 13* TfjV \dpiv (the gratitude, the popularity), subj. of virdp\eiv, — tois 
„ . . . 0€i<riv (0€is aor. particip.), sc. tovs vop.ovs. — ttjv dirc'xteiav, subj. 
of -yevco-Oai : tqp-tav, P^d. : but that the unpopularity through which, etc., be- 
come a damage, etc. The balancing of words and clauses in the Greek sen- 
tence is worthy of note. — ttiXikovtov .... SCktjv : so powerful among you 
that having transgressed . ... he should fail to suffer punishment (or to give 

§ 14U Ov . . . . ovS* : negation repeated and strengthened. — jjtfjv 
marks the transition to a new statement, and also emphasizes that state- 
ment. Note also the intensive and restrictive particle -y€ after c-kclvo. 
Not, in truth, not even this, at least, is it proper that you, etc. — to with eOeXeiv : 
to. 8d£-, obj. of iroictv: vp,ds (subj. of €0eX€tv), emphat. posit.: unless the 
willingness on your part to execute, etc. — • et . . . . ^v, .... ovV &v vjxets 
.... €irpaTT€T€ kt€. Sui>position witli contrary reality. — ypa$eir\ : impers. : 
note here (if the reading is correct) the potential optat. without dv. H. 
722, c ; S. Gr. 491, a ; G. § 224, Note : or to carry out (those things) concern- 
ing which resolutions might be passed (more lit. it might be decreed). — piicpd, 
obj. of €3rpttTT€T€ : neither would you .... execute little, nay rather nothing, 
of these things. — eVeicd *ye t|/T)<j>icrp,dTa>v, so far at least as depended on reso- 

§15. ravTa, subj. of ^x €l (m trans, are). — tov Xc'y- Kal X €t P" : gen. 
with vo-T6pov, later than. — 6v agrees with to irpdrrav (subj. of «ttiv) : the 
doing, being, etc. — TfJTa|6i, in the order (of time). — tovto .... irpocmvat 
(TTp6o-€i|xi) : that this (to irpdrrav) be added. — Ta dXXa, i. e. to Xeyeiv Kal 
X€tpOTovetv. — Trap* vp.iv elonv .... Swdp^voi, there are among you (per- 
sons) who are able. — vp.€is, sc. €ott€, you of all men are, etc. 

§ 16. \p6vov .... Kcupov : time .... opportunity. — $eXr(<o : ace. 
sing. — cforavTct . . . . Ta X w P^ a > °^ ^ e towns > i- e. Potidaea, Amphipolis, 
etc. : dv0ptoiros (= 6 dv-) i. e. Philip. Not a very respectful reference to 
him. — Tavrrjs .... rr\s X"P a s • Olynthus and the adjacent country. — 
ir€Lcr6|X€0a. The force of ov\ extends to this verb : shall we not suffer, etc. 
— ovx, with iroXejAOvvTcu. : ovs, obj. of o-awretv, whom we promised to rescue 
promptly, if they, etc. — ovk .... ovk .... ov ... . ovk : sc. i<rriv, Is 
he not, etc. : ovx # ti kt4. : is he not anything that one might say (of him) ? 
Note this series of pointed questions, a marked peculiarity in the style of 
Dem. — Philip is here called pdp|3apos, a foreigner; yet he claimed to be 
of Grecian descent, and this claim is usually acknowledged to be just. 
Smith's Hist., ch. xlii. § 3. 

§ 17« irpcs with gen. in solemn appeals. — irdvTa kt!., after letting all 

150 NOTES. 

(that Philip has taken from us) go, and all but (\lovov ovyj) helping him to 
gain {them), shall we then (tot€ emphat.) search for, etc. — avroi y afcrioi. : 
pred. with etvat. — tov iroX- : generic article. — 8* 8jJt«s, but still. Careless 
persons often confound S|ia>s with 6p.o£«s. — ct SI . . . . ^Kao-Tos, and if 
each one did this, i. e. stood his ground (jieveiv). 

§ 18. Kal vvv .... PcXtutto ; — £r€pos .... $Ariat. These sentences 
are hypothetical. In some editions they are punctuated as periods. And 
now does one man fail to propose, etc. Let another, etc. — d*ya0Q rvxtl '• a fre- 
quent expression. The shield of Dem. in the battle of Chaeronea is said 
to have borne this inscription in golden letters. It is translated into Ger- 
man, "in Gottes Namen." Heslop translates it, and luck attend you. 
Champliu's rendering is more literal, and, I think, truer to the spirit of 
the original, with a favoring fortune. — ovKeri, not further, referring to ov ki- 
•ya . . . . PeXno-ra. If the speaker does not propose what is best, he 
may in that case be guilty ; but he is not guilty if he fail to propose what 
is agreeable (fjSea). — tov0* : on this point (ov% fj8^a Tcnh-a) ; — Seov : aec: 
abs. — €i)|a<r9at : with Seov and with irapaXeiirei : unless, when it is his duty 
to utter wishes, he fails to do this. — d0pol<ravTa agrees with the subject (un- 
derstood) of €-i5|a<r6at : gathering briefly (4v dXi*ya>) into the same petition all that 
one desires. — •jrpa'yp.&Twv : reference is had especially to public affairs, in 
contrast with mere good wishes. — irpoT€0fj (aor. subjunc. pass.) : impers., 
when it is proposed, etc. Notice here the const. crKOiretv irept with gen. — 
etfiropov, sc. IcttLv. — IJtj: '4%e<rri, 

§ 19. TJjJtlv : dat. of interest : ^x €l > has [the ability), is able, r— Kal .... 
edv Kal .... X£y€iv : both to let alone {ov to leave untouched) .... and to 
mention, etc. — ^f\\k '{yoy^ I for my part say so. — & tc£ (fr. tIs) ttotc .... 
4) yiyovtv kt!., if it ever either has happened to any one, etc. — av .... dva- 
Xw<rr| (dva\i<TKfc>), in case he has squandered, etc. — r<ov air- with cvirop- : 
the gen. denoting source : to have an abundance from what is wanting. — |x£ya 
.... iirdpxci, greatly aids. — tois toi- X07-, such reasonings, i. e. such as 
the questions above, whether they could not find means to carry on the 
war without the theoric funds. — 8 ^dp Po^Xerat kt!.: like the proverb 
in English, "the wish is father to the thought." — itc<|>vk€V (<J>v«, B. II.), 
intrans. and pres. in meaning. 

§ 20. I have followed Wes., Hes., Ch., et al. in placing a comma after 
4v8€X€Tai, and rendering thus : Look therefore at these things, men of Athens, 
m this ivay, as the facts also allow,, {then) will you both be able, etc. Dind. and 
Reh. omit the comma after IvSex-* and extend the force of oV»$ to the end 
of the sentence. — IXXelirovTas agrees with the subj. of <j>€p€iv understood. 
We might have expected it to be in the gen. agreeing with dv0pc&ira>v. H. 
776 ; S. Gr. 536, c ; G. § 136, Note 2 : it does not belong to ... . failing in 
anything .... to bear, etc. — ov8' : sc. crax|>pdv<«>v .... lorrlv dv0-. — eirl 
Koptv0- .... irop€V€o-0at. It is not certain what military expeditions 
are here referred to. Rehdantz thinks, to some which had been under ^ 
taken w 7 ithin the memory of Dem. ; others, to expeditions in the preceding 
century, mentioned by Thucydides : nor, seizing their arms, to march .... 


and to allow Philip, etc. — to is orpctT- : note here a dat. of interest with a 
substantive : provisions for, etc. 

§ SI. ravra : obj. of \4y&v. — tt)v ftXXcos : H. 509, b, (a) ; S. Gr. 359, 
ba : idly, ivithout purpose. — : irpoaipeco : / have not chosen, etc. 
— p/qSe'v with particip. H. 389; S. Gr. 571 ; G. § 283, 4: if not suppos- 
ing, i. e. ivithout supposing that I confer some benefit, or that I am doing some 
yood. — 8ik- ttoXitov, sc. dvai, that it belongs to, that it is the duty of, etc. — - 
olvtI rfjs .... X^P" •' instead of popularity {gained) in speaking, or popular- 
ity as a speaker. — toiis .... Xcycvtcis, subj. of \pri<rQa.i : ^irl kt4., in the 
time of, etc. — vpsts, sc. olkovctc. — ov's relates to tovs .... \ly-» — ira- 
pidvT€S, coming forward, i. e. on the bema as speakers. — tovtw .... iro- 
Xtrclas, this custom and manner in managing public affairs, i. e. the custom 
just mentioned, to prefer the safety of public atfairs to popularity as speak- 
ers. — tov *Ap- 4k€ivov kt4. : appos. with tovs .... Xiyovras : the well- 
known Aristldes, etc. : tov op.- IpxiuTw, my own namesake, i. e. the general De- 
mosthenes, who flourished during the Peloponnesian war. See Class. Die. 
for all these names. All of these men, except Pericles, were distinguished 
rather as generals than as orators. 

§ 22. I£ ov, sc. xpovov, ever since. — p^Topes, appos. with ovtoi : these 
men have appeared as orators who perpetually ask you (lit. those asking, etc.) :. 
the pres. particip. denoting repeated action. — irpoire-jroTai (irpoirlvw) : subj. 
To. ... . TrpaY- : have been bartered away, as at a banquet, in exchange for, 
etc. Reference is made in ireiroTai to the custom of presenting the cup, 
perhaps with other gifts, to the one to whose health it had been quaffed. 
Dem. uses the same figure in the Oration on the Crown, and elsewhere. — 
TOia-uTt : notice again the demonstrative iota : such things as these, referring 
to the unfortunate condition of public affairs. — tovtwv, of these men, the 
orators. — to. v|X€t., sc. %x&» 

§ 23. K€<J>dXaia .... t<5v .... 2pY~ : chief of the acts. — irapaSglY- 
depends on XP^H^v- : using, not foreign examples, but, etc. — vp.iv with 2(-€oti, 
it is permitted to you. — €v8aip.oo*tv .... 76veo-0ai, to become prosperous : € j- 
8alp,ovas would have been grammatical here. Cf. IXXcLirovTas, § 20, with 
note and references. 

§ 24. €K€ivot : i. e. oi 7rpoyovot, subj. of ^pfav (&p\<o). — !<j>(Xovv : 
used with bitter irony : avrovs, note the change of const. — ovtoi vvv, sc. 
4>iXovo-iv. — irevTe ical t€tt- Irq : Dem. alludes to the period between the 
Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Thucydides (Lib. I. cap. exviii.) speaks 
of the same period as about fifty years. If we reckon from the battle of 
Plataea (479 B. c.) to the beginning of the Peloponnesian war (431 b. c.) 
we have a period of seventy-eight years. Dem., therefore, in this sentence 
speaks within bounds, — a point quite noteworthy in an orator. — Tav-rnv 
T-fjv x^pa-v : i. e. Macedonia. — pdp|3apov "EXXtjou, sc. inrcucoveiv. — iroXXa 
.... KaXd .... Tpdiraia: obj. of ftrrqerav. — avTol crrpaT- : taking the 
field in person: agrees with the subj. of &ttt]o\xv. — KpeCTTto rty kt€., the 
glory founded on their deeds, {which was) superior to those who envy, or, as we 
say, superior to tnvy. On this theme Dem. is always the most impassioned. 

152 NOTES. 

§ 25« toiovtoi : emphat. posit.: we should make the word emphatic 
by placing it first in the sentence ; such were they, etc. — - o7roioi, sc. etcv, 
what sort of men (they were). — oiKoSo(i.TJ|i.aTa ical kcLXX?] .... Upa>v ktc., 
lit. structures and beauties of temples, and of the consecrated offerings in them, 
such, and so many, that, etc. : twv LvaQv\i.- limits especially koXXt|. Heslop 
renders it, edifices and beautiful works, so numerous and splendid in temples, 
etc. — •uirepPoX'rjv, superiority (to them). 

§ 20» orc(>68pa .... p.evovT€s. The force of ovtco extends over this 
clause : so exceedingly steadfast in the spirit of etc., or, as Ave often speak, so 
exceedingly true to the spirit of the constitution. — Xap/irpcw. We often employ 
the same figure, brilliant (men). — ttjv .... oUiav : obj. ofoISev: placed 
before el' tis apa .... vjjlwv to give it greater prominence. — 6p£ .... 
oSo*ctv : he sees (it, i. e. the house of any one of these eminent men) in no 
respect finer than, etc. — ov yap els irepiovtrlav .... avrois : for, not to en- 
rich themselves, etc. — ret ttjs ttoX-, subj. of lirpdrT-. — 4k tov .... SioiKetv 
.... Iscnrjo-avTo, from the fact that they administered .... they acquired, etc. 

§ 27. cWvots, those (men), i. e. the men of a former day. — oh (at- 
tracted to the case of the suppressed antecedent tovtois), obj. of €tirov : 
employing (those), whom I have spoken of as leaders.-— -uirb twv xp^ottoov t»v 
vvv : under (or managed by) the noble men of the present day : xpTjcrrwv, ironi- 
cal. — €X€i, intrans. — ojaoUos, irapairX'»]<ri«s : kindred ideas, and hence 
united by the copulative Kal; a form of expression frequent in Greek. Cf. 
kirX rfj i r crr| Kal ojxoia, Thucyd. I. 27. It would seem more strictly logical 
to use the disjunctive fy and some MSS. have {j here. The English idiom 

prefers the disjunctive, like or similar.— oi .... lireiX^p.p.gvoi .... 

a/jre<rT€p%€0a. 1 follow, though with much hesitation and doubt, the 
latest reading of Dindorf (editio tertia correctior) in this perplexing sen- 
tence : who .... having come upon .... have been deprived. Eeh. reads 
ots, instead of oi', but is inclined to ot Kal. Nes. now reads ols, though in 
a former edition he omitted it, and put no word in its place. Hes. has ols. 
Ch. has Kal, which is not supported by the best MS. authoiity. — t& p,h> 
&XXa o-uoirw : an abrupt change in the construction, which would be ac- 
companied by a marked change in the tone and manner of the speaker. — 
dv €X«v, though I might, etc. — 6<rr\s (obj. of opare), attracted to the case 
of the suppressed anteced. To<ravrr\s. — iprjfjias with 4Tr6iXtjfi.jji.4voi. (4irt- 
\ap.(3dvci>) : having come upon a destitution (of rivals), so great as you all see, or 
more freely rendered, you all see how great.— Kal AaK- .... diroXwXoTwv, 
©i]p 6'vTcav, t«v 8' aXXwv ktI. These clauses I understand as ex- 
planatory of 4pT)p.ia$ : when even the Lacedaemonians have been overthrown (in 
the battle of Leuctra, 371 B. c. and more completely at Ma n tinea, in 362 
B. C, more than ten years before the delivery of this oration, and the The- 
bans are fully occupied (in the war with the Phocians), and when no one of the 
other (Greeks) is, etc. — a|i6*xp««> : g^n. sing. Att. 2d declens. — 4|ov ktI. 
(ace. abs.), when it is permitted to us both, etc. — to. T}|i.CT€pa (= TjfAoov, and 
hence the gen.) avTwv. H. 675, b; S. Gr. 460, a; G. § 137, Note 1 : to 
hold our own possessions securely. 


§ 28. avrjXcoKdjiev : dvaXto*Ka>. — otJtol : i. e. ot xpt^o-Tol ot vvv. § 27. 
'■ — Tjo-KT|Ka|Aev : do*Ke<o. — iroOev aXXoOev .... -J] Trap* : in what other way 
.... than by : lit. whence, etc. 

§ 29. dXV co tclv, .... ?x €U The orator supposes some one to make 
this remark to him, and then replies to it in Kal tI . . . . ^oi : and what 
(of those things in the city) would one be able to mention (as being in a better 
condition than the foreign aifairs) ? — €t ravm <|>avXws, sc. <tyti. — tos 
€7rdX£€is .... Kal X^jpovs : the battlements .... and trifles ? Would any 
one be able to mention these ? Dem. thus alludes to the jjaltry internal 
improvements of the city, which were chiefly under the direction of Eubii- 
lus. — tovs .... iroXiT€\»ojJi-, those managing these things. — <r€|J.V0T€pas, 
finer, grander. 

§ 30. Tt 8^, sc. IcttL — tI 8tj ttot€: adv. ace, ivhy in the world. — oVij 
causal. — dir- tov d^aOwv : netit. of all the emoluments. — d^air^Tov .... 
tKao-T(p : it was enough for each of the others (i. e. each of those in public life). 
. — irapd Toii St|[ao\j .... jxeraXapeiv, to receive from the people a share in, etc. 

§ 31* vw Sc : contrasted with to [iiv irpwTov above : at the first, i. e. 
originally, formerly, .... but now. Dind. reads irpoTcpov, instead of irpwTov 
above. — Sid tqvtwv, through these, i. e. the public men. — 6 8t|jjlos : appos. 
with vfxets. — €KV6vevpio-jj.2Voi : eKvevpif^w. — ir€piT|pT]p,€voi (irepiaipew), de- 
prived of money, of allies. — €V .... jxepei yey£vi\<rQs: H. 618, a; S. Gr. 
448, b : you have fallen into the position of, etc. — d*ya , irc3vT€S, Lex. aYairtlw, 
J I. — fy Boi*S- Trejjwj/wcriv, or (if) they send (you) Boedromia: usually ren- 
dered, or if they celebrate the B. with a procession. See Lex., also Die. Antiqq. 
on the Boedromia. It is supposed Eubulus may have added some unusual 
attractions (perhaps a feast) to the last Boedromia, so as to give this allu- 
sion special point. — to .... dv8p€ioTciTOv, and the manliest thing of all (is 
the fact that) : bitterly ironical. — twv .... a^Twv : gen. of cause : the 
nom. would be tu. ipirep rivrwv. Cf. § 27. — x c *f HV irpocro^iXeTC, you owe 
{them) thanks besides (irpocr-) for, etc. 

§ 32* 2<tti (note the accent) it is possible. — \iiya .... irpaTTOVTes, 
that (persons) doing small and mean things lay hold of a great and noble purpose, 
A noteworthy sentiment : 4>povr]fJ.a may be rendered by various words, as 
thought, purpose, resolution, spirit, mind, no one of which seems entirely ade- 
quate. — &TTa (tis) generalizes oiroia, like our ever or soever. — dvd*yKi], sc. 
corn, it is unavoidable, inevitable: ^X €tv » sc - <*<vtoijs, that they possess, etc. — 
Tavra, obj. of dirovri (causal), for having spoken these things. — t<5v ireiroii]- 
kotwv = "JJ Tots irciroiTjKdo-iv, if greater harm from you should come upon me 
.... than upon those, etc. : the gen. depends on the comparative (JLet|cov. 

§33. *Edv o$v dXXd vvv 7* &n : a rather unusual accumulation of par- 
ticles, serving to call special attention to the new and mere hopeful train 
of thought. The corresponding English expressions would be very un- 
wieldy. But if therefore now, at least, henceforth. — Kal .... xp^°"n°"6€ : 
the force of 4uv extends over this clause : and (if) you will use, etc. — d<j>op- 
|j.ats : apf)OS. with the preceding Tais .... Tavrais, these superfluities at 
home, as means for (securing), etc. Reference is again made to the theoric 

154 NOTES. . ' 

funds : twv dya0c»v limits ra 2£<o, foreign advantages. — I'crws dv, forws : re- 
peated, and uttered with great deliberation for rhetorical effect. — twv 
.... XTjiAjiaTcov, from such gains , i. e. the theorica. — tois ktc.: an uncer- 
tain passage. Does rots belong to o-itIois or to dcrGevovcrt ? The sense 
suggests the former; the arrangement the latter. Cobet and Dind. (3d edit.) 
propose to omit acrOsvovou, and this seems to be approved of by Wes. Tak^ 
ing the common reading, which I have retained, it seems to me most 
naturally rendered, which resemble food given by physicians to the sick. Ch. 
renders* o-itIois gruel; Heslop, diet. — ctcctva, i. e. the food of the sick ; 
TavTct, i. e. the theorica, subj. of ka-rlv and of Iq,: nor do they allow (you)i 
having- given (them) up (diroYVovras: diroYi-yvwo-KO)) to do, etc. — fori (regu- 
larly accented thus after dXX') Tavra .... 4irav£dvovTa, these are the things 
that augment, etc. 

§ 34. Observe the distinction between ovkow and oftcovv. See Lex. 
— fxio-0oc[)opdv, pay fir military service. — Kal Trapaxpfjjxd ye kt4., yes, and 
forthwith the same arrangement for all. — tcov koivwv .... to jxepos, his 
sharp tf the public rewards. — 8tov .... virdpxoi., might be that, whatever it 
is> which the state at any time might require : Scoito, pres. denoting something 
continued or repeated. — $-€<ttiv ktI., hypothetical ; Is it permitted to keep 
quiet ? So also below, <rvp.j3aXv£i kt4., &tti tis kt4. are hypothetical. Cf. 
Kal vvv .... piXna-ra, § 18. It is more natural in English to put all 
such expressions in the interrogative form, and I have punctuated them 
accordingly. Reh., Wes., and other German editt. have a colon after each. 
Dind. has, after each hypothetical clause, a colon in § 34, but an interroga- 
tion-point in § 18. This is not consistent. The participles, pevwv, fardp-, 
X«v, and below, the 2d Xap.j3dva>v are closely connected in grammatical 
construction with v7rdpx<H, being epexegetical. It is easier to render each 
as a verb : he would stay at home, a better (citizen) . ... he would be himself a 
soldier .... these he would receive in equitable otder. — peXriwv is bracketed 
by Dind., and can easily be dispensed with. — air6,from, supported by. — r 
2g« ttjs TjXiKias, beyond the military age, i. e. at the highest point, sixty 
years ; but often some age below this was fixed by popular vote for particu- 
lar campaigns, as forty-five. Cf. § 4. — Sera .... Xajxpdvwv ovk ©c^eXet, 
whatever this one now receives irregularly without performing any service : lit. 
receiving does not perform, etc. 

§ 35. #X«s Zi, and on the whole, and in a word, thus introducing the 
summing up of what is said above. — oftr* d<j)€\wv (d<j>CHp<=w) otfre Trpocr0e(s, 
neither taking away, nor adding (anything). — itXtjv fiiKpcov, except some small 
things, referring to the proposed reform in the use of the theoric funds. — 
T?|V dTciJiav dveXwv .... •fJY ct Y ov > having abolished the disorder, lied, etc., i. e. 
in the plan indicated in the foregoing speech. The orator thus speaks of 
it as something already accomplished. It would seem to us more natural 
to put the idea in the form, / would lead, etc. — t-Jjv avT-fjv with to|.iv, obj. 
of TroiT]o-as, having introduced the same (uniform) system for receiving money, 
etc.: TOtl $iK-,for acting as juror. — 'typi, sc. iroictv, should be able (to do),. 
Note the omission of av with ^x oL : a hypothetical relative sentence, the 

ARKI4N IL 155 

idea of past time in ffycryov still preserved. H. 757 ; S. Gr. 523, e ; G. 
§ 232, 4. Such a relative sentence is in idea a protasis, rather than an 
apodosis, and hence the omission of dv. — ovk &ttiv frrro-u .... ctirov : 
noivhere did I say : lit. there is not a place where, etc. H. 812; S. Gr. 556; 
G. § 152, Note 2. — [i-qSe'v, obj. of iroiovouv (particip. dat. pi.) : emphat. 
posit. — t& twv iroi- : obj. ofWp.€tv. — ov8' .... diropetv , nor (did I pro- 
pose, sc. €tirov) that we ourselves be lazy and idle and poor. — 8ti ktI., explana- 
tory of toOto, (obj. of iruvO&v-) and that we learn these things, that the merce- 
naries, etc. — 8 € tvos : H. 245 ; S. Gr. 683, a ; G. § 85. 

§ 36. ko.1 vji&s -uirlp vjitov avTwv, that you also for yourselves, etc., the 
burden of all the Philippics. — |i/?| 7rapax<«>p€tv .... ttjs to|- ..... ttjs 
dp-, and that you do not withdraw from the post of valor, which, etc.: ijv, obj. 
both of KTTj<rdn€Voi and of KttTeXwrov. — ^Xowr0€ ; optat. of wishing, with- 
out dv : may you choose. 


Arrian, a native of Nicomedeia in Bithynia, was born towards the 
end of the first century, a. d. . He was a pupil of the Stoic philoso- 
pher Epictetus, and appears to have been a close student of the writ- 
ings of Xenophon. His Anabasis of Alexander is the best account 
which has come down to us from the ancient world of the campaigns 
of the great conqueror. For a full account of these campaigns the 
student is referred to the histories of Greece, especially to that of 
G-rote ; and for the life and writings of Arrian, to the Classical Dic- 

In preparing his work, Arrian appears to have studied, as his chief 
authorities, the narrative of Ptolemy, son of Lagus, known as Ptolemy 
I. of Egypt, an intimate friend of Alexander's, and that of Aristobu- 
lus, son of Aristobulus, also one of the companions of Alexander. 
Cf. II. 11, 8; YII. 26, 3, and 28, 1. 

BOOK II. -: Chapters 10, 11. 


Alexander has already marched out of Cilicia (or Kilikia, as Grote writes 
it), through Issus, as far as Myriandrus. He is here informed that Darius 
has passed over Mt. Amanus into Cilicia and captured Issus. Alexander 
hastens back, and an engagement takes place near Issus (called in Xen. 
Anab. lssi). 

156 NOTES. 

Chap. 3.O. Ovrta 8tj. The disposition of the forces on both sides is 
described just before this. — TCTaypevovs (sc. avTovs, i. e. his soldiers) : 
obj. of Trpoitycv, also of dvairavcov (trans.). — \povov rivd with irpofj^ev. 
When now they had thus been drawn up, he led them forward, often halting for 
rest (lit. causing them to halt, etc. The pres. particip. denotes the repetition 
of the act). — tfircos, temporal. — dvreTrf^ye : dvri, eirC, fryco. — &ra 84 Sirov 

' I'va : but in some places (H. 812 ; S. Gr. 556 ; G. § 152, Note 2) 

where. — irapaTeivas agrees with Aapcios* — €v€c|>o8c6T€pa €<f>atv€TO : impers. 
with neut. plur. adj. when (the banks) appeared easier to pass. — ttj 7Vcop/j| 
SeScvXcopevos, in mind enslaved, disheartened. (Sint. entmuthigt. ) — 2. tw 
: . . . ., Koo-fxw : with becoming honor. — Scot .... fjcrav, as many as were 
more known for worth or some brave achievement. — 3. 4v cLttotttw .... % l\tov, 
having already in distant view, already seeing in the distance. — tov ptrj : H. 
781, a ; S. Gr. 429, b ; G. § 262, 2 : Kvpfjvav (Kvpaiyco), aor. particip. agree- 
ing with t! : that no part of the line, swelling like a wave in the more rapid 
march, might be drawn away (from the main army). — Ivtos (SeXovs (PeXos), 
within the reach of, etc. — 4yiyvovto : note the force of the imperf. — cos .... 
€Kir\f]Jat .... Kalrov, so as to terrify .... and to the end that (cf. tov 
p^j above), etc. — 4s X € *P a s> into d° se combat. — 4. t<u>tt|, tJ : advs. here, 
where. — oi "EXXrjves, repeated after a long succession of clauses, subj. of 
€|4J&XXo\>0-iv. — 8i€<rx€ (8i€x«) • . . . «s . . . . irapappa-ycicra (irapap- 
pT,7wp.i), was parted (lit. was or had itself apart), since it was broken towards 
the right wing. — 5. 4Jco0€i : 4f, &Q4a>. — -fjtfavTo : durco. — 8iccr7racrp4vT]V : 
biao-irdw. — 6. tcov pev, tcov MaKcSdvcov 84: limit to gp*yov. — aTrco<racr0ai 
(dirco04co), dvaorco<ra<r0ai (dva<rco£<o) : inlin. denoting purpose, and explana- 
tory of KapT€pdv: the action in this place was vigorous, on the part of these (the 
mercenary Greeks with Darius) to drive back, etc., .... and on the part of 
the Macedonians not to be left behind, etc. — cos dp.dxov .... 8ia(3€(3oi]p4vT]s 
(8icj3odca), celebrated as invincible, etc. — 7. tcai ti Kal .... <j>iX-, and 
something of emulation also. — o£k ■fjp.eXi^vcov, not neglected, not obscure, i. e. 

Chap. 11* ko.t& o-<J>dg : opposite themselves. — 4irl .... 4iriKdpt|favr€s : 
wheeling towards the foreign mercenaries of, etc. (lit. the foreigners, the merce- 
naries, those of, etc.). — avrovs. The foreign mercenaries. — impeppco-yds : 
irapapp^yvvui.. — 2. €vrbs toO iroTap.ov, within the river, on this side of the 
river, i. e. on the side where the battle was raging, -and where the Persian 
army was drawn up. — cvpcocrrcos : see Lex. eflpcocrros. — frvyKoirivras :« 
cnryKoirrco. — 3. Xajxirpd t€ Kal 4k irdvrcov, decided and universal (more lit. 
both plain and on all sides). — Kal .... dirox«povvT€S, and withdrawing in 
terror with disorder. — ov petov, with €pXdirTOVTO. — ov p-etov i) cos ttc^wv : 
lit. not less than as if of footmen, i. e. there arose, in the flight, no less slaughter 
of the horsemen, than as if they had been footmen. Some editors omit ccs, and 
then it would read, not less slaughter of the horsemen than of footmen. — 
4. avTco : dat. of interest in looser relations. — cos «fy(€V, as he, was — without 
delay. — 5. avTov, adv. there. — KavSuv. Occurs in Xen. Anab. 1, 5, 8. — 
ov 8td paKpov (sc. \p6vov) emyevopevT}, coming on not long after. — av-rov 

. ARRIAN II. 157 

to . . . . dXwvai : two aces, with a verb of depriving ; lit. took (from) him 
the being captured, etc., i. e. prevented his being, etc. — 7. ical "yap Kal rj 
Si«£iS KT€.,fbr even the pursuit on his part had been tardier. — rijs <j>dXa7Y°S> 
of his phalanx, refers to the breaking of the Macedonian phalanx : €iTw<rTp€- 
t|fas, wheeling about; Kal avTos, even he himself: diraxrG^vTas, diroOew. — 
8. €7rl rpaviKw, on the Granicus (or Granikus), a river not far east of the 
Hellespont, flowing north, and emptying into the Propontis. The battle 
of Granicus was Alexander's first engagement with the Persians. It took 
place in the spring of 334 B. c, a year and a half before the battle of Issus. 
— els . . -.- . jJ.vpi.d8as, to the number of about ten, etc. (100,000). "Of the 
Macedonians we are told that 300 foot and 150 horse were killed." Grote. 
A surprisingly small number, compared with the loss on the Persian side. 

— |vv€irwnrd[jL6vo5 : £w, eirfc, & (aor. lo-irofJtTjv). — 9. to T€o-rpaT 

If; €<f>o*8ov, and the camp .... immediately on the first attack. — avrf| .... 
d8cX<|>TJ, and she herself (was) sister also. Sint. remarks that dSeX^rj was, 
according to recent researches, only an honorary title of the wife of a 
Persian king, not denoting any actual blood relationship. — v^mos, six 
years old, according to Diodorus and Curtius. — Ilepo-oiv .... *ywaiK€s : 
wives of Persian noblemen (or peers) : lit. of the noblemen of (the) Persians. — 
|vv .... KaTao-K€VTJ, with the rest of their baggage. Note the expression, in- 
dicating the position of woman among the Persians ; with the rest of etc. — • 
10. Iirel Kal Aapeios, since Darius also: subj. of -nwojAtJ^t (iripira). — Kal 
.... 8{xa>s, even though in a military campaign. — 4m with gen., in the time 
of — 'A0T]vaiois with dp^ovTos having the const, of a particip. Cf. Thucyd. 
1. 93, 2, 'AOrjvatois ^pjjev : freely rendered, while Nicocrates was archon 
among the Athenians : p/qvos MaiuaK-, gen. of time, in the month Maemacte- 
rion (which included the latter part of October and the first part of Novem- 
ber). "No victory recorded in history was ever more complete in itself, 
or more far-reaching in its consequences, than that of Issus." Grote, 

" Ch. XCIII. 

After this battle, Alexander does not hasten towards Babylon, as might 
have been expected, but continues his march southward, wishing first to 
gain possession of the entire Mediterranean coast belonging to Persia, so 
that no naval expedition might be sent out against Macedonia or Greece 
or any place in his rear. Not long after the battle of Issus overtures are 
received from Darius, and are at once rejected. During the siege of Tyre 

•Alexander received again envoys and a letter from Darius. This event 
and the reply of Alexander are described by Arrian as. follows : — 

Book II. Ch. 25. "Etc 8£ . . . . 'AXeJdvSpov :^ While Alexander was 
still engaged, etc. Plutarch and Diodorus assign a much later date to this 
event. — d-nxryyeXXovTcs .... IGe'Xeiv .... Aapetov, announcing that Da- 
rius was willing, etc. — ri\v hi x«pav .... etvai* yf}p,avTa ('yaacco) .... 
\A.Xef- .... etvai : bear in mind IGeXeiv. — 2. \{yov<riv : subj. general: 
they say. — av with ^-y dirties, would be contented. — <ov : condit. if he, were 
Al.: errl totjtois, on these (terms). — Bti Kal avrds, that he himself also: av 
with ^irpaj-tv, would do thus (as Parmenio -recommended). Notice here, and 

158 NOTES. 

above (•fj-yairncrc), the aorist with av of present time. — lirel .... oLfro- 
KpLV€<r0at (in const, depends on <WoKpivacr0cu : we might expect here 8ti 
with indie, pres. or fut.) : but since he is Alex., he replies, etc. — 3. clvai 
.... avTov, belonged to himself ( refer ring to the subj. of &|>i], i. e. Alex.). 

— -yfjuai (Yapitt) : emphat. posit. — av, with IfleXtj, = hav : and if he shall 
wish to marry, etc., that he would marry {her), etc. Notice the force of oi 
with the particip., even on the direct refusal of Darius (more lit. even when D. 
did not give his consent). — currov, Darius: atrrov, Al. — A more insolent 
and haughty reply cannot well he conceived of. — fariyvw : dTroyiyvwa-Kia, 

After this point in the narrative follows the siege of Gaza, the conquest 
of Egypt, the founding of Alexandria, the visit to the temple and oracle 
of Zeus Amnion, the return from Egypt through Phoenicia, the crossing 
,of the Euphrates at Thapsacus, and of the Tigris above Nineveh, and the 
battle of Arbela. The actual battle-field, however, was about thirty miles 
west of Arbela, in the neighborhood of Gaugamela, near the river Bumo- 
dus, about thirty miles southeast of the modern city Mosul. Darius is 
said to have had in his army 1,000,000 of infantry, 40,000 cavalry, 200 
scythed chariots, and fifteen elephants (now mentioned for the first time, in 
a field of battle). The engagement occurred near the 1st of October, 331 
B. c, about two years after the battle of Issus. 

BOOK III. - Chapters 14, 15. 


Chap. 14. l-irftyev (£ir£, towards, against, and &y<a) : note the force of 
the imperf. — errl jcepcos (w'pas), in column. — 2. ckPotjG-, attrib. posit.: 
•n-apapp-qjjdvTcov (7rapd, pTj^vvp), predicate posit. : but when the horsemen, that 
had gone to render assistance against those .... had broken at the side a cer- 
tain part, etc. — 6m<rrp€\|fas, sc. 'AXcJ-. — totrrrep gp,(3-, as it were a wedge. 

— tt)s .... €TttipiKf)s, both of the companion-cavalry. See Die. Antiqq. * 
p. 488, b. The companion-cavalry in the army of Alex, were composed 
of the best Macedonian and Grecian (chiefly Thessalian) horsemen, and 
formed a sort of body-guard for the king. — 3. xpovov ktI. Note the force 
of the ace. — «>0i<ruots yjp&p.evoi,, pushing onward (lit. using pushings or 
thru stings). — Kal .... koittovtss, "and with their short pikes thrusting at 
the faces," etc. (Grote). — ir€<f>piKvta (§p(.var<a), bristling. — o-aptcro-ais. The 
ordinary length of the famous Macedonian sarissa was 24 feet. To under- 
stand how this formidable weapon could be used, see Die. Antiqq., p. 488. 

— irdvTa .... Seivd : subj. of €<(>aCv€TO (appeared to, presented themselves 
before, etc.). — Kal (intens.) .... ^oVti, who was already even long before ter- 
rified. — The force of cos extends to this point, and irpcoTos begins the prin- 
cipal sentence. — oi .... to *e4pas : cf. § 1, above. — lupaXovTtov with 
twv ircpl 'Ap-, when Aretes and his men, etc. — 4. <j>ary/j : without the ar- 
ticle, pred., there was, etc. — Siupiav. Commander of one of the six divis- 
ions (rd^is) of the Macedonian phalanx. — g/utoO, there, i. e. on the spot 
where they ceased to rush on with Alexander in the pursuit. — 5. ttjs 

ARR1AN III. 159 

Tdlws, when their line, etc. Above, § 4, toLJis means a division of the pha- 
lanx. — Kara to 8Uxov, at the opening, occasioned by the sudden halt of 
Simmias, while the other division- commanders still pressed on.— dvdirXois 
•rots iroXXois, on men for the most part unarmed, i. e. those who were in the 
Macedonian camp. — irpoo-SoK-, particip. dat. pi. — 6. Ittitct-, drawn up 
behind. The army of Alex, was drawn up in two lines (phalanxes), one be- 
hind the other. — to 717-. Note the force of the pres. particip. ; what was 
going on. — o&'ws with p.€TaPaXo'vT€s «ri|v Ta£iv, having quickly faced about. 
— tjir€p irapiiyyeXTO avrois, as had been enjoined upon them, i. e. before the 
battle. — &£$l .... |w€\-, occupied with, etc. — ol 8e : correl. with iroX- 
Xovs p.€v : but others of them, etc. — Kara re'pas, in flank, with kvi$a\ov. 

Chap. 15. d|A<JnpdX<ov .... twv Muk-; while the Mac. were at first 
{being) attacked on all sides, —to Ka/ra o-«J>as, sc. K€pa$, his wing (lit. the 
wing by themselves), subj. of Jvve'xsTcu. — o-vv ttJ . . . . €Taip<ov, with his 
companion-cavalry. Cf. 14, 2, note. — tois tc . . . . KpaTto-Tois : appos. 
with tois Einr€€<ri : the Parthians, and some (H. 812 ; S. Gr. 5.56 ; G. § 152, 
Note 2) of the Indians, and Persians, (ivho were) the most numerous and bravest 
(i.. e. of the fugitive horsemen of the enemy). — 2. 4s p&0os .... t€t<xy- 
|i€voi : drawn up in file. — ota 8-rj IXtjSov, since {they were), as I have said 
(8Vj), in distinct companies. This fact was mentioned in ch. 13. The com- 
panies, it seems, were drawn up in distinct and parallel files. — ri after 
Pd0os, . correl. of the following ko.£ : not easily rendered, without over- 
translating. — fjircp .... Sttaj : which is the manner of a cavalry-action. — 
irds tis : appos. with the subj. of eireiYojJievoi : but hastening individually to 
break through, etc. — ota 8^| . . . . &Y<ovigo|Jk«voi, because now they contended 
no longer for another's victory, but, etc. — 3. 8ie|€ir€o-ov, escaped through, lit. 
fell out through. — irpocjiijai with iyyvs, near {enough) to engage with, to at- 
tack. — ov\ .... 'ipyov, did not leave {anything) of the engagement remaining 
for Al. — dXXd Yap : a sentence introduced by the adversative dXXd and 
the causal -yap, a twofold connection. In the more frequent ical *ydp we 
have a copulative and a causal conjunction, also a double connection. It 
seems to me quite unnecessary to suppose any ellipsis between these words. 
In Kal Yap o$v we have a threefold connection, copulative (or intensive), 
causal, and illative. It is usual to render only the last word in each phrase. . 
— 5. &tt€ en-l kt4., till towards midnight. — -irpovxwp* 1 : irpoxttpea). — tovs 
irdvTas .... crraStovs ktc., through the entire number of stadia amounting to 
about six hundred from, etc., ace. of extent : 8i»£as, intrans. — aS0is. The 
chariot and other articles belonging to Darius were taken after the battle 
of Issus. Cf. II. 14, 6. — 6. es iKaTov. Diodorus says €is irevTaKoo-iovs. 
In either case a surprisingly small number, compared with the loss of the 
enemy. We cannot expect much historical accuracy in these statements 
of the numbers slain. — iirlp rovs X l ^~ : article with a numeral. H. 528 ; 
S. Gr. 383, b ; more than a thousand (the nearest round number) : x i M° v s, 
adj. sc. IVn-ovs. — 01 Tjjjucrees. Note here -fjjuo-us with art. H. 536 ; ,S. Gr. 
382 ; sc. •Jjo-av, and of these about half belonged to, etc. — IXc'yovto : subj. 
indef. there ivcre said to be [men) to the number of, etc. — 7. TotiTo .... 

160 ' NOTES. 

^vcto, such ivas, etc. — |J.T)vbs XIvav€t|r-, in the month Pyanepsion (including 
the latter half of October and the first half of November) : "an error in 
statement. The eclipse of the moon occurred on the night of Sept. 20 - 21st, 
and the battle Oct. 1st, i. e. both occurred in the Attic month Maemacte- 
rioii." Sint. — 'Apicrrav8pa> £wepT| : resulted favorably to Aristandrus. — 
€V tirta = ev a>. Note this later use of oVtis, referring to a definite anteced. 
— Tijv re . . . . Yev€cr9cu : exegetical of rj p.avT€ia : both respecting the occur- 
rence of the battle and the victory to Alexander. The eclipse of the moon, ten 
days before the battle, had greatly alarmed the army ; but their fears were 
allayed by the prophecy of Aristandrus, here repeated in substance. 

"The defeat of Arbela was in fact the death-blow of the Persian em- 
pire." Grote. 

Darius flees in all haste to the mountains of Armenia northward, thence 
to Media. Alexander marches directly upon Babylon and Susa ; after- 
wards to Persepolis. In the next seven years he has proceeded eastward 
as far as India, and has returned to Babylon. 

BOOK VII. Chapters 24, 25, 26, 28. 


Chap. 24. 'AXXcl yap. Cf. note 111, 15, 3. In the narrative just 
preceding Arrian had spoken of the death of Hephaestion, Alexander's most 
intimate friend ; and had expressed his disapproval of some of the proceed- 
ings of Alexander. — o-qpfjvat (<rr\\kaiv<a) : "intrans." Sint. and some- 
what the following also pointed to the future (lit. before the coming events indi- 
cated {them) , says Arist.) Some, however, may prefer to understand tI as 
obj. of cn]jj.f]v<H. — avrdv (Alex.), subj. of Ka/raXox^iv. Bear in mind 
here, and in the following sentences, \4yei : that he was distributing, etc. 
2. icXivas (subst. ), subj. of etvcu, and that there were, etc. — -rivet, subj. of 
avapfjvcu and kcUM£-, that a certain one of the common people (lit. of the neg- 
lected men) .... both went up, etc. — cv <jn>Xaicrj dSeo-fiw, in custody without 
being bound, in free custody, on parole. — gpi]jj,ov with rbv 8p- : tSdvTa with 
rivet. — 3. ovk with in fin. in orat. obliq. &vacrri]crcu 1st aor. trans. — • 
ireptppYjjjctfiivovs (ir€pipp^YW|i.i), sc. tovs Si, and that these (the eunuchs) 
havirig rent (their garments) all around. — p/fjiroTC kt!., wishing to know whether 
or not, etc. — rbv 8t, and that he, the one who was put to torture. — 6ti p.Vj, 
except, used after a neg. sent. — cirl vovv ot cXOdv : may be taken as ace. 
abs., or less naturally, I think, as obj. of irpci{ai (infin. The optat. would 
be paroxytone) : when it came into his mind. — tj : conj. — icctl fidXXov with 
efjTjYovvTO. — £vjaJ3tjv(w, subj. indef. that it happened to him for, etc. — 4. ko.1 
rtvas Kal 4k p.avT6ias, and certain (sacrifices) also in obedience to (Ik) a 
prophecy, obj. of tcGvkws (0va>). — &iriv€. Mark the force of the imperf. — _ 
irdppo) t<3v vvktwv (plur. as often with reference to the watches of the 
night), far inta the night, — clcrlv o% f there are some who, or simply, some. — 
irapa ot, with him, at his house. French, chez lui. 

Chap. 25. at pacr- ecjnjjAepiSes, the royal ephenvrldes, or Court Journal. 


kciI a€0is, and again, i. e. the following evening. — iriveiv. "Diodorus 
states (XVII. 117) that Alexander, on this convivial night, swallowed the 
contents of a large goblet, called the cup of Herakles, and felt very ill after 
it." Grote. — IfJKJxvyeiv : 4veo-0ta>. — 2. «s vop.os, sc. -fjv civtw, as his custom 
was. — to. UpcL eiriGevTa, having placed the victims (on the altar). — &tt€ 4ttI 
KV€<j>as, even till dark, the close of the third day. — vir^p .... irkov, re- 
specting the march and the voyage. He had planned a great naval expedition 
down the Persian Gulf, around the coast of Arabia, and up the Red Sea. 
— tovs p.€V .... tovs 8£ Ly.0. ol ttX4ovt€s : the one (party) . ... but those 
sailing with him, subj. of irapao-K-. — «s kt!., as if to go, as if to sail. But 
the plan formed was never to be carried out. — 4s ... . tjiiepav : €is 
ir€|nrTT]v. Our idiom, on the fourth day, etc., does not present with exact- 
ness the Greek conception, in which the attention is directed into the midst 
of the time specified. — 3. 4s ... . vo-rtpaiav. The fourth day. — «ls 
.... Kajxapav, into his chamber. Plut. says els tov 0dXap.ov. — 4. kojxi- 
<r0€ vto, .... Kap.-, i. e. after he had taken supper. — ttj 8£ vcrrepaCa : i. e. 
the fifth. — oVais 'ia-rai : that they (everything pertaining to the voyage) be 
(in readiness). — ttj vot-, the sixth. — ovkcti 4Xivvveiv (or 4Xivv€iv) irvp€<r- 
<rcvTa, that he no longer had any respite from fever . — ^St| '4\€iv kcikws, that he 
was already seriously ill. — 5. ttj vot-, the seventh day. — 2x° VTa: concess., 
though, etc. — ttj 4movo-T| : the eighth day. — 6. 4s ... . vcrrcpalav. Cf. 
note on 4s ... . rj^epav, § 2 : strictly, at some point of time extending into 
the next day : coram, rendered, on the next day. The ninth day. — 7V«vcu 
.... 4>wvfjo-ai .... clvcu. The subj. is readily supplied : that he*knew 
them, etc. — Kal t^v vvktci irvpecro-eiv kt!., and that through the night he had 
a high fever and through the day (the tenth day), and the next night and day 
(the eleventh). 

Chap. 26. tov 0dvaTov : subj. of cTriKpvV-, that his death was concealed 
by, etc. — tovs iroXXovs .... pidcrao-0ax depends on ava.'yc'ypairrai above : 
but that the most (of them) by reason of sorrow and longing for . . . .forced their 
way in to see, etc. — 8e|«.ovor0ai. .... 4k<£o"tovs, but that he extended his hand 
to than severally. — 2. irpos 81 : adv., and besides. — eirepoiTav (eiri, eparrdw) 
takes for subj. the names above. — €i Xwov Kal &|ahvov, whether it would be 
more profitable and better : a common expression in consulting an oracle. — 
|X€vovtl, sc. avTw : lit. that it would be better for him staying where he was 
(civtov), Eng. idiom, to stay, etc. — 3. TavTa .... €Ta£povs, that his com- 
panions reported (to Alexander) these things (the reply of the god). — ws 
tovto . . . . 8v (ace. abs. H. 793 ; S. Gr. 544, a ; G.' § 278, Note) : as if 
this (i. e. death) were, etc. — ov iroppea tovtwv, not far from, etc. , i. e. not 
dissimilar, not unlike these statements. — tovs It-, subj. of epeVGcu, that his 
companions asked, etc. — oVi in pratio recta, not always rendered, may be 
represented in Eng. by quotation-marks. So here : he replied, " to the strong- 
est." — ol 8c, sc. &V€*ypcu|/av. — irpoo*0€tvai, that he (Alex.) added. 

In the 27th chapter Arrian speaks of the report that Alexander died from 
the effects of poison, and that it had even been sent by his old friend and 
teacher Aristotle ; also of the report that Alexander wished to cast him- 

162 NOTES. 

self into the Euphrates, and thus disappear suddenly, to the end that h,e 
might be worshipped as a god. Arrian discredits these reports. Mebuhr 
( Vortrage, II. 506) remarks, that Alexander was sick quite too long a time 
to have died of poison. 

Chap. 28. 'AG^o-iv : H. 205; S. Gr. 113; G. § 61, N. 2.— tov 
Tpli-ov, sc. &rovs. — oktw. Diodorus says Iuto,. — 'Apto-ToPovXos was son 
of Aristobulus, one of the companions of Alexander ; wrote a history of 
Alex., to which Arrian makes frequent reference. — tovtovs. Note the 
position of the demonst. (H. 538, a, end), between the art. and subst. ; yet 
it does not follow directly after the article. — 2. tjSovwv kt!., in sensual 
pleasures, he was most temperate, and in intellectual enjoyments, he was most in- 
satiate of praise alone. — |wi8€iv .... SeivoTaros, he was most skilful to dis T 
cern, etc. It would seem as though Arrian must have had in mind the 
description of Themistocles, Thucyd. I. 138. — to €ikos .... €iriTvx€- 
o-tcitos, most fortunate to seize upon that, which teas reasonable. — 6ir\£<rai .... 
Kco"ji.fjo*ai explain Tctfcu, most expert to marshal an army, both to equip and to 
arrange (it). — tw . . . . atiTOv : dat. of means, by his own daring. — 3. #<ra 
.... irpalai : Kr. and Sint. make the infin. depend on dVa, a rare const.: 
and, accordingly, even whatever (was) to be done (lit. was to do) in that which 
was obscure, etc. So also in the next sentence, Sera .... v<|>apird<rai 
(viro, dpira£tt), wlwttever (possessions) of the enemy (needed) to be taken (lit. to 
take) by anticipation (<|>Gd<ras), "or by getting the start {of the enemy). Witli 
this explanation, <f>0dcras agrees with the implied subj. of -6<|>apira<rcu, 
which is the same as the leading subject of the sentence, hence in the 
riominat. — irplv .... €<ro|i€va, before any one even feared what was actually 
going on (avra.), as impending. — t& {jvyrcOcvra, formal engagements: 6[xoXo- 
yrjGevTa, verbal engagements. 

Arrian continues his sketch of the character of Alexander through two 
additional chapters, which are here omitted. With these he concludes his 
Anabasis of Alexander. 

"The death of Alexander, thus suddenly cut off by a fever, in the pleni- 
tude of health, vigor, and aspirations, was an event impressive as well as 
important, in the highest possible degree, to his contemporaries far and 
near." Grote. 


The dialect of this writer (1 60 a. d.) is called the Revived Attic. 
For his life and writings, see Class. Diet. 

At the time of the Peloponnesian War there lived in Athens a cit- 
izen named Timon, who had inherited a large patrimony, but had 
squandered it upon flatterers and parasites, who, having exhausted 
his favors, passed liim by in contempt. Stung with mortification, 


and, filled with hatred, he quitted the city, and spent his life in soli- 
tude, dying at length in consequence of refusing to permit a surgeon 
to dress a broken limb. 

On these facts as a basis Lucian builds the following dialogue. 
The scene opens in Attica. Timon is digging in a lonely field, and 
cursing Zeus for his misgovernment of men. Zeus, moved by his 
cries, sends Plutus (wealth) to him again. Hermes and Plutus, on 
their way to Attica, discourse of wealth and its effects upon men. 
Timon is, with difficulty, persuaded to accept wealth once more, but 
declares his intention of leading a solitary life; and the flatterers, 
who, snuffing his wealth, come crowding around him, he drives from 
the field with his pickaxe and with stones and dirt. 

!• €Taip€L€. L. and Sc. I. Presiding over fellowship. — fyio-Tie, protec- 
tor of hearth and home. These names, borrowed from the poets, are em- 
ployed in derision. — c2 rl . . . . dXXo, whatever else. — icaXovcrt : two ace.' 
H. 556 ; S. Gr. 400 ; G. 166. — to ttitttov; to kcx^vos (\alv<a). Part, as 
subst. the failure,- the gap. Diff. bet. pirpov and pv0p.6s? — orot. H. 598,' 
b; S. Gr. 434; G. 184, 3, N. 4. — Ipio-ndpcryos : a curious epithet of 
do-Tpcwnfj ace. to our notions of lightning. — Xrjpos, Kcnrvos : pred. nom. — 
&vo/ir€<|>TiV€. <|>alva> with part. 6Vtci om. H. 797 ; S. Gr. 546, a. — &T€XV»s, 
simply, really. — ££«, except : frequent in Luc. — dir€<rpT| : diro<rp€vvi>[w. 

S. €mx€ipowT<ov, intending. — &oXov, kept till dawn, hence half extin- 
guished, dying. — iravSajidropos : a poetic word. — SaXov nva, a sort of 
firebrand. — «s . . . . SeSievat, ofccOau Result : so that they, etc. — diro- 
Xavtrciv : with ace. and gen., suffer this only from, etc. — 6Vi kt4. appos. of 
tovto. — dvairXrj<r0^<rovTai : dva irtp.irX'qjJ.t. — ov irdvrr|, not altogether. — 
dirtdavos, incredible, fabulous. — irpos, in comparison with. — opy^v: ace. 
specif., so cold in disposition. Cf. § 3. dic|xaios rfjv 6p*yVjv. — ttws ^dp ; for 
how could it be otherwise ? — oVov, since, see L. and Sc. III. — {rcro jxavSpa- 
7ipa, under the influence of a narcotic. H. 136, R. d ; S. Gr. 77, c b. — '6s, 
you, who. — Ta <Sra : ace. specif. 

3* liret = -yap, for. — eiroiets and fol. verbs. Notice the force of the 
tense. — €iraT<ry€iTo, was pealing, rolling. — <r€icr|xot : sc. fj<rav : likewise fjv 
after x>wv. — <f>opTiica>s SiaXeyoojxai, use a stronger expression, speak like a boor 
(as I now am). — veroi T€. The presence of t€ is accounted for by regard- 
ing the expression as a quotation, perhaps from some tragic poet. — r$]Xi- 
Kavr€, so great. — cut, in the time of. — AevKaXicovos : see Class. Diet. Comp. 
the story of Deucalion with Gen. 7 and 8. — »s . . . . irq>ura>Oi}vai : result. 
— ifv ti, una aliqua cymbula, some one. Kuh. 303, 4. — «irpo$OK€iXav : 
-okcXXco ; here intrans. — Avk. AvKcopcvs, a peak of Mt. Parnassus. Jac. — 
8ia4>-uXdTTov agrees with ki|3wtiov. — ds,for. — KaK.£ovos. The idea 
of the degeneracy of the human race. So the golden age was followed by 
the silver, brazen, iron. Comp. Hor. Carm. III. Od. 6. 

Aetas parentum pejor avis tulit 
' Kos nequiores, niox daturos 
Progeiiiem vitiosiorem. 

164 NOTES. 

4. TOfydpToi, accordingly. An inference from § 2. — Tdirix. ra lir. — 
Kopl£rj : pr. ind. mid. 2d sing., you receive. — Ovovtos, <rT€<f>. H. 790, c; 
S. Gr. 541, c ; G. 277, 2. — dpa : see L. and Sc. B. 5. — irdpcp-yov 'OXvp.- 
iriwv, as an addition to the Olympic games ; as a mere matter of form. With 
t£s sc. 6vei ^ o-T€<j>avot. — uoieiv Sokwv, thinking that he does. — €is, accord- 
ing to. — p.€T* oXtyov : sc. \povov. — Kpovov .... diro<|>avoi5(ri, " they 
will make another Cronus of you." Kpcvos was deprived of his throne by 
his son Zeus. — iraptt<rdp.evoi : irapcoOlco. — 4a>, I forbear. — vewv : V€»s, Att. 
sec. decl. — ol 84 : without preceding ot piv. — Kvvas : the watch-dogs of 
the temple. — «s <rvXXdp. : purpose ; in order that. avrov% the thieves. — 
Totis irXoicdpous. Cf. *rijv op-yrjv, §§2 and 3. — Tavra : emphat. posit. 
— iravo-cTat .... irapop(op,€va, will .... cease . ... to be overlooked. H. 798 ; 
S. Gr. 546, b; G. 279, 1. — KoXdcreis : fut. act. rare in Att. — <£a40ovT€S. 
See Class. Diet. Phaethon. The thought is, How many conflagrations and 
deluges are sufficient to expiate each insolence ? — tov piov. See Lex. III. 
Of the living, on the part of the present generation. 

5« ydp, corroborative ; for instance. — Tapd : Ta 4p,d, in opp. to rd 
Koivd : to mention my affairs. — dpas : ai'pw. — p.dXXov 84, or rather. — 
dOpoov : pred. adj. as adv. in heaps. — els, expressing purpose. — Trpos with 
gen. = •Otto, by. Comm. in Luc, but seldom in Att. prose, ovhl .... 
ov84, not even .... and not. Kiih. 321, R. 7. — Kal 68a> (3aSi£cov, even when 
walking in the street. — iraXaiov veicpov, of a man, long since dead. — virrtav 
.... dvaT€Tptt|i.p.4vt]V, turned up . . . . upon its back. Equiv. to dva- 
T€Tpap,p.4vT]V ovst€ inrriav ctvai. Prolepsis of the adj. It expresses the 
result of the fol. action. Jac. — oi 84, others. — -rr<5pp«0€v. Force of term. 
-0€V? H. 203, b; S. Gr. 114; G. 61. — ere'pav: sc. 68dv. — dirorpdiraiov, 
repulsive. — oij/eo-Gai, they are about to look upon. — tov .... ^Yev. appos. 
of 04ap.a : the one, who, not long since, etc. 

6« virb twv kcik<uv, by reason of my misfortunes — 4vat|rdp.€VOS : Ivcwrra). 
-r- dpoXwv TeTTdpwv per day. Gen. price. — K€p8avetv. Fut. of liquid 
verbs, how formed? H. 373; S. Gr. 252; G. 110, 1. — jmjkIti dx|/. kt4., 
appos. of tovto preceding : that I shall no longer see, etc. — irapd tJ|v d|iav, 
beyond their deserts. — ^8tj irore, now at length. — toOtov. When may demonst. 
pron. stand bet. art. and noun? H. 538, end ; G. 142, 4. — *ir€p .... 
'Eirip.eviSriV, beyond, i. e. longer than Epimenides, who slept 57 years. See 
Class. Diet. — ImSelgcuo : opt. of wishing. H. 721, 1 ; S. Gr. 489, a; G. 
251, 1. 

7* ZEYS. The scene changes to Olympus. — €ttik€kv<|><&$, habitually 
stooping. Perf. denoting a pres. result or state. Kiih. 255, K. 5. — ^ irov, 
surely, I think. Ironical. — &v .... Sic^tJci (Siifeipi), he would recount. Sc. 
ci p/r) 4>iXo<ro4>os fjv. H. 746; S. Gr. 514; G. 222. — icaO* .... ttcXcIwv, 
upon, or with perfect sacrifices A rare use of kclto. — 6 Tas kt€. sc. 0\><ov. — 
€ii60e}j.ev : old form of plup. € st. €t. — dXXayfjs. Cause. H. 592, a ; S. Gr. 
429 ; G. 173, 3. — ovtg> ktc., lit. bearing down the mattock, so heavy: in Eng. 
so heavy is the mattock which he, etc. 

§• QvTcacrl .... glirsiv. So to speak. To use this (rather strong) ex- 


pression. In contrast with «s 8£ dXTjfei \6y<a (climv) below. H. 772 ; S. 
Gr. 532 ; G. 268. — irepl .... <j>CXo)v, i. e. in selecting them. — <rvvUi 
(<twIt]|u) .... x a P L t^f Jievos 5 did .... perceive that he was showing kind- 
ness. H. 799 ; S. Gr. 546, c; G. 280. —to tjirap : ace. specif. A refer- 
ence to the fable of Prometheus. — <|>tXovs, eratpovs : in pred. with tlvai. 

— vTT,from, on account of. — ev (xdXa €mp.€X«s, right carefully, with exceeding 
care. — pt£as viroT€Tp.T]|X€vov. A change of figure ; from a carcass preyed 
upon by birds to a tree which the gardener wishes to destroy. — ird0€v, 
whence, from what motive should they? — 4v t<5 pepei, in their turn. Timon had 
assisted them. It was their turn now. — &<ttv. Diff. bet. a<rrv and ttoXis? 

— \ua-Qov,for hi%s. Gen. price or value. — p.€Xcryx o k < » v (having black bile), 
driven to madness. — kcikois. H. 611, a; S. Gr. 445 ; G. 188, 1. — el, whether. 

9. dvfa. NotdvVjp. Crasis. H. 68; S. Gr. 39; G. 11.— Sv<m>x»v. 
H. 800; S. Gr. 546, d ; G. 279, 1. — lirct, since. — €iriX6XT]<rp.€VOi : lm- 
XavOavopcu : condit. if we, etc. — Kav<ravTO$ : Kauo. — irXrjv. However. — 
vir\ Cf. vtt', § 8. — €ti 8c, and further. — <j>o|3ov : same const, as aoyo- 
Xias. — irapd : st. dir<5 or Ik. Zeus is afraid of the temple-robbers. — 4| ov, 
since: see L. and Sc. 4J. II. — avrois r.with ref. to 'Attik^v. H. 523, c ; 
S. Gr. 373, a. — (j.axo[X€vcov : sc. avhrcSv. — 2<rn. Why not karri ? — irpos 
avTwv : cf. irpds, § 5. — dpeT^jv riva, virtutem nescio quam. Reitz. — |v- 
veipoVTwv (stringing together) talking forever about. — tovtov. Timon. — 
oVto, : con cess., although he is. 

10. 8n strengthens superl. p.dXio*Ta. — at>0is piv, hereafter, piv correl. 
with irX^v below.— €mo-K€vdcr«. H. 760, a; S. Gr. 523, c; G. 232, 3. — 
Karea-yfiivcu .... da-C. Circumlocutory perf. In Att. icaTcdycuri. Pe- 
culiarity in augment? H. 312; S. Gr. 201; G. 103. — ottotc, since. — 
<j>iXoTi^oT€pov. Comp. and superl. advs. usually formed how ? H. 228 ; 
S. Gr. 132, b; G. 75. Too ambitiously. — frraOe: imp. of attempted action. 
H. 702 ; S. Gr. 476, c ; G. 200, N. 2. — p.T]$* .... r t pas, that we do not 
exist at all. — avrov : depends on vircp in comp. The defence of Anaxago- 
ras, by Pericles, on the charge of atheism, is thus woven into the dialogue 
by Luc. — oXLyov Setv, almost. H. 772 ; S. Gr. 532 ; G. 268. — irepl tyj 
ir€Tpa (lit. by reason of ) on the rock. — ev toctovto), in the mean time (lit. in 
so much time as I am repairing my thunderbolt). — avrr\ Ttfia>pla. Which 
is the subject ? H. 535 ; S. Gr. 381, a. 

11* Otov : as exclam. Cf. L. and Sc. I. How important it was! — 
l&ov : not ISov. — yi toi. Force ? — KaTacrWj<r€TCu. L. and Sc. B. 6. 
Will become. — pc^<ras and fol. part, cause. — €ir«rTpex|/as .... Aia, 
turned Zeus towards (him), turned the attention of Z. — d . . . . frrKcnrrcv, 
dv 2<TKairT€v. Force ? H. 746 ; S. Gr. 514 ; G. 222. — dv airc\0oi|i.i. Opt. 
st. indie. H. 722, b ; S. Gr. 491, b ; G. 226, 2. — Kal Tavra : see Notes, 
Memorabil. I. 4, 8. 

12* is iroXXd, into many parts — Kal ravra : cf. § 11. — \Lovovov\t, 
wellnigh, all but. cge&Oci. Peculiarity of augment. H. 312 ; S. Gr. 201 ; 
G. 103. Faber suggests Kal before KaOdircp : others object, regarding it 
unnecessary, and render KaGdircp as hastily as. — dircXGco. Force of subjunc. I 

166 NOTES.-" 

H. 720, c; S. Gr. 488, c; G. 253. — irapa8o0T)crop.€Vos. What does the 
•fut. part, often denote ? — Xdpoi, simpletons. — orvveo-Two-av : crvvetju. — 
aYairaTftxrav .... diro<()€povT€S, let them be contented with obtaining. H. 800 ; 
S. Gr. 546, d; G. 279, 1. &0Xu>i, laboriously ; by toil: adj. as adv. — irpoi€- 
(J.6VOI : irpoti?|u. 

13. TTjv6<r<(>vv. Of. § 3. duettos ttjv 6p*y^v. — *rj<|>Ut: cu|>£t)|u. Aug- 
ment at beginning of word. H. 314; S. Gr. 202, c; G. 105, 1ST. 3. — 
rovvavriov, adv. on the contrary. — Ij'yavdicrcis Kara, .... vexed at. Kara 
with gen. where in Att. the dat. would usually stand. — irpos clvtcSv : cf. 
§ 5. — <rirj|i€U0V liriPoXats, impressions of seals. — «$ with inf., so that. — - 
cruv€<riraKft>s (truo-iraa)) kt4., lit. contracted as to : with your fingers contracted 
in consequence of your habit, etc. — d/iroSp&creo-Oai : -SiSpdonca). — €t . . . . 
Xdpoio. Force of this form of condition ? — oXcos, denique, in short. — 
\aXKw, o-iSTjpw. Peculiarity of contract ? H. 145, c ; S. Gr. 81, c ; G. 
43, 2. — Aavdrjv. See Class. Diet., Acrisius. — irapGtveiWGai : appos. of 
to irpd^jia. 

14L avrovs: suhj. ofirotciv. — 4p«VTas : sc. <re : loving you to excess i — 
4|6v : concess., although it was in their power. Why ace. st. gen. abs.? H. 
792 ; S. Gr. 544 ; G. 278, 2. — ctt* dSeias : periphr. for an adv. : without 
fear, confidently. — Upton. 1. love; 2. an object of love: not using the object 
of their affection, i. e. their money. — ovras : concess. — <j>vXaTT€tv. A re- 
turn to the const, of iroietv. — lYpTfYoporas : circ. part, manner : wakefully, 
vigilantly. Irreg. reduplic. H. 321 ; S. Gr. 207 ; G. 104.— to . . . . ?x €tv » 
to ... . iieTaSiSdvcu : subjects of (ctvcw) dirdXava-iv : thinking it pleasure 
enough, not that they were able to enjoy (you), but that they shared, etc. For reg. 
position of ov, see Memorabil. I. 1, 3, Note. Observe the change fr. ov to 
|v/j (|M]8evC). Why ? ov negatives the subst. expression, to ... . ?X €IV » 
but (j.t)8cvC belongs directly to the inf. p.€Ta8i8ovai : see H. 837 ; S. Gr. 
571 ; G. 283, 3. — Kpi0«v. Why not ace? H. 574, e; S. Gr. 417 f; G. 
170, 1. — avruv: depends on KaTe-ylXas. — to kcuvotcitov : adverbial: and, 
the strangest thing, were jealous of themselves, but did not perceive that, etc. — 
e|i-n-apoiVT|<rci, play the drunken man, i. e. run riot and waste his master's 
substance. — Sec-iron} v .... eircfypvirveiv : obj. of edercts : having let his 
.... master .... brood over, irpds {according to) by the light of L. and 
Sc. C. III. 2. ti, equiv. to Eng. indef. art. pKpoo-Top.ov XvxvtSiov, 8t- 
tfraXiov 0pvaXXl8iov, characteristic of a miser. — TavTa. What verb is 
often om.? — licetva aiTtdo-0ai, to find fault with those things. 

15« el . . . . l{€Td£oi$, Soja) : cond. poss. ; conclus. assumed as real. 
--to .... dvei(i€VOv (dvtr]p.i) as subst. subj. of Sokoit| : this excessive loose- 
ness, prodigality, tovto": cf. noteTovTov, §6. — apeXes, cvvoikov: in pred. ; 
perhaps best rendered as nouns, carelessness and not good-will. — «s irpo$ 
IfJte. <cs with prep, similar in meaning to «s with part. H. 795, e ; S. Gr. 
540, c ; G. 277, N. 2. In his mind, in his intention, on his part. — tovs .... 
<j>vXdTT0VTas, €irijj.6Xovp.€vovs : subj. of elvai. o'itcos : final. — d,~. tao-LV : 
dirsijjLt : fut. in meaning. — t<w €v8ai|xdvo>v, of (the fortunate) those whom for- 
tune favors. 


16. IkcCvovs : referring to the misers : tovtovs, to the spendthrifts. 
The avaricious persons have just been mentioned, but are thought of as 
more remote, hence ctcetvovs. — pirpov .... irp&ypari (put a bound to the 
matter), i. e. use moderation. — irporjO-opivous: irpotTjfxu 

17. TavTa .... d*yava.KT<3. Observe diff. const. 0,7a v. Kara. avr<ov, 
§ 18. — irpbs €Vi6)v, uir' eviwv. Cf. note, § 5. irpos. — •jreircS'qp.evos. The 
perf. directing attention less to the completion of the action than to its 
result : hence denoting a state ; kept in fetters. 

1§. Ka\^v : pred. posit.; lit. the punishment (which is), handsome. — at 
p,€V, the former : the avaricious : 01 Se, the latter: the spendthrifts. TcLvtci- 
Xos. The student will not fail to acquaint himself with the celebrated 
fable here alluded to. — Tpo<j>T}V : ace. of thing retained with pass. H. 
553, a; S. Gr. 398, a; G. 164. — &irt0t: direip.u— *Ek€ivos: emphat. posit. 
— yap strengthens the quest., What! will he ever, etc. — eJavrXoiv : con- 
nect with iravo-erai: supp. part. — vn-epavrXos : adj. where Eng. employs 
an adv. : lest I, rushing in abundantly, overwhelm him. — irplv €l<rpvfjvai, be- 
fore it (i. e. toO €irippe'ovTos) has run in. — evpyrtpw : comp. without an 
object depending on it : so very broad (is) the, etc. 

lth €jw{>pa|€TCU : mid. voice, rarely Used. — is to #ira£ dvcur€irrap.£. 
vov. Vitringa renders, perpetno apertam fissuram. €s to &ira|, fiir immer. 
Jac. Part, as subst., fissure forever open. — iiraviwv : lirdvciju. — Sira>s: 
final. — «s : causal. 

20. IIpo'£o)[X€V : subjunc. as imper. Let us, etc. — Tt : sc. loru — 

cXeX^Octs (Xav0dv<o) a>v. H. 801 ; S. Gr. 546 e ; G. 279, 2.— dp.<|>o- 

T€pois : sc. -rroo-i : in both feet. — rcXetv : sc. T-fjv 68ov : finish the journey; — 
•nrpOYqpdo-avTOS, having grown old before I reach him. — clp.a "yovv, as soon 
as. — ihrcorcv : aor. as perf. — Ka^w : ica£ intensive, but not sufficiently so 
to be transl. The language of this sent., up.a .... 0€o,t«v, is borrowed 
fr. what ? — dX^O-fj : in pred., ovra understood. You say these things not (be- 
ing) true. In Eng., These things which you say are not true. — av dir&v '4\oi[li : 
pot. opt., can mention. — aJcrre irplcurOcu : purpose : to purchase. — ppdxov, 
a cord to hang themselves with. — cirl Xeuxov ^€v*yo\»s, (on) with a span of white 
horses. Often mentioned by Luc. as a special mark of pride. Jac. — ots : 
dat. possessor. — {iirfjpje = elju. k&v ovos : ellipsis : in full, ical 4dv 6Vos 
tj. Who never before had such a thing even if they had an ass. — irop<|vupot 
.... xpverox.. in purple and gold. — ovap : adv. ace, in a dream. 

SI. ov\C : differs how fr. ov ? — IIXovtcdv : Phto, god of the lower 
world. Not IIXovtos. '■ — &re, inasmuch as. H. 795, d ; S. Gr. 540, c ; G. 
277, N. 2, end. -^— 8k]Xoi : sc. tovto, this fact. — t» 6vop,a,Ti : means, by 
his name. See L. and Sc. IIXovtwv. — p.€TOiKur0T]V(H, (to be led to another 
abode) to migrate. — €*s 8cXtov .... €irtp.€X<as : descriptive of the process 
of making a will. SeXrov, a tablet: two or more leaves of wood, opening 
like a book, smeared on the inside with wax, on which the will was written 
by means of an iron instrument pointed like a pencil. The tablet was 
then closed, fastened with a triple cord, sealed, and signed with the names 
of the witnesses. See Diet. Antiq. Tabulae. € .TijjieXtts : connect with pre- 

168 ' NOTES. 

ceding word. — cf)opdSTjv (lit. borne along), like a piece of baggage, they lift me : 
up and transport me. — ctkot€lvu> irov, some dark place, corner. It was eus^ 
tomary to lay out the dead in some principal room of the house, dressed iri^ 
a splendid garment, not iraXaid oOovtj. — €|i€: obj. of 7r€pijj.€Vov<ru — vcot- ? 
rot : sc. ir€pi|J.evovoa. 

££• €VTjjLt]0fj : cvtcjxvw. 4k irai8cK<Sv : cf. 4k iraCScov : from the time 

he wus a favorite. Jac. — vireiljvp'qfi.evos .... *yvd0ov, i. e. having a beard 
even then (when he was a iratSiKa) ; his advanced age being an additional 
mark of shame. Cf. Xenophon's sneer at Menon. Anab. II. 6, 28. ircu- 
8iica d\e Oapwav .... •yevcwwvTa. — dvTi, in return for : connect with 
diroXapwv. — iffir\ .... «v, though already past the bloom of youth : too old 
for such employment. H. 789 f ; S. Gr. 540 f; G. 277,' 5. — avT« : his 
master. — p.i<r8wp.a, reward, price : a base word. — *y €vv °rt°S : ironical. -- 
€K€ivo$ jjiev : introduce the apodosis : he, that one : the heir. — ttotc : gives 
indefiniteness : whosoever. H. 251 ; S. Gr. 145. — cl-utyj. H. 604 ; S. Gr! 
438, c ; G. 188, 5, N. : tablet and all. — <j>ep«v, in haste. L. and Sc. <f>€p<o. 
X. 2. — ZEvppiou, Apo., Tipiov. Common names of slaves. — M€*yaicXfjs 
.... npan-apxos. Names of distinguished men. — liceCvovs : the disap- 
pointed expectants. — oTos : i. e. oVi toiovtos, because such a thunny-fish : 
so rich a prize. See L. and Sc. otos. 1. Cf. Oiov ^v, § 11. — jxvxov .... 
a-ayr\vr\s, inmost corner of the net: i. e. almost within their grasp. — oXfyov: 
pred. posit. : lit. which was not small. Karar. uov : KaTairivw : having de- 
voured the bait : alluding to the gifts presented by the aspirants after the 

23* Tra^vSepjios : coarse, obtuse. — ir€<|>piKcos : perf. as pres. shuddering 
at, afraid of. — pao-T^ci*, should crack a whip. — opOiov .... to cSs : cf. 
Lat. arrectis auribus. €<|>io-Tds : pres. part. act. — p.v\<3va : in which the 
slaves were compelled to labor as a punishment. — &XP 1 &v belong to €k\€t| 
below. — es » • . . €p/ir€or<ov, having fallen in with. — -?j jj.tjv : strong confir- 
mation : see Lex. fj. — Nipews. Iliad. 2, 678. Nipevs, 8s koXXuttos dvfjp 
into ' IXiov ^X0€v |4er* d|iti|iova ITqXefova. — KpoCa-wv €KKa£8€Ka : an extrav- 
agant expression, purposely employed. — to. .... oruv€tX€7ji.€ va : as subst. : 
obj. of 4kx€T) : the things collected little by little, etc. 

2 <&• AvTa kt!. ( he things which are, themselves), You state the facts pretty 
nearly as they are, I think. — €<j>* ol's : i. e. tovtous €cj>* ovs. — ctvai .... 
dflovs: {that they) are worthy. Subj. why om.? — Ol'et "ydp : cf. 'EkcTvos 
ydp t § 18. Also Lex. III. — da-i : sc. &fioi. — &v .... irpoo-ijeiv : cf. &v 
.... Siefrja, § 7. 'Ittttoviko), KaXXUx. Athenians, noted for their great 
wealth and bad morals. — IIXt|v dXkd : transl. as one word : but or still. — 
Xd0«, unawares. H. 801 ; S. Gr. 546, e ; G. 279, 2. — <r* tov 'Epufjv. 
Treasure-trove or any unexpected increase of wealth was attributed to 
Hermes : hence the name, f Ep|j.f}s Kep8a>os. 

25, to ... . Sokovv : part, with art. as subst. : his opinion, resolution. 
— Sikcucos : understand i£r l ir&Tr\Tai. — 6s "yc. Force of yi ? 6s, not, simply 
relative, but also causal : since he. — €i8<&s : concessive. — 8vo-€i5p€Tov .... 
Xp'HH'a : i. e. tovs tov ttXo-utciv dglovs. — irpb .... piov, (which) long ago 


disappeared from (lit. life) among men. Cf. piov, § 4. — o^8\ Differs how 
in force fr. ov ? — &t€ : cf. note, § 21. — to ir&v lircxdvTwv, control every- 
thing. — irpbs avTwv : cf. note, § 5. 

26. dirqkpivai. Distinguish fr. 1st aor. inf. act. and 1st aor. opt. act. 
3d sing. — €ipTJo-€T<u *ydp, dicendum enim est. Graev. — tvxovtcls : sc. 
u-ov. — dve'xecrQai £a>VTas. H. 800 ; S. Gr. 546, d ; G. 279, 1, endure to 
live. When majr inf. take ov ? — avrwv : refers to the subject of av£x* <r ® al * 
— 4>€povT€s : cf. <j>epcov, § 22. — ttnirep. Force of ircp ? — dpx^v : adverbial : 
lit. not even at the beginning : not at all. — irX-fjv dXXd : frequent in Luc. : cf. 
§ 24. — €$ oT8' #ti : often parenthetical : 2" know well that; without doubt; 
certainly. — & Tt kt!., if you understand yourself at all. — eiriji.ejJ.^voTes : lirt- 

27. O'tet 7ap : cf. § 24. — 6pdo-8ai : like <j>aiv€o-0ai in sense ; appear. 
Hence avrots, to them, st. virb avrwv. — ws : final. — rl : equiv. to Eng. 

. indef. art. — ircptOep^vos. "Why mid.? — iroiiclXa : tjxaTia understood. — 
p.f| TVTxav. Why p.TJ ? H. 839; S. Gr. 571; G. 283, 4.— a»s : causal: 
with ref. to lirio-Kid£ovo-tv, irpoo-toiretov rapiOcfxevos, etc. They do not see 
me in my true character, inasmuch as. ■ — SfjXov «s : same as 8i)Xov 6tl — 
KaTe-yL-yvcDo-KOv kt4. St. ace. of thing we have the partt. dp.pXv«TT0VT€S, 
epiovTes : would have accused themselves of being short-sighted ', etc. rd TqXt- 
Kafira : adv. exceedingly. 

28. Tt o$v : sc. k<rrL Why is it, then? — Iv avT<3 .... irXovrciv : 
i. e. the actual possession of wealth. — dcfxxipiJTai : attempted action ; at- 
tempt to deprive. — irpdotvTO : vpotr\pi, — cIkos : sc. £<rri : it is not likely 
that they. — lirlxpioros : lit. smeared on : i. e. feigned. — Td irota : Hermes 
begins the answer before asking the quest. : lit. The .... what sort of things? 
Prolepsis of the art. — ri\v ^x^v : ace. spec. We may render, when his 
mind has been taken possession of by, etc. — 4* €a,KT " v '• 4>€vkt€Os. — T€0i]ir€, is 
amazed at, i. e. overcome with admiration. — 8opv<f>opov[i.evov : pass., at- 
tended by them as a body-guard. 

29. c ils : exclamatory : How. — eyx^Xa-S' Peculiarity in decl. H. 
188 ; S. Gr. 112, 1. — 2p/iraXiv, on the contrary. — ZyjecrQai : pass. — \ki\ '4\<eiv, 
are not able. — (jteTafv. H. 795, c ; S. Gr. 539, a ; G. 277, N. 1. 

30. €veK<x, as regards. L. and Sc. II. — : KaTaXiir&v dvepx*, having left 
behind, I go up, more natural in Eng., I leave behind, when I go up. — eiri- 
o*K^t|/as, having enjoined upon (him). — Ovkovv. L. and Sc. B. — ImPauvo)- ■ 
p.€V. Subj. as imperative; let us, etc. 'Attiktjs. Why gen.? H. 574; 
S. Gr. 417; G. 171, 1. — Ixop-evos, taking hold. — lo-xandv, Timonis soli- 
tudinem. Hemst. ; extremam viam. Graev. — * YircppdXo), KXewvi. Two 
noted demagogues of Athens. 

.31. ovToo-t. Force of -£? — t<Sv .... Tarropivcov : those marshalled 
under . . . . ; those under the command of — dfi.€ivovs : nom. pi. — Tt o$v. 
Why then. — d*iro8etXi»jX€V : cf. €Tnpatva>jJi€V, § 30. 

32. 'Apysw^dvTa. A surname of Hermes, because he slew, at the com- 
mand of Zeus, the hundred-eyed Argus. — kiri^Q^ev : aor. for perf. — 
IIXovtos : understand TrejJiireTai fr. the foregoing. — Katcus ^X 0VTa » ^ or ' 

170 NOTES. 

fyto with adv. see Notes, Memorabil. I. 4, 4. Being in bad condition, ill- 
treated. — trcrb kt4. : virb with gen. on ace. of pass, idea suggested in kciic. 
^Xovtcu — KTfjfAa. Incorporation. Hence, art. om. The only possession 
which I, etc. — €(;€ipYacruevov, perfected by discipline, trained. — ofxoiov : con- 
nect not with 4tx €1 P*> hut with fol. part. — tw irdXai : art. with adv. as 
subst. : the one (he was) before. 

33* otav .... airoXtHrti, he will lose me being what sort of person. In 
Eng., what sort of person I am, whom he is about to lose. — dplo-Tcov : neut., 
probably. — Siere'Xeo-cv : <ov om. — dvSpds. Differs how in meaning fr. 
dvGpwirov ? — irpbs avrbv dTropXenw, having regard to himself. Jac. says, 
relying on his own strength. — rd . . . . tcujtci, those many and superfluous 
things : i. e. the many superfluities of luxury. — dXXoTpia : sc. etvai : (to 
be) foreign to his purpose, useless, hurtful, as indeed they are. irpoo-teauev : cf. 
€inPatva>|i€V, § 30. 

34U ov xaCpovrts. See L. and Sc. xaip<a. VII. 2. — jxiapol .... oVt€$, 
wretches that you are, all (of you). — ov .... (3aX€ts, for not being men, will 
you, etc. In Eng., for we whom you .... are not men. — d<ya8fj rvyr\ : dat. 
maimer. — diroords. Differs how fr. 1st aor. ? — KalTot, although. — <£s. 
Why accented ? — p.ol Sokw, I think. — irpbs .... Aids : an oath : by Zeus. 
— ov (xcTplcos. Litotes : violently. — |i//j, lest; with ref. to diricouev. 

35. MtjS^v crKaidv : sc. irota.. — to .... d-ypiov Kal rpa\v : adj. as 
subst. — KO/rapaXcov : lit.- having thrown down ; having put aside. — Ta Trparra : 
neut. for masc. H. 522 ; S. Gr. 372 ; G. 138, c. Princeps Atheniensium. 
The first of etc. — p.dvos .... €v8aip.ov<»v, prosperous yourself alone. In 
Eng. , for yt >elf alone, and not for the benefit of those parasites. — ttXovtos : 
used facetiously, signifying both wealth and the god of wealth : my mattock 
is irXovros enough for me. — rd 8' &XXa, as for the rest : beyond that. — trkr\- 
<rid£. condit. if, etc. — TovSe 4>€po> ktI. Quoted fr. Iliad. 15, 202. — av- 
t»v : with ref. to dv0p«ira>v contained in*dv9payirov. 

36* tijs iTrtjieXeCas : gen. cause : for your care. — av Xdpoiui : cf. av 
dir&6oiui, § 11. — Kal irdXai : Kai intens. — tcXos : adv. ace, finally. — 
irpoo-opxXovo-a : sc. jxot. — rare: correl. with Kal t<3v. — dva^Kaia : i. e. 
food, clothing, etc. — Kaavovn : intrans. : laboranti. — t»v 7roXXwv IkcC. 
cf. iroXXd TavTa, § 33. — 4fj .... piou, having made my hopes of. . . . depend 
upon myself p.ot : ethical dat. — 6 ttXovtos 6 €p.ds : with emphasis : my 
(real) wealth. — i|rr)(|>o<f>opT)cras : the aor. part, denoting the fact without 
particular regard to time : so emPovXevo-as and some others : With his vote, 
giving his vote: having ref., doubtless, to. the penalty of confiscation, or 
ostracism, or death. 

37. SiapKfj. Force of 8td in comp. ? — dX<j>iTa, lit. barley-groats : here, 
in a more genl. signif., daily bread, food. — wore, so, therefore. — fjv. H. 703 ; 
S. Gr. 478. . This ivere enough for me. The clause, irdvTas .... < 7roifjo"at, 
appos. of tovto. rj prj 8dv, from youth upwards. Subj. of iroifjcrai ? Some 
understand Tlfwova : others, Aia. Let Zeus keep Plutus to himself and 
make men lament their misfortunes. — p.€ipaKu&8if], puerile. — oijToi : not 
ovVoi. — 8iKaioXoY^crw|jis.i. See Notes, Memorabil. IV. 2, 13. povXci. 


— \iyovra, Supp. part, with verb, of endurance. H. 800; S. Gr. 546, 
d ; G. 279, 1. 

38. *Expfjv : see ikcivov fjv, §37. — irpds, in reply to. — irpoeSpicts. 
L. and Sc. 2. — a-refyavoiv : often conferred at Athens, as marks of public 
aj^probation, for services to the state. Cf. Demosth. de Corona, Aeschin. 
in Ctes., etc. — Tpv<|>i)s: naturally rend, by pi. — «ktwv koX&kcov. 4k with 
verb, denoting the source of the action : rare in Att., but coram, in later 
writers. — pdXXov 8c, nay rather. — tovto : ace. spec. : explained by fol. 
clause. 8i6ti ktI. — vn-ePaXes. L. and Sc. viro(3dXXco. V. — liraivovtn 
and fol. part. : sc. <re as obj. — €YKaX&rtup.i. H. 721, 1 ; S. Gr. 489, a ; 
G. 251, 1. Would charge upon. St. ace. of thing, we have the fol. part. 

— direXaOeis : direXavvw. — €irl K€<}>., headforemost. — cocttc. L. and Sc. V*. 
And so, finally. — papi-vs. "Why no art.? H. 535, a; S. Gr. 381, a. — 
irpo(r€viiV€Y.> having conducted yourself towards. 

39. otos .... •yevev., i. e. how his inclination towards you has 
changed already. — <rv Timon. — <rv he. Plutus. tricdirre. Force 
of tense ? k\€is» L. and Sc. IV. — ti . . . . tis, for what can one do ? but 
see. Lex. trdayjOj I. 3. — •n-pctyp.aTct, difficulties. — dSiK^jcras : concess., al- 
though I have done no wrong. — <J>povn8as, cares. 

40. 'YitoottjOl Endure. — 8i epe, for my sake. Cf. § 37 (end). — 
Kal el : icaC intens., even if. — ovk. Why not p^j, since the sent, is condi- 
tional ? oi negatives, not the sent., but the single word outtov. — tfucos : 
final. — AtrvTjv. Cf. § 19. — avrov : adv., here. — pdXXov, harder. — dv€- 
\€<r0at. H. 765 ; S. Gr. 529 ; G. 265 : {for him) to take up. — J5a0e£as Ka- 
Td(j>€pa>v, bearing [your mattock) down into deep (earth), striking deeper. — vp.iv: 
i. e. Timon and Thesaurus. 

41. T€pdo-Tt€. Terastius, because he permits such prodigies as the one 
Timon now beholds. — KopvPavT€s. Timon is beside himself with aston- 
ishment, and hence invokes the Corybantes who preside over frenzy. — 
K€p8w€ : cf. § 24. — p.T| &v0paKas evpto. An allusion to the proverb, Pro 
auro carbones : the notion that treasure- trove sometimes turns to coals. — 
dv€Ypop.€vos : dveydpcD. — dXXd pVjv, but truly. — *12 XP V0 *^j Kr *' Quotation 
fr. Euripides. The fol. alOopevov .... 8iairp€7r. fr. Pindar, Olymp. Od. 1. 

— p,€0' rjpepav. L. and Sc. perd, with accus. I. — Aia .... yevio-Qai 
Xpvo-ov. See Class. Diet. Danae, Acrisius. 

42. Mi8a, Kpoi<T€, kv AeX^ots dva0T}p.a.Ta. Proverbial for their wealth. 
tos ovSlv .... fjT€ : lit. how nothing you were, or as nothing, etc. Kriiger 
remarks that the imperf. with &pa is often used to denote a truth which 
existed previously, but unperceived till the present moment. We natu- 
rally render by the pres., how insignificant you are. — cos irpos Tipcova. ass 
with prep, occurs quite freq. in later writers. Is not this its comp. use ? 
as compared with Timon. — Ilavl : god of rural life. On leaving one occu- 
pation for another, it was common to consecrate the insignia of the occu- 
pation abandoned to the presiding deity, hence Timon proposes to conse- 
crate his mattock and leathern garment to Pan. — KctXdv : sc. icrrL — ircrep, 
over: with the notion of defence. — €v8icuTd<r0cu : inf. depending on an 

172 NOTES. 

adj. ikclvov. — tov clvtov : i. e. irvpyCov : but the gend. is conformed to the 
fol. appos. tcu|>ov. H. 513, c; S. Gr. 363. — pol $ok(o, I think. — SeSdx&a 
and fol. Observe that the perf. is used to denote that the thing spoken of 
is to remain fixed in its condition. Let .... be per manendi/ resolved upon, 
be resolved upon and remain so. Tavra : explained by fol. dp^ia kt4. — 
'EAiov P<ojjlos. In the agora at Athens was a very ancient altar to the god 
of Mercy. Do we not see in this and in the Pelasgic worship of the invisi- 
ble Zeus, who dwelt in temples not made with hands, traces of the ancient 
worship of the true God ? ' 

4LS* jaovov : connect with i'Sto : merely see. — diro^pds tj t^pa, dies 
esto nefastus. — icdl 5Xtos : cf. § 13. — Sex^fteOa : cf. 4mj3a£vco[X€v, § 30. — 
€pt][j.ia, 6pos (not #pos). Which is the subj.? H. 535 ; S. Gr. 381. — <|>i- 
Xoti jjufj p.a,Ta {objects of ambition), the ambition, the glory. — kcUT lavTOV, by 
himself. — 8€|i<6o-ao-0ai. Here spoken of the last farewell of the dying. — 
<rT€<J>avov. It was the custom of the Greeks to crown the dead with a 
chaplet of flowers. See Becker's Charicles, p. 385. 

44:« tov Tpoirov, of my disposition. — ttCtttj .... KCiTao-pcvvvvai : i. e. 
to feed the flame. — toS x^wvos : gen. time. — w0€iv : inf. like icaTaa-(3€v- 
vvvai just above, depending on ScSdx^w* — €irl K^akr\v : cf. § 38. — t^v 
%ai\v : sc. 81kt]v or [Jtotpav : par pro pari. — T£fi»cov 'Ex€k. KoXXvt. In imi- 
tation of the decrees of the assembly, and state papers generally, in which 
proper names were reg. expressed without the art. 

45. ircpl .... €ironrj<rdnT]V, I would have regarded it as important 
Supp. with contr. reality. Jac. writes 1r01.11cra4j.Tjv, / would regard, etc. 
which accords full as well with the rest of the passage. — airaoa .... 
*y€V€<r0ai : obj. of €irou}(r&ii.T)v : that this, etc. Tavra, explained by fol. 
clause, Sioti ktI. Neut. pi. often used in Greek where Eng. employs the 
sing. H. 518, b. Sioti: freq. in Luc. in the sense of oti, that. — rdxovs: 
cf. dXXayijs, § 7. — iroVepov. When to be trans. ? — dircXavvco, irapavo|if]- 
o-cojiev : subjunc. delib. H. 720, c ; S. Gr. 488, c ; G. 256. — to 7c rocrov- 
tov, in so far. cUrdiraf, for once only. — dvicovTo. One would have thought 
the subjunc. more natural. — coctt€ : cf. § 37. — Sex-, ■forroordvTSs. In Eng., 
let us stand our ground and receive. — <j>6p' i'8o>. Come, let me see. See L. and 
Sc. <j>€pw. VIII. — rvaGcoviSijs. A good name for a parasite. — 4(JtT|fi.€K»s. 
One way of showing that he had drunk them. — irpd : in the sense of time. 

40. trv ye : understand x a ^P 6 » — hn.rpvter6ra.rt, most villanous. — cos : 
causal : for. — tI : equiv. to Eng. indef. art. — veoSiSdicrcov ktI., i. e. a 
dithyrambic drinking-song recently brought out. — IXeyeta : neut. pi. in 
the sense of ^Xcyos : you will sing an elegy very pathetically, with great emotion. 

— vieo .... SikeXXt). Timon proposes to be musical conductor, and to 
keep time with his mattock. — paprupofiai. Addressed to the bystanders. 

— Tpa.i3fj.aTOs. H. 577, b; S. Gr. 420, b; G. 173, 2. — i'a<rai : aor. imp. 
mid. Idofiai. — "Eti -yap : cf. *ydp, § 18. 

A 1 ?. irpoiKa, as a gift, here as a marriage-portion. — : appos. of 
d-ypdv and TdXavTa. — kvkvcov. The sweetness of the dying notes of the 
swan has been proverbial from remote antiquity. 


4r8» dvai(r\vvrias : cf. <f>6v tov tcLxovs, § 45. — eirnnjS&v : lit. to jump 
on (him) : i. e. to be intrusive. — #iro>s .... <J>vXdfr|. Prin. sent, om.: 
sc. 6pa, see to it that you, etc. H. 756, a ; S. Gr. 522, a ; G. 217. Position 
of tovtovs ? Cf. toStov, § 6. — tovs .... fiovov : perhaps sc. with Jac. 
4>tXo-us ovTas : who (are your friends) only at meal-time. — ovSe'v : ace. spec. 

— ovScvt. H. 804, b; S. Gr. 548 ; G. 281, 2 : any of the men {lit. now) 
of the present day. — cos .... xp-ijo-Gai, in order that you might use (it) for, 
etc. — Ka0* 686v, on the way. — irXovroirjs. Why opt. ? — ttXovtov : cogn. 
ace. H. 547, a; S. Gr. 393, a; G. 159: with some vast wealth. — Tavrd 
o-e : two ace. with verb of teaching. Tavra refers to the counsel Phil, in- 
tended to give, but which he now thinks may be unnecessary, since Tiinon 
is wiser than the most venerable of the chiefs before Troy. — "Eo*t<h rain-cu 
This will be the case. — Kpavto-u : gen. of part affected. H. 574, b, end ; S. 
Gr. 417, d ; G. 171, 1. 

49. 'EpexOift'Si. The commentators have caught Lucian in an error 
on this word. If Timon belonged to the deme Colyttus, as has been here- 
tofore repeatedly stated, he was a member of the tribe Aegeis, and had no 
business to ask for a portion of the theorio fund destined for another tribe. 

— 8io.v6p.eiv: inf. as obj.: of e'Xaxe. — to *yi*yv6p,6vov, that which was coming 
(to me). — oVtci : supp. part, with verb of knowledge: that I was. The 
Greek idiom connects the neg. ovk with, the prin. verb. The Eng. with 
the inf., he said that he did not, etc. 

50. 7rpo(3Xt]p.a, bulwark. — koA p.'/jv, moreover, — ai pouXal dp.<f>or€pai : 
i. e. the Areiopagus and the Senate of the Five Hundred. — vrrgp o-ov, in 
your behalf in your honor. — YeYpa^a. Ypd<j>€iv x|rfj<|>io , ]i.a, freq. to propose a 
decree. — Tl. *Ex. KoX.: without the art.: cf. § 44. — irapd, with ace. in 
sense of duration ; during, or, as we say, all the time. — 4v 'OXvjJwrta : comm. 
'OXvp/iria, as cogn. ace. with viKto. — TeXefo tippem. A four-in-hand of 
full-grown steeds, in distinction from crvvwp£8i TrcoXncf}, a single span of 
young horses. — Tl ofiv : What then ? what of that ? — irpociecto-Oai, to lie 
upon or in addition to. (It is) better that many such things be added: to the 
t|/Vj<f>io-p,a. — irpbs 'Ax*, near Acharnae. 

51. ydp : oft. referring to a thought om. That cannot be, for. — 
MeTpia : pred. adj. where we employ an adv., modestly. — dv cfr]|i€V. How 
is the cond. expressed ? — en-i : denoting the ground of an action. — 
'HXiaia, (JyuXds, S^pois. Added by Dem. for the sake of sound. They 
had nothing to do with things of this kind. — xp v<r °w .... Tlp,cova : 
i. e. a golden statue of T. — o-T6<|>avd>o-ai. : cf. § 38. — Aiovvo-iois .... 
Ktuvots : datt. of time. H. 613 ; S. Gr. 446 ; G. 189. At the Dionysiac 
festival, at the production of the new tragedies, lit. at the time of new actors. 
The great Dionysia is alluded to, which was celebrated in the month 
Elaphebolion (March), a time when Athens was filled with, citizens and 

52. o-ot. H. 599 ; S. Gr. 436 ; G. 184, 1ST. 5. — Son kt!., so much at 
least even we, etc. Sc. e^eo-ru Barl. — : fut. — xaXw : pres. — ovtos. 
L. and §>c. Y. end. — eveVprjcras : ££irpT]fu. 

174 NOTES. 

53. 6iricr0d8o[Jiov : here, the treasury in the Acropolis. — cot): gen. poss. 
"belonging to what follows. — dXXrjv, another : i. e. ttXtjy^v. — K€Kpax0i. 
H. 409, 8 ; S. Gr. 280, h ; G. Kpd£a>. How many ways of expressing a 
prohibition in the 2d pers. ? — &v ird0oi|u. L. and Sc. trdcryjco, 2. — \t,i\ 
lirwptya* When does part, take p<tfj ? H. 839 ; S. Gr. 571 ; G. 283, 4. 

— CfcTjv .... V€vikt)kcos: circumlocution for veviKTjKoijxi. — 'OXvjjwria : cf. 
note 4v 'OXviiirta, § 50. 

54L oSv : confirmative : surely. ■ — o<f>pv$ dva/reCvas. A mark of pride. 

— tI: cogn. ace., haughtily repeating something to himself. — titcivwScs. H. 
547, c; S. Gr. 393, c; G. 159, N. 3. Like a Titan. — fypcu|/€V. L. and 
Sc. -ypd(|>w II. — 6<ra : adv. = Xtav : mirum quam multa. — dpeTfjs. Spe- 
cial theme of the Stoics. — twv .... \aip6vT<av : obj. of Kar-qyopiov. — 
d<|>ticoiTo, 6p€|€t€V : opt. indef. frequency. ira£$. Here in what sense? — 
X0701S : depend, on IvavTitoTara. envois. Why bet. art. and noun ? — 
•y^vctov : cf. <rxr)p.a above. With his beard full of sauce. — dpeWjv. See 
above. — irpocrSoicwv : -SoKdco. — jx-q'Se. Differs how from fuf) ? 

55» jxovos tcov dXXwv, lit. alone of the rest. An expression not unfreq. 
in Greek. In Eng., alone among all. — 8 tl irep .... ocjjeXos, which very 
thing (is) the flower, fruit, culmination of etc. — Sti has for anteced. the 
preced. sent. : that he complains of his share when he has the whole. — 
|j,e(Wos, drunken : irdpoivos, riotous over one's wine. — d\pi $>*!$, lit. until 
song : i. e. to such a degree that he sings. — irovTjpws '4\o>v* For signif. of 
%\<a with adv. see Memorabil. I. 4, 4. — viroTpavXt^wv, stammering, hiccough- 
ing. — eirl to^tois, after, etc. — 2v€ica : in 2d meaning : in respect to, as re- 
gains. — to, irpwTa, princeps. Cf. § 35. — tfXcos : see § 13. — irdvcro<|>ov 
.... XP'nK- ') an all-wise creature. — irondXws IvrcXes, lit. variously complete : 
distinguished for every sort of perfection. — ovk Is fiaicpdv, not for a long time, 
for no long time, for a short time. Jac, following Hdt. 5, 108, renders, in 
no long time: i. e. in a short time, presently. Barl., following Pind., P. 3, 
189, renders, a little while. — XP 1 ! " 1 " 08 & v : concess. : ironical. 

50. kcito. rav-rd kt4., according to the same things with these, etc. : i. e. 
for the same purpose or reason. — wsirep ktI. repeats and expands the idea in 
Kara Tavrd .... tovtois. — IXirCSi : dat. cause. — otov <r€, i. e. otos cri» 
ct. — tcov SvTwv : gen. with adj. of sharing : inclined to share what you have 
(with your friends). — €i . . . . rpvfyyqv. Force of this form of cond.? — 
Tptpcov : noun. — ^s povXei, cujusvis. — <rf|v avrov X&pw, *ua ipsius gratia. 
Lex. x&pis, V. 1. H. 552 ; S. Gr. 397 ; G. 160, 2. — kcrTd\v\v, I set out. 

— "ydp : with ref. to Io-toXtjv, <os kt|. €i . . . . irctOoio (mid.), IfipaXeis. 
Cond. of what form ? Conclus. of what ? jidXiora piv, most certainly. See 
Lex. (xdXa III. 5. — SVov : adv., as far as to the groin. — €ire|xpds : sc. €5 
tJ|v OdXa/rrav. 

57. <rv $€. 8e marks the apodosis, and denotes a contrast bet. this 
and the protasis. It may be om. in rend., or loosely transl. then. — dfieivw. 
Uncontr. form? — dveis : dviTjfw : leaving over, reserving. — a> piv . . . . w 
8*. Not Attic. How would Xen. have written it ? H. 525 ; S. Gr. 375 ; 
G. 143. — Sikguos : sc. «rri, he ought. — Ipatrrov x<*pw •' c ^ X^ 1 ^ § 56. — 


€KirX^j<ras irapd<rxois. Eng. idiom, two finite verbs. — |A€8ip.vo\>s. The 
Attic medimnus held about twelve gallons; the Aeginetan, somewhat more. 
— [J.r|8£v .... cf>pov€tv, to think of nothing beyond his scrip: i. e. to be con- 
tent with the least possible. — ravrd trov : cf. § 53. — tyepe : cf. § 45. — 
kovSvXwv. "Why gen. ? — irapaK€Kpovo-|iai, cheated, defrauded. 

58. tJjv .... ireirovt]Kvtav, let my mattock, long since weary, rest a little, 
8ti xXcuttous : 6tw strengthening superl. — drnjAev. Pres. oft. what tense 
in meaning ? 


Plan to illustrate the battle of Salamis (from Abicht's edition). 

Plan to illustrate the battle of Issus (from Grote). 


[Note. — The most important events are given in small capitals and should he made as 
familiar as possible. The others are intended chiefly for reference.] 

BOOK I. The Mythical Age : extending from the earliest period 
down to the first Olympiad, 776 b. o. 

BOOK II. Growth of the Grecian states : from 776 to 500 b. c. 
b. c 

594. Legislation of Solon. 

560-510. Tyranny of Peisistratus and his Sons. 
510. Reforms of Clisthenes (or Kleisthenes), begun at Athens by 
the institution of the ten tribes. 

BOOK III. The Persian Wars, from 500 to 478 b. c. 
500. (?) First year of the Ionic revolt. 
494. (?) The Ionians defeated in a naval battle at Lade, near Miletus : end 

of the revolt. 
490. Battle of Marathon. 
485. Xerxes succeeds Darius. 

480. Battles of Thermopylae, Artemisium, and Salamis. 
,479. Battles of Plataea and Mycale. 
478. , Siege and capture of Sestos. The history of Herodotus terminates 

at this point. 

BOOK IV. The Athenian Supremacy and the Peloponne- 
sian War, 478-404 b. c. 
478. Athens fortified by Themistocles. 
477. Confederacy of Delos. 

471. Themistocles ostracized. Thucydides the historian born. 
469. (?) Beginning of the political career of Pericles. 
468. Mycenae destroyed by the Argives. Birth of Socrates. 
466. Yictory of Cimon over the Persians at the river Eurymedon in Pam- 

465. Death of Xerxes and accession of Artaxerxes I. . 
464. Great earthquake at Sparta. 
461. Ostracism of Cimon, and ascendency of Pericles. 


B. c. 

457. The Athenians begin to build the long walls and finish the work the 

following year. 
445. Thirty years'" truce between Athens and Sparta. 
435. War between the Corinthians and Corcyraeans on account of Epi- 

432. The Corcyraeans, assisted by the Athenians, defeat the Corinthians, 

in a naval battle, in the spring. 
Potidaea revolts from Athens. 
Congress of the Peloponnesians at Sparta in the autumn to decide 

the question of a war with Athens. 
431. The Peloponnesian War begins. 
430. The plague at Athens. 
429. Potidaea surrenders to the Athenians. Phormio's exploits, in the 

Corinthian gulf. Siege of Plataea begun. Death of Pericles. 
427. Plataea surrenders. Sedition at Corcyra. 
425. Demosthenes takes possession of Pylos. The Spartans in Sphacteria 

surrender to Cleon. 
Accession of Darius Nothus. 
424. Nicias on the coast of Laconia. 
Brasidas in Thrace. 
The Athenians defeated by the Thebans at Delium. Socrates and 

Xenophon in the battle. 
Thucydides (the historian) in command at Amphipolis. 
423. One year's truce. 

Thucydides banished for the loss of Amphipolis.. Kemains twenty 

years in exile. 
422. Hostilities in Thrace between Athenians and Lacedaemonians. Cleon 

(Athenian) and Brasidas (Lacedaemonian) fall in battle. 
421. Eleventh year of the war. Truce for fifty years. The truce, 

called The Peace op Nicias, was little more than nominal. 
415-413. The Sicilian Expedition. 

413. Permanent occupation of Decelea on the advice of Alcibiades. 
411. Oligarchical conspiracy of the four hundred at Athens. Defeat of 

the Lacedaemonians in the naval battle at Cynossema. 
The history of Thucydides ends abruptly in the middle of this year. 
407. Twenty-fifth year of the war. Alcibiades returns to Athens. Ly- 

sander the Lacedaemonian admiral is aided by Cyrus ; defeats the 

lieutenant of Alcibiades at Notium. Alcibiades banished. 
406. The Athenians defeat the Lacedaemonians in a sea-fight off the Ar- 

ginusse islands. Trial and condemnation of the Athenian generals. 
405. Battle of Aegospotami. 
404. Athens taken by Lysander and end of the Peloponnesian 

War, after a continuance of twenty-seven years. 
The thirty tyrants. Death of Alcibiades. 


BOOK Y. The Spartan and Theban Supremacies, 403-359. 

403. Thrasybulus and the other Athenian exiles recover, first Piraeus, 
then Athens ; and restore the democracy. 

401. Anabasis of Cyras and Battle of Cunaxa. 

400. Retreat of the ten thousand. 

399; Trial and death of Socrates. 

394. Xenophon fought against Athens in the "battle of Coronea, and was 
banished in consequence. 

393. Conon begins to restore the long walls of Athens, and the fortifica- 
tions of Piraeus, which had been destroyed by Lysander. 

387. Peace of Antalcidas. 

384. Birth of Aristotle. 

382. Probably the year of the birth of Philip and of Demos- 

379. The Spartan garrison driven from the Cadmea of Thebes (Dec. 379), 
and hostilities between Sparta and Thebes commenced. 

371. Battle of Leuctra. The Thebans under Epaminondas gain a 
signal victory , over the Spartans. Beginning of the Theban 

362. Battle of Mantinea. Death of Epaminondas. Xenophon's His- 
tory (Hellenica) extends to this point. 

BOOK YI. The Macedonian Supremacy, 359-146 b. c. - 

359. Accession of Philip (aged 23) to the throne of Macedon. 

357. Beginning of the Sacred War (for the control of the temple at Del- 
phi) between the Phocians (who had seized the temple) and the 
Thebans aided by the Locrians. Beginning also of the Social War, 
between Athens and several of her most powerful allies (Chios, 
Rhodes, and Byzantium). 

356. Birth of Alexander the Great (at the time of the Olympic 
games: midsummer). 

355. Third and last year of the Social War. Athens concludes a peace 
with her former allies. 

354. First oration of Demosthenes before the popular assembly (eKKk-nala) , 
on the Symmories. He had previously (in 355 b. c.) delivered 
- before the dikasteries the speeches against Leptines and against 

351 . First Philippic of Demosthenes. 

350-347. War of Philip against Olynthus. Demosthenes delivers the 

347. Death of Plato, aet. 82. 


344. The second Philippic. 

341. The third Philippic. 

340. The Athenians resolve to renew the war with Philip. 


B- c. 

3^9. A sacred war between the Amphictyonic assembly and the Locrains of 
Amphissa : begun in the spring. Philip invited to become leader 
of the Amphictyons, in the autumn. Philip occupies Elatea. 

338. Battle of Chaeronea. 

33t5. Death of Philip and accession of Alexander to the throne. 

335. Kevolt of Thebes, and its destruction by Alexander. 

334. Alexander crosses the Hellespont. 

330. Oration of Demosthenes on the Crown. 

324. Demosthenes driven into exile. 

323. DeAth of Alexander at Babylon. Kecall of Demosthenes. 

322. Death of ^Demosthenes, aet. 60 years. Death of Aristotle, aet. 62. " 

314. Death of the orator Aeschines, aet. 75. 

280. The Achaean league. 

196. Freedom of Hellas proclaimed by the Roman general Flaminius. 

146. Capture of Corinth. Hellas becomes a Roman Province.; 

[Note. — Many of the above dates are disputed, and are somewhat differently given by 
different authorities j yet they may in general be taken as near the truth.] 


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